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The work wliich is now presented to the world assumes, by its compre- 
hensively national title, that the various and diversified information it 
contains is so illustrative of the Scottish nation, and of the origin and 
constitution of modem Scottish society, as to justify the adoption for it 
of a designation so conspicuous. Of any other country, it is true, an ac- 
count of its surnames, families, and honours, would cast little or no light 
over the constitution of the society existing therein. Such an account 
would probably tell next to nothing of the earlier races out of which 
society was formed, because, in the case of any other nation, whatever 
might elsewhere be found to illustrate that part of its history, few indica- 
tions in the names now borne by individuals or families, or in its titles of 
honour, will be found to mark the tribes or institutions whence they 
sprung, or to be otherwise identified with the commencement of its 
national unity. This is a result to be found in Scotland alone; not 
uniformly, indeed, nor always without admixture of doubt, but certainly 
in a greater degi-ee than in any other kingdom or state. 

Modem Scottish society, and Scottish nationality in its proper sense, 
may be said to have come into existence together. Hereditary monarchy, 
hereditary surnames, families, and honours, hitherto unknown among its 
peoples, were their common instruments for consolidation, for conserva- 
tion, and for progress. To the Cumbrian, the Pict, the Scot, Norwegian, 
Dane, or Saxon, who, at various times and in various degrees, were spread 
over its soil, these distinctions were exceptional and comparatively un- 

In the early part of the twelfth century, the greater part of the country 
now constituting Scotland was in a state little better than that of chaos, 
and worse than that of anarchy. A contemporary document of a solemn 


character describes the southern portion (and it may be held as equally 
true of the northern) as having till then been occupied rather than in- 
habited " by diverse tribes of diverse nations coming from diverse parts ; 
of dissimilar language, features, and modes of living, not easily able to 
hold converse among themselves, practically Pagans rather than Christ- 
ians, living more like irrational animals than as worthy of the name of a 
people,"^ and even deducting from this picture for the exaggerations of 
a Churchman, enough remains to confirm the foregoing remark. The 
arrival of a new people of polished manners, military discipline, and 
Christian zeal, by giving new institutions and, for a time, a new language 
to this inconginious mass, created a nation and a nationality, yet without 
a so-called revolution or even a change of dynasty. The new race, 
whose presence was so beneficially felt in Scotland, came through Eng- 
land, yet were not of it. They were the Normans, — a people of the 
same original stock as many of the tribes above referred to, but refined 
and instructed by familiarity with the institutions of the South. 

This new order of things, however, might have attained to no per- 
manence, or even if permanent, to no historic significance — at least in 
the sense which our title assumes — ^liad not the silent but ceaseless immi- 
gration of the new race continued without interruption for nearly two 
centuries, in the courae of which they identified their fortunes with those 
of a dynasty which, although sprung from an elder settlement of the 
population, was led by sympathy, education, and the necessities of 
their position, to cherish, enrich, and lean upon this new people for 
the preservation of their crown and, and to cement their 
union by numerous family alliances. A revolution, which placed first 
one and then another family of the new race upon tlie throne of Scot- 
land, completed the solidarity of the social union of races in Scotland, 
while it prevented fresh admixtures of foreign blood ; and lastly and 
chiefly the practice of bestowing hereditary surnames and honours, and 
of holding all lands from the Crown, which obtained generally throughout 

^ DiverssB tribus, divenarnm nacionum, ex diversis partibus affluentes, regionem prefittum habita- 
verunt. Sed dispari genie et dissimuli lingu&, et varia more viYentes, haul facile (inter) sese consen- 
cientes, gentilitatem potius quam fidei cultum tennerunt. Quos infelices et damnate habitaciouis, 
habitatores, more pecudum irrationabiliter degentes, dignatus est Dominus, . . . TiFitare. — 
Inquisition by David Prince of Cumbria {circa 1116). 

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this period, and found a permanent and faithful record in charters and 
other public deeds, many of which are still in existence, insm-ed to Scot- 
land the integiity and continuity of its social annals. 

The surnames traceable to immigrant Norman chiefs, or to the lands 
bestowed upon their retainers, constitute by far the greater portion of those 
peculiar and pertaining to vast numbers of individuals forming modem 
Scottish society. Under those derived from lands, not a few Danish and 
Norwegian names are to be found, which, in like manner as those of Celtic 
and Norman origin referring to personal or local distinctives, are to be re- 
cognised by their composition ; yet, while of this latter class, even in the 
remote North we find in the names Fraser, Grant, Cameron, and others, 
undeniable proofs, notwithstanding their present use of the Celtic tongue, 
of a Norman or French immigration, the composition of the southern 
population is singularly manifested when the distinctive of an individual 
of the more ancient lineageis^^6,as in the case of a Fleming or an Inglis^ 
expressed by the simple name of Scott. An account of the origin or of the 
original holdera of these surnames of the forefathere of the present Scot- 
tish people, cannot fail to be highly interesting to all classes at the 
present day. 

But, a mere explanation of the origin o^ surnames alone would lack com- 
pleteness unless accompanied with some account of the families by which 
they were borne,— of the distribution of those families over the country, — 
of their subdivision into new families, — and of the distinguished individ- 
uals who sustained their reputation and promoted their influence: and such 
an account it is one of the objects of this Work to supply. ^ The Scottish 
Nation' professes to present the succession, the affiliations and alliances, 
and the leading incidents in the history of the families whose sur- 
names have obtained distinction and influence throughout Scotland since 
the reign of Malcolm Canmore. 

Tlie ancient baronies of Scotland, associated as they were with heredi- 
tary jurisdictions only short of regal, had all a significancy in that country 
unequalled in any others where the feudal regime obtained. The holders 
of these honours were regarded as heads of its name as well as of their 
vassals ; and to promote the honour of the one as well as the welfare of 

I ,' -- 1 

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the other was their business and their strength. An account of these 
hoTumra is an account of the temtorial supremacy of a name and of a 
family, among tlie members of which the lands under the jurisdiction 
of their heads were in course of time pai-celled out. 

A history of Scottish titles is a necessary supplement to that of families, 
and a key to many of the social and political incidents in that kingdom 
as well as in the history and fortunes of its families. Such a history forms, 
therefore, another and it is hoped a valuable topic of the present Work 

Immeasurably beyond all these social facts in importance, although 
greatly illustrated by the lights they furnish, the biographies of its dis- 
tinguished natives become, when properly treated, the topic which illus- 
trates and shows forth in its strength and peculiarities ^ The Scottish 
Nation.' The poorest country in Europe, occupied by a hardy race trained 
to militaiy exercises, struggling for centuries to maintain their national in- 
dependence, and ever contendhig for masteiy amongst themselves, Scotland 
has beheld her sons loving and honouring the countiy that gave them birth 
with a high and pure patriotism ; and clinging to each other with a pro- 
verbial partiality, yet not alone on account of their common relationship, 
but also for those qualities of endui-ance, energy, and intelligence- which 
their common struggles and even social feuds drew forth and incorporated 
as it were with the national character. At a comparatively early period 
she sent forth many of her sons to obtain distinction and honours in other 
lands; and when more peaceful times had airived and milder institu- 
tions obtained, she saw them launch into the arts of civil life, for which 
their hereditary qualities, animated by the lessons of a simple but sin- 
cere piety, had well prepared them, and assert for themselves a front 
rank among the leaders of mind and intellect in Europe, iu numbers alto- 
gether unexampled in the social development of other nations. Of such 
men is Scotland's pride and glory, and their lives and deeds constitute 
the truest account of the Scottish nation. 

. In its general biography the present work embraces a wider range 
than is contemplated in any of those specially devoted to that subject, 
comprising many names not to be met with in history, yet of men whose 
skill, genius, or labours have added to the comfort, the knowledge, or 




the happiness of mankind. Not a few names, moreover, that have long 
been borne down by undeserved obloquy have been restored to their 
proper position ; while others, upheld by misstatement or exaggeration 
at an undue elevation, have been placed on a lower pedestal. In all cases 
the truth has been stated, without reference to party feelings or sectarian 

In the department of literature gi-eat attention has been bestowed upon 
the articles relating to men distinguished by their writings. By append- 
ing the titles and dates of their works, and sometimes when these were 
numerous, classifying the subjects treated of, easy reference is combined 
with great economy of space. In a word, as respects the productions of its 
literary characters, * The Scottish Nation' becomes as it were a Bibli- 
olAeca Scottica corrected and brought down to the present day. 

For a work of this character it is evident that an Alphabetical arrange- 
menif or what is generally although incorrectly known as the Dictionary 
form, is the only one compatible with clearness, order, and facility of ref- 
erence, and accordingly such a form has been adopted, with some peculi- 
arities which it is hoped will be found to improve it in these respects. 
In all other works of this kind, when several articles or parties of 
the same name came to be described, the sub-alphabetical order, or that 
of the initial letters has obtained. In the case of biographies, however, 
on this principle, the ancestor is placed often at a distance from and not 
unfrequently long after his descendants. Throughout long lists of similar 
surnames the strictly alphabetical an-angement mixes up epochs, and 
mars all attempts to present the connection which distinguished indi- 
viduals bearing them had to one another. This inconvenience, except 
in a few unimportant cases, has been obviated by a double arrange- 
ment. In narrating isolated biogi'aphies of individuals of the same sur- 
name the order in time is followed; they succeed each other accord- 
ing to the epochs in which the parties lived. Where, however, a lineal 
descent is traceable, the biographies are introduced and continued in a 
direct succession. The order of the series is here chronological, but in 
the order of families, and not by individuals. 

To the student of Scottish history the value of the assistance fiimished 


by a work of the character of ^ The Scottish Nation' need not be dwelt 
upon. In the accounts given of every family or title of antiquity and note, 
numerous indirect and incidental lights are thrown upon its pages. The 
direct additional matter it supplies, is, however, perhaps of still more 
importance. In this, as well as in many other points, it will be found a more 
accurate and complete exhibition of the Earlier History of Scotland than 
any that has yet been presented to the public. 

In the course of his labours the author was necessarily obliged to enter 
into an extensive correspondence with noblemen and gentlemen in all 
parts of the kingdom, and with some families out of it, and he now returns 
his acknowledgments to all for the kindness and promptitude with which 
they answered his applications, furnished valuable information, and, in 
many cases, placed their family records, for the time, at his perusal. 
It may give some idea of the care and research bestowed upon this 
work when it is stated that the author was altogether nearly twelve years 
occupied in its composition and coiTcction. 

The Autographs, Seals, Genealogical and Titular tables, and other 
illustrative objects, as well as the Portraits on wood and steel with which 
the work is so profusely embellished, have all been taken from original 
or other authentic sources. 

A National Gallery of Scottish Portraits has long been pointed out as 
a desideratum, and learned societies have recently brought the matter 
strongly before the public. In the care taken to make the Portrait illus- 
trations authentic and numerous in a degree far beyond those in any col- 
lection heretofore presented to the world, the Publishers anticipate that 
the first exhibition of a National Portrait Gallery worthy of the 
name will be found in the pages of ^ The Scottish Nation/ 

The Biographies that were required to be added during the publica- 
tion of the work by demise of distinguished individuals, are given in the 

form of a Supplement. 

W. A. 






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I.Graham, Sir Tliomas, Lordly, . ^. , ^ 

Lynedoch, f ^*'°" * pwnting by Lawrence, 

9. MooRB, Sir John, „ „ 

3. MuiiRO, Sir Thomas, „ Shce, 

4. McRRAY, William, Earl of) i> u 

M»n.field, ; •• Reynolds, 

5. Ramsat, Allan, „ his Son, Allan, 

6. Scott, Sir Walter, ., G. S. Newton, R.A., 

7. Watt, James, „ bust by Cliantjy, 

To face 
Engraved by W. Iloll, Frontispiece 








page 196 



R. Bell, 
J. B. Bird, 
W. Holl, 



Ancient Earldoms. 

& Earldom of Afenteth, as arranged by author and others, 
9 „ Strathearn, 

10. „ ly^nnox, 

11. „ Moray, 







Mackat, Robert, View of Cape) 
Wrath, > 

Mackexzir, Sir George, 
Mackenzie, Henry, 

Macintosh, Sir Janu'S, 

MAf'LAiiRKN, Colin, 
M ACXAB of Ma^'itab, Archibald, )^ 
(hist of rate.) ) 

Macneill, Hector, 

Maci'HErmon. James, 

Maptland, Sir John, Lord) 

Thirlest*ne. ) 

Maix'olm II., View of Huins { 

of lOMA, ) 

From a Sketch by J. C. Brown, 








14. Maxwkli., Sir Murray, 






Malcolm, Sir Pultency, 

Maixx)LM, Sir John, 

Marr, John KrKkiiie, 9th Earl f 1 

of. ; J 


Mkxteitii, \\ illiani, 1 8th E.arl )^ 
of. ) 

MiLLRR, Iluj^h, 

MoNTOOME .Y. JAincs. (hy per- ) \ 
mission of Mt'S8r«.lA)iigiiianH.) | ( 




an Engraving published in )^ 
1810 by Richardson, l^mdon, f 

l'(>rtrait by Colvin Smith, en- (_ 
graved 1)V Ilorsburgh, C 

Portrait by Lawrence, engraved 1 
l)y Freeman, } 

Sinitli's IcoMographia Scotica, 

Photograph from life, 

Portrait by Williams, engraved )_ 
by liodgers, ) 

Portrjiit atlixed to Memoir, in }_ 
edition of OsHinn, ) 

Pinkerton's Scottish Gallery, 

Painting from nature by .1. C. ) 
Hrown, jT 

Portrait by Ijane, engraved by )^ 
Wood, s 

Portrait by G. Ilayter, engrsiv("d }_ 
on stone by Lane, ^ 

Pinkerton's Icono£fraphia.(from 
an original painting in pos- 
8<'?4Kion of present earl,) 

Portrait dniwn and engraved by 
T. Wageman, 1817 (appended 
to vol. of Percy AnecaotCH), 

Pinkerton's Scottish Gallery, 

Photograph by Tunney, en- )^ 
graved by Bell, S 

portrait prefixed to MoiDoir of i_ 
Life and writings, 18.04. ) 





En&:raved by 





. Linton, 










Orrell Smith, 

















' I 


19. Hoots, John, M.D., 

r, Aleuiia«r, D.D., 

I. Napheh, Sir Charlei, 

23. ORKiTEt, Qoorga Uamiltoit, ) 
l^rl of, i 

34. 1'jUtK, Miingo, 
35. PutEERTON, John, 

From Foitrait hy Bir Jolu Medina, 
„ Cochmia or Bome, 

in pOMouion of J. Uaointosli, 
Portrait from originitl draw- 
ing by Qeddca, from Litlio- 
nb of the lime, engriTed 
. W. Uaat for Virtue & 
C^., IB41, 
PorlrtUt in poaKMion of the late 
A. ConsUble, 
Paiiiti epon- 

seai ^rl of BuvhKii, 

EngrsTed bj W. J. liubw, 192 

ST. Plakfair, John, -^ 

28. Pol,LOt, Robert, -( 

29. Pmsoi-K. SlrJ"bii, ■■ 

30. James Douslu. ) J 
2.1 Duke nf, / I 

31. Raebuhm, ^r Ilenrj, 

32. Rbih, Thomas, -j 

33. R'RKKT tl . King orScctlaod, 
3*. RonBKT III., „ 

30. ltjBKKTau.\, WiUiaui, D.U., ' 

T. A. 



ortiait by 

after K 


„ ill European MuguiiM, ) 
1814. > 

Pinkeriou's Scottiab OnUerj, 

I. UuscuuM, Aiuxniiilur, 

i. Scott, Divid, - 
iJ. tiErun. Osorge, 5ih l^ord, 

II. Shabf, JainuH, ArcUliiahop ot | _, 

Su AuJrowa, (ill Ilia yuucb,) / , 

1. bHAKi'.Juiuea, ditto, (ill bia old I ' 

«B"0 i" ■ 

1, Huiru, Adam, LL.I>., -■ 

niEMK, Sir Jhids* Carnegie, |_ ' 
xl ut; ixMil uf littrl Jaiuja, 1 . 
iTiBWUoii. Ji>bii, Arcbbiil 

"I 7-1.) 
S. Staik, Jobu DalrvMipb 

E«rl ui; 
7. Stewaut, DugalJ, 
S. SmAiLAx, W>tli,>.», 

rcbbiili- I , 
(at ari>: ^ - 

W. B. I 

PortraiC by LaggHii, engraTed (_ 
(1819) by Ke«diiig, 1 

KiigrHViiig by lienco frnm ins-) 
Jallioii by 'I'ahu, iu Scuta ^ 

bv Hello.) 
797 by Ca- } 

Iinpreiuiou aupplied by preaeut I 
KngniTing by W. Holler (1939), ) 

Portrait by Sir Jobu Medina, (^ 
engraved Ly Homuian, > 

Portrait by Itaeburn, engraved I 
by Turner, ) 

Portrait by Beynolds, engrared ( 
by Jouea, S 


. I 

49l SreixQB, Sir Robert, 

60. Stuart, Lndy Arabella (daugh- ' 
ter of 5th Eirl of Lennox, 
innocent victim of State jenl- 
ouay of Elizabeth and James,) 

51. Taxmahili., Robert, 

52. Telford, Thomaji, 

53. Thom, William, 

54. Thomson, James, 

55. TuoMSox, Thomas, 

56. TuoMSoy, Rev. John, 

57. Traquaiu, John Stewart, lst\ 

Earl of, j 

53. TxTLKR, William, 

53. TvTLER, Alexander Fraser, 1 
Lord Woodhouselee, } 


From Medallion Portrait (painted and ^ 

engraved by himself), copy >• Engraved by W. 
by Grouse, ' ) 


J. Linton, 529 











I 60. WiLKiE, Sir David, 


61. WiLso!!, Jolin, Christopher} 

North (of Blackwood's Mag.), ) 

62. WiTiiERHPoojf, John, D.l)., ) 

LL.D., j 

63. Akxot, Sir Michael, Shield in > 

Aruot 'I'owcr. j" 

6t. Dirto, ditto. Lintel in Arnot } 
'J'owcr, f 





a rare En^i^raving of the time, > 
by Richardson, j 

Portrait by Morton, engraved 

by J. T. Smitli, in collected 

Portrait, printed and enorraved 

by H. Meyer for . Messrs. 

Fisher, 8on*& Co., 1848, 
Lithograph drawn on Stone by 

G. Yates, 
Portrait by Robinson prefixed 

to his Works, Pic&eriug's 

edition (1830), 
Portrait by Lauder, engraved') 

(for liannatyne Club) by v 

Shaw, ) 

Portrait by F. Crodall in Hogg's \ 

Instructor, j" 

Smith's Iconographia Scotica, 

Portrait by Raebum, engraved) 
by R. Scott, r 

Painting by Jackson, from on- 
ginal Portrait by Raebum. 
engraved by Picart, publish- 
ed 1813, 

Portrait by Sir W. Beechy, on- ' 
graved by Robinson, for 
Messrs. Fisher, Son & Co., 

Portrait drawn on wood by W. *" 
H. Scott, Esq., R.S.A., 'after V 
others by various artists, \ 

Engraving in United States,! 
(from Portrait in possession V 
of his grandsons,) j 

Litiio^raph furnislied by present \ 
representative of the family, j 

Ditto, ditto, 






































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ICAcnrmuB, the name of a minor aept, called, in Gaelic 
tiwdn Mfhie An TSaoir. They are a branch of the clan 
DomU, and their badge is the same as theirs, the common 
heath. The Gaelic word Saor means a carpenter. Accord- 
Jbk to tradition one of the Macdonalds being in a boat at sea, 
it apmng a leak, and, finding it sinking, he forced his thumb 
into the hole, and cat it off, so that he might be able to reach 
the land in safety. He was ever afterwards called A n T^Saoir, 
and Mae An T*3aoir, in the Gaelic, is very nearly prononnc- 
ed like Mactntyn. Another story says that one of the clan 
Donald, named Panl, in Sutherland, in the end of the 13th 
csntary, bnilt Dun Creich, a vitrified fort in that county, 
when he aequirsd the name of Saoir, and as professions were 
Iwreditary among the Celts, it descended to his posterity. 

The MacintTres of Rannoeh were famous musicians, and 
after 1680, they became the pipers to Bdenzies of Weenis, 
chief of the clan Menzies, for whom they composed the ap- 
|>ropriate salute. One of them was the author of a fine piece 
of bagpipo music commemorative of the battle of Sheriffmuir 
in 1715. During the rebellion of 1745-6, the Macintyres 
were in the clan regiment of Stewart of Appin, on the side of 
the Pretender. 

MACINTYRE, Duncan, one of the best of the 
modem Gaelic poets, was born of poor parents, in 
Dniimliaghart, Glenorchy, Argyleshire, March 20, 
1724. Being in bis yoath very handsome, he was 
commonly called by his countrymen, Donnacha 
Bhn nan hran^ that is * fair Dnncan of the Songs.* 
On the breaking out of the rebellion of 1745, lie 
engaged on the government side, as the substitute 
of a Mr. Fletcher of Glenorchy, for the sum of 
800 merks Scots, to be paid on his return. He 
fought at the battle of Falkirk, January 17, 1746, 
under the command of Colonel Campbell of Car- 
whin, and in the retreat he either lost or threw 

away his sword. As it belonged to Mr. Fletcher, 


that gentleman refused to pay him the 300 merks, 
and he. in consequence, composed a song on ** the 
battle of Falkirk,*' in which he has given a minute 
and admirable account of that engagement, and 
especially of everything relating to the sword, 
much to the annoyance of Mr. Fletcher. Macin- 
tyre likewise complained of his conduct to the earl 
of Breadalbane, who obliged him to pay the poet, 
who had risked his life for him, the stipulated re- 
ward. Being an excellent marksman, he was ap- 
pointed forester to the earl of Breadalbane, and 
afterwards to the duke of Argyle. 

On the passing of the act which proscribed the 
Highland dress, he composed an indignant poem, 
called * The Anathema of the Breeks,' wherein he 
boldly attacked the government for having passed 
a law which was equally obnoxious to the clans 
friendly to the house of Hanover as to those who 
had engaged in the rebellion, and said it was 
enough to make the whole country turn Jacobite 
should Prince Charles Edward return to Scotland. 
He was, in consequence, committed to prison, bnt 
by the influence of his friends he was soon re- 
leased. When the act was repealed in 1782, he 
commemorated the event in a congratulatory 
poem, which was as popular with the Gael as the 
former one had been. 

In 1793 he became a private in the Breadal- 
bane fencibles, and continued to serve in it till 
1799, when the regiment was disbanded. His 
volume of poems and songs was first published at 



Edinburj^h in 1768. He went throngh the High- 
lands for subscribers to defray the expense. 
Thongh he never received any education of any 
kindf he excelled in every kind of verse that he 
tried. A clergyman wrote down his poems from 
oral recitation. They were reprinted in 1790, 
and again in 1804, with some additional pieces. 
A fourth edition was printed at Glasgow in 1 833. 
The writer of his life in Reid*s * Bibliotheca-Scoto- 
Celtica/ says that "all good judges of Celtic 
poetry agree that nothing like the purity of his 
Gaelic and the style of his poetry, has appeared 
in the Highlands since the days of Ossian.'* His 
biographer in Mackenzie's * Beauties of Gaelic 
Poetry' (Glasgow, 1841), says that when deliver- 
ing the third edition of his poems to his snbscrib- 
ei-s, the Rev. Mr. M*Callum of Arisaig, "saw 
him travelling slowly with his wife. He was 
dressed in the Highland garb, with a checked bon- 
net, over which a large bushy tail of a wild ani- 
mal hung, a badger's skin fastened by a belt in 
front, a hanger by his side, and a soldier's wallet 
was strapped to his shoulders. He had not been 
seen by any present before then, but was imme- 
diately recognised. A forward young man asked 
him if it was he that made Ben-dourain? *No,' 
replied the venerable old man, * Ben-dourain was 
made before yon or I was born, but I made a po- 
em in praise of Ben-dourain.' He then inquired 
if any would buy a copy of his book. I told him 
to call upon me, paid him three shillings, and had 
some conversation with him. He spoke slowly ; 
he seemed to have no high opinion of his own 
works ; and said little of Gaelic poetiy ; but said, 
that officers in the army used to tell him about 
the Greek poets ; and Pindar was chiefly admired 
by him." Having been appointed bard to the 
Highland Society, he furnished it with many stir- 
ring addresses in Gaelic at its annual meetings. 

On the recommendation of the earl of Breadal- 
bane, who befriended him through life, he was 
appointed in his old age one of the city guard of 
Edinburgh. He subsequently lived retired, and 
died in that city in October 1812. 

Macivou, the name of a minor sept, a branch of the great 
Siol Diaermidy or race of Campbell, having the same badge, 
the myrtle. The founder of this branch was Ivor, son of 
Duncan, lord of Lochow, in the tima of Malcolm IV. (1153 

— 1165), and his descendants, to distingnish themselves from 
the other branches of the family of Argyle, assumed the name 
of their ancestor for their surname, and are called Maclvon, 
and sometimes Clan-Ivor. They are also called Clan Glas- 
saiy, and Clan Ivor GlnsHary, from a district in Ai^leshire 
of that naine« which was principally posseased by them. But 
the chieftain or bead of the tribe is in Celtic called Maclvor, 
without regard to the Christian name. Their original lands 
were Lergachonzie, Asknish, and others in CowhI, but there 
were also many families of the name in Caithness, Invemeas- 
shire, and the Lewis. Those who settled in Lodiaber took 
the name of MacGlasrich, from the district of Glassary, and 
became followers of Macdonald of Keppoch. 

In 1564, Archibald, fifth earl of Argyle, by and with the 
concurrence of the tribe of Maclvor and '* Clan Glassary,** 
made a formal resignation, in presence of a notary public and 
several gentlemen, of the chieftainship there, in favour of his 
cousin Ivor Maclvor, of lergachonzie and Askniah, and his 
heirs whomsoever, who, by the dtle-deeds of their estjtte, 
became bound to use the surname and anna of Maclvor, — the 
muttoen of the house of Argyle and that of Maclvor of Ask- 
nish being typic^il of their relative positions; the former, 
*'ne obliviscaria ; ** and the latter, *'nunquam obliviscar.** 
When Archibald, ninth earl of Argyle, was employed in 
quelling same civil commotions, in 1679, Maclvor. true to 
his motto, attended him with one hundred men of his own 
tribe : and when the earl returned from Holland in 1685, he 
again joined him, and was forfeited with him. 

After the Revolution, when the eari*s forfeiture was re- 
scinded, Archibald, tenth earl and afterwards first duke of 
Argyle, gave back Maclvor*s estate to his son Duncan, sod 
his heirs, on condition that they should bear the surname 
and arms of Campbell and of the family of Maclvor, (anna 
et cognomen de Campbell et Familiie de Maclver, gerenti- 
bus, &c.). 

From the earls of Argyle. the Maclvors held several potts 
of trust and honour, such as the keeping of the castle of In- 
verary, &c. They were also hereditary coroners within a cer- 
tain district. 

• In the rebellion of 1745-6, the Maclvors went out with 
the Macdonalds of Keppoch, and at the battle of Culloden, 
they were drawn up as a separate body, with officers of their 
own, as they were anxious to be placed in a portion where 
there was no chance of their being opposed to the Argyle mi- 
litia, having the same badge and wearing their tartan. 

In 1858, the lord lyon king of arms, by interlocutor of his 
lordship's depute, on the application of Duncan Maclvor 
Campbell, Esq. of Asknish, — (formerly Duncan Campbell 
Paterson, eldest son of the deceased James Paterson, of 
Clobber Hall, county Clare, Ireland, grandson of Agnes, 
eldest daughter of Angus Campbell of Asknish, and ne- 
phew of Lieutenant - colonel Paterson, assistant - quarter- 
master-general of her majesty's forces,)-— recognised him as 
heir of line of the family of Maclvor of Asknisli, and under a 
deed of entail, as heir of tailzie, now in possession of said 
estate, and, as such, '* to use, be^, and constantly retain the 
arms and surname of Campbell and of the family of Maclvor 
and designation of Asknish.** 

M*KAIL, Hugh, a martyr of the covenant, was 
bom about 1640. He studied, with a view to the 
church, at the university of Edinburgh, under the 
care of his uncle, one of the ministers of that city, 
and was afterwards, for some time, chaplain to 

I - — 




1 1 

day about 80 serious a business would give no of- 
fence ; to whicii the bisiiop answered that it would 
give no offence. Then Mr. Mattliew went to en- 
quire for his horse, but the stabler^s family were 
all gone to church, so that be could not travel till 
Monday morning early, and when he came to 
Bnckhaven, the wind being easterly, the fish-boats 
were coming into the harbour, and he hired one 
of them immediately, and arrived at I^ith in the 
evening, having sent his horse to Bmntisland. 
He went immediately to Archbishop Burnet of 
Glasgow, and delivered a letter to him, who did 
read it, and then said that the business was in the 
justiciaries* hands.*' 

Next day, being the 18th December, the pris- 
oner was bronght before the court of justiciary, 
with other three. When placed at the bar, 
M'Kail addressed the couit, and *^ si)oke of the 
tics and engagements that were upon the land to 
God ; and having commended the institution, dig- 
nity, and blessing of presbyterian goveniment, he 
said that the last words of the national covenant 
had always great weight on his spirit. Where- 
upon the king's advocate interrupted him, and de- 
sired, he would forbear that discourse, since he 
was not called in question for his persuasion, but 
for the crime of rebellion.** As a matter of 
course he was found guilty of high treason, and 
condemned to be hanged at the market cross of 
Edinburgh on December 22, four days after. 
The three others who were tried along with him 
were likewise sentenced to death. On his way 
back to the tolbooth he received the greatest sym- 
pathy from the people, and to some women who 
were lamenting his fate, he said : ** Weep not : 
though I am but young, and in the budding of my 
hopes and labours in the ministry, I am not to be 
mourned ; for one drop of my blood, through the 
grace of God, may make more hearts contrite, 
than many years* sermons might have done.** At 
his request, his father was allowed to visit him in 
prison, and the interview between them was pecu- 
liarly affecting. He spent the short time allotted 
to him in acts of devotion, and in encouraging and 
supporting those who were to suffer with him. 
He even at times showed considei*able cheerful- 
ness. On a friend, who went to see him, express- 
ing his 8onx)w for his mangled limb, he answered 

that the fear of his neck made him forget his leg. 
On the evening before his execution, while at 
supper with his fellow-prisoners, he said to them 
gaily, ^* Eat to the full, and cherish your bodies, 
that we may be a fat Christmas pie to the pre- 
lates.** After supper he read to them the 16tli 
Psalm, and then said, *^ If there were anything in 
the world sadly and unwillingly to be left, it were 
the reading of the Scriptures,** but, he added, it 
was a source of comfort that he would soon be in 
that place where even Scripture is no longer 
necessary. He then wrote his will, bequeathing 
his few books to his friends. He slept sonnd- 
ly, and on awakening, at five o'clock in the 
moniing, one who was to suffer with him, he 
said pleasantly, ** Up, John, for you are too 
long in bed ; you and I look not like men go- 
ing to be hanged this day, seeing we lie so long.** 
Before proceeding to the scaffold he bade farewell 
to his father, and assured him that his sufferings 
would do more hui*t to the prelates, and be more 
edifying to God*s )>eople than if he were to conti- 
nue in the ministry for twenty years. On his 
appearance on the scaffold the grief of the specta- 
tors bui*st forth in loud expressions of wailing, so 
that it is recorded ^^ there was scarce ever seen so 
much sorrow in onlookers ; scarce was there a dry 
cheek in the whole street or windows at the cross 
of Edinburgh.** On ascending the ladder he said 
to his ftiends, *^ I care no more to go up this lad- 
der than if I were going home to my father's 
house. Friends and fellow sufferers, be not 
afraid ; every step of this ladder is a degree nearer 

Previous to being turned off, he addressed the 
spectators at some length, imputing the perse- 
cution of the churcli to the prelates, and declar- 
ing his readiness to die for the cause of God, 
the covenants, and the work of reformation, 
which had been the glory of Scotland. He con- 
cluded with the following sublime exclamation: 
^*And now, I leave off to speak any more to 
creatures, and begin my intercourse with Grod, 
which shall never be broken off. Farewell, fa- 
ther and mother, friends and relations, farewell 
the world and all delights, farewell meat and 
drink, farewell sun, moon, and stars ! Welcome 
God and Father; welcome sweet Jesus Christ, 

I 1 

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wick. To avoid his vengeance, Mowat toiik refuge, with his 
followers, in the chapel of St. Duffus near Tain, bat they 
were followed thither by Thomas, who slew him and his peo- 
ple, and burnt the chapel to the ground. In consequence of 
this outrage the king issued a proclamation against Thomas 
Maeneill, promising his lands as a reward to any one who 
would kill or apprehend him. Angns Murray, son of Alex- 
ander Murray of Cubin, with a view to his apprehension, 
o^ered his brothers, Morgan and Keill Macneill, for their as- 
sistance, his two daughters in marriage, besides promising to 
aid them in getting possession of the lands of Angns Dubh 
ill Strathnaver. They accordingly apprehended their bro- 
ther, Thomas, who was delivered up to the king, and 
executed at Inverness. Murray gave his daughters in 
marriage to Kcill and Morgan Macneill, as he had promised, 
and thereafter made an incursion into Strathnaver, to seize 
the lands of Angus Dubh Mackay. The latter, being too old 
to lead his dun in person, gave the command of it to John 
Aberigh, hi.s natural son, but to save the effusion of blood, he 
sent a message to his consins, Neill and Morg:m, offering to 
surrender to them all his lands in Strathnaver, if they would 
allow him to retain Kintail. This offer was rejected, and 
a desperate battle took place at Drumnacoub, near Tongue. 
Among the slain were the beginners of the strife, Angus 
Murray and his two sons-in-law, Neill and Morgan Macneill. 
John Aberigh, the victor, lost an arm in the conflict. After 
the battle, Angus Dubh, the chief, caused himself to be car- 
ried to the field, to search for the bodies of his slain cousins, 
when he was killed by an arrow from a Sutherland man, who 
lay concealed near the spot. 

In 1437 Neill VVasse Mackay was released from confine- 
ment in the Bass, and on assuming the chiefship, he bestow- 
ed on John Aberigh, for his attention to his father, the lands 
of l/ochnaver in fee simple, which were long possessed by his 
posterity, that particular branch of the Mackays, called the 
Sliochd-ean-Aberigh, or an-Abrach. Neill Wasse, soon after 
his accession, ravaged Caithness, but died the same year, 
leaving two sons, Angns, and John Roy Mackay, the latter 
founder of another branch, called the Sliochd-ean-Roy. 

Angus Mackay. the elder son, assisted the Keiths in in- 
vading Caithness in 1464, when they defeated the inhabitants 
of that district in an engagement at Blaretannie. He was 
burnt to death in the church of I'arbet in 1475, by the men 
of Ross, whom he had often molested. With a daughter, 
married to Sutherland of Dilred, he bad three sons, viz., John 
Reawigh, meaning yellowish red, the colour of his hair; 
Y-Roy Mackay ; and Neill Naverigh Mackay. 

To revenge his father's death, John Reawigh Mackay, the 
eldest son, raised a large force, and assisted by Robert 
Sutherland, uncle to the earl of Sutherland, invaded Strath* 
oikell, and laid waste the lands of the Rosses in that district. 
A battle took place, llth July 1487, at Aldy-Charrisb, when 
the Rosses were defeated, and their chief, Alexander Ross of 
BHlnagowan, and 17 other prindpal men of that clan were 
slain. The victims returned home with a lai^ booty. 

It was by forays such as these that the great Highland 
chiefs, and even some of the lowland nobles, contrived, in 
former times, to increase their stores and add to their posses- 
sions, and the Mackays soon obtained a large accession to 
their lands by the following drcumstance, which strongly 
marks the manners of the age. The nephew of the Mackay 
chief, Alexander Sntherland of Dilred, having failed to repay 
a sum of money he had borrowed from Sir James Dunbar of 
Cumnock, the latter took legal measures to secure his debt 
by appraising part of his lands. The affront was the more 
palling as the Dunbars had but recently settled in Suther- 

land, and the laird of Dilred ** grudged, as it were," (nys 
Sir Robert Gordon) " that a stranger shouki brawe (brave) 
him at his owne dimrs." Whilst in this humour be happened 
to nieet Sir James Dunbar s brother, Alexander, the husband 
of the countess dowager of Sntherland, and after some alter- 
cation, a combat ensued, when Alexander Dunbar was killed. 
Sir James immediately went to Edinburgh, and laid the mat- 
ter before the king, who caused Alexander Sutherland to be 
prodaimed a rebel, and promised his lands to any one who 
should apprehend him. After some search, he was taken, 
with ten of his followers, by his uncle, Y-Roy Mackay, who 
had succeeded his brother, John Reawigh Mackay, as chief of 
the Mackays. Sutherland was executed, and his lands be- 
stowed on Y-Roy Mackay. These were Annidall, Strathy, 
Golspietour, Kinnald, Kilcolmkill, and Dilred, the charter of 
which was dated at Inverness, 4th November 1449. ** Ava- 
rice,^ says Sir R. Gordon, ** is a strange vyce, which respects 
neither blood nor freindship. This is the first infeftment that 
any of the fainilie of Macky had from the king, so far as I 
can perceave by the records of this kingdoih ; and they wer 
untill this tym possessors onlie of their lands in Strathnaver, 
not careing much for any charters or infeftments, as most 
pairts of the Highlanders have alwise done.** {llitt, p. 80.) 
In February 1512, Sir James Dunbar obtained a decree be- 
fore the court of session, setting aside the right of Y-Roy 
Mackay to that part of the lands of Alexander Sutheriand, 
over which his security extended, and ordaining the eari of 
Sutherland, as superior of the lands, to receive Sir James as 
his vassal. In 1516, Y-Roy Mackay gave his bond of servica 
to Adam Gordon of Aboyne, brother of the earl of Huntly» 
who had become earl of Sutherland, by marriage with Eliza- 
beth, sister and heiress of the ninth earl, but died soon after. 
Donald, his youngest son, slain at Morinsh, was ancestor of a 
branch of the Mackays <»lled the Sliochd-Donald-Mackay. 

John, the eldest son, had no sooner taken possession of his 
father's lands, than his uncle, Neill Naverigh Mackay and his 
two sons, assisted by a force furnished them by the earl of 
Caithness, entered Strathnaver, and dispossessed him of his 
inheritance. John hastened to the clan Chattan and the clan 
Kenzie, to crave their aid, and, in his absence, his brother, 
Donald, with a small force, surprised at night Neill Naverigh's 
party at Dalnaivigh in Strathnaver, and slew both his cousins 
and the greater part of their men. Their father, Neill Nave- 
righ, threw himself upon the generosity of his nephews, but 
they ruthlessly ordered him to be beheaded by the bands of 
his own foster-brother. 

In 1517, in the absence of the earl of Sntherland, who had 
wrested from John Mackay a portion of his lands, he and his 
brother Donald invaded Sutherland with a large force, lliey 
were met at a place called Torran-Dubh, near Rogart in 
Strathfieet, by the Sutherland men, under Alexander Suther- 
land, natural brother of the countess, and, after a furious 
battle, defeated, with great slaughter. Sir Robert Gordon 
says that this " was the greatest conflict that hitherto hes 
been foughtin between the inhabitants of these countreyes, or 
within the diocy of Catteynes, to our knowledge." (Page 92). 

After several reverses, John Mackay submitted to the earl in 
1518, and granted him his bond of service. But such was his 
restless and turbulent disposition that he afterwards prevailed 
upon Alexander Sutherland, the bastard, who had married 
his sister and pretended a claim to the earldom, to raise the 
standard of insurrection against the earl. Alexander Snther- 
land was taken prisoner and beheaded on the spot, but John 
Mackay continued his hostile inroads into the earl's country. 
On his way home from one of these excursions, wi^h a large 
quantity of cattle, he was attacked and defeated by the mas- 




I i 


i I 

and had placed himself under tlie protection of tlie earl of 
Caithness. A farious conflict ensii»), which lasted for a con- 
siderable time, but on the approach of night the Caithness 
men were forced to retire from the field. Donald Mackar 
of Soonrie being afterwards apprehended and imprisoned in 
Dunrobin castle, was, at tlie request of his brother, Hugh 
Macknj, reIe.H8ed by the earl of Satherland, to whom he ever 
afterwards remained faithful. While the Caithness men 
were engaged in their late excursion into Sutherland, Hugh 
Mackav entered into Caithness, and laid waste everything in 
his course, even to the gates of Thurso. He carried off a 
large quantity of booty without opposition, which he divided 
among his countrymen, according to custom. 

Of the army raised by tlie earl of Sutherland in 1601, to 
oppose the threatened invasion of his territories by the earl 
of Caithness, the advanced guard was commanded by Patrick 
Gordon of Gartayand Donald Mackayof Scourie, and the right 
wing by Hugh Mackay. On its approach, however, the 
Caithness men Xmk to flight. In August 1602, Hugh Mac- 
kay accompanied the earl of Sutherland, and his brother, Sir 
Robert Gordon, on a vitiit to Patrick Stuart, eari of Orkney. 
In 1610 he and his son, Donald Mackay, afterwards Ix)rd 
Reay, were summoned before the privy council at Edinburgh, 
by the earl of Caithness, for giving succour and protection to 
John Sutherland, an outlaw, the son of Hugh Mackay's sis- 
ter. He had lived in Berriedale, under the earl of Caithnens, 
whose oppressions had driven him to acts of vengeance and 
spoliation, and having disregarded a citntinn to appear at 
Edinburgh, to answer certain cliarges against him, he had 
been proclaimed a rel)el. In obedience to the summons Mac- 
kay hastened to the capital, where he met Sir Robert Gor- 
don, who had arrived from England for the purpose of assist- 
ing him on the occasion. Ixird Caithness, howex'er, was 
easily indnced to settle the matter, atid, on his invitation 
subsequently, the Mackay cliief and his brother William spent 
th6 following Christmas with him at Gimigo castle. His de- 
sign in asking thorn was to separate the Mackays from the 
Sutherland interests, but in this he was unsuccessful. Hugh 
Mackay died at Tongue, 11th September 1614, in his 55th 
vear. Ho was connected with both the rival houses bv mar- 
ri»ge ; his first wife being Lady Elizabeth Sinclair, second 
daughter of George, fourth earl of Caithness, and relict of 
Alexander Sutherland of Duffus ; and his second, I^dy Jenn 
Gordon, eldest daughter of Alexander, eleventh earl of Suth- 
erland. The former lady was drowned, and left a daughter. 
By the latt«»r he had two sons. Sir Donald Mackay of Far, 
first Lord Heay, and John, who married in 1619, a daughter 
of James Sinclair of Murkle, by whom he had Hugh Mackay 
and other children. 

Sir Donald Mnckjiy of Far, the elder son, was, by Charles 
I., created a peer of Scotland, by the title of I^rd Reay, by 
patent, dated 20th June. 1 G28, to him and his heirs male 
whatever. See Rkay, I^rd. From him the land of the 
Mackays in Sutherhind acquired the name of *' f^rd Reay's 
Country," which it has ever since rehiined. It now belongs 
to the duke of Sutherland. 

The Mackays became very numerous in the northern conn- 
tios, and tlie descent of their chiefs, in the male line, has 
continued unbroken from their first appearance in the north 
down to the present time. In the county of Sutherland, thoy 
mnltiplicd greatly also, under other names, such as M'Phail, 
Poison, Bain, Nielson, &c The names of Mackio and M'Ghie 
are also said to be derived from Mackay. The old family of 
M'Ghie of Baimaghie, which for about 600 years possessed 
estates in Galloway, used the same anns as the chief of the 
Mackays. They continued in possession of their lands till 

1786. Baimaghie means Mackay town. The name M*Cri« 
b supposed to be a corruption of M*Ghie. 

At the time of the rebellion of 1745, the Mackays were 
one of the clans that continued faithful to the government, at 
which time its effective force was estimated at 800 men by 
President Forbes. It is siud that in the last Satherland fen- 
cibles, raised in 1798 and disbanded in 1797, there were 88 
John Mackays in one company alone. In 1794 the Beaj 
fencibles, 800 strong, were raised in a few weeks, in ** Lord 
Reay's country, ** the residence of the clan Mackay. The 
names of no fewer than 700 of them had the prefix of Mae. 
From 1795 to 1802, when it was disbanded, the r^ment 
was employed in Ireland, where it soon acquired the confi- 
dence of Generals Lake and Nugent. The former was par- 
ticularlv attached to the Reav fencibles, and after the defeat 
of Castlebar, he frequently exclaimed, *'' If I had had my 
brave and honest Reays there, this would not have happen- 
ed.*" At Tara Hidl, 26th May, 1798, three companies of the 
Reays distinguished themselves in an attack upon a large 
body of rebels, whom they drove from a strong position, with 
the loss of about 400 killed and wounded, they themselves 
having only 26 men killed and wounded. 

With regard to the term Siol Mhorgan applied to the dan 
Mackay, Mr. Robert Mackay of Thurso, the family historian, 
denies that as a clan they were ever known by that dengna- 
tion, which rests, he says, only on the affirmation of Sir Ro- 
bert Gordon, without any authority. He adds : " There are, 
indeed, to this day, persons of the surname Morgan and 
Morganach, who are understood to be of the Mackays, but 
that the whole clan, at any period, went under that dengna- 
tion, is incorrect ; and those of them who did so, were al- 
wavs few and of but small account. The name seems to be 
of Welsh origin ; but how it obtained among the Mackays it 
is impossible now to say.** 

Of the branches of the clan Mackav, the familv of Scourie 
is the most celebrated. Tliev were descended from Donald 


Mackay of Scourie and Eriboll, elder son of lye Mackay III., 
chief of the clan from 1550 to 1571, by his first wife, a 
daughter of Hugh Macleod of Assynt. With regard to the 
manner in which they became possessed of Scourie, and in- 
deed of the whole parish of Edderachillis, an account is given 
by the Rev. Mr. Falconer in the Old Statistical Account of 
Scotland, which can only be reconciled with the family his- 
tory by considering lye Mackay and the " Sir Hugh Mackay** 
of his narrative as identical, and by rejecting the story about 
his son Donald's mother. Donald and his full brother, John 
Beg Mackay, were considered illegitimate, because their pa- 
rents were cousins. The chief of the clan, styled ** Sir Hugh 
Mackay," having occasion, in 1550, to remit some money to 
Edinburgh, was surprised to find his messenger return the 
following day without it, as he had been robbed on the way 
by a party of armed men, with blackened faces. The gene- 
ral suspicion of the country fell upon James Macleod of 
Edderachillis, who was of a turbulent and factious disposition^ 
as the person who had employed them to commit the rob- 
bery. With the Morisons of Durness he had frequent quar- 
rels, and Morison of Ashir, the principal man amongst them, 
having, at that time, in his house, Donald Mackay, a natural 
son of the Mackay chief, he proposed, both to the Mackays 
and his own friends, that he should be laird of Edderachillis, 
if Macleod could be made away with. A cousin of James 
Macleod, named Donald Macleod, undertook to put him to 
death, on being promised the half of Edderachillis and Donald 
Mackay 'a mother for his wife. A party of the Morisons, with 
Donald Mackay at their head, marched, in a dark morning, 




Ford and a detachment of the 86th r^ment, an account of 
which is given in an appendix to a aabsequent edition of his 
NarratiTe of the Loss of the Jono. He died at Calcutta in 
1804, from an afiection of the liver, contracted during the 
twentj-three dreadfiil dajs he passed on the wreck of the 
Juno. In the churchyard of Calcutta there is a monument 
to his memorji and in that of their native parish of Lairg in 
Sutherland a square monumentf with a separate tablet for 
each, commemorates the characters of the Rev. John Mac- 
kaj, and his son, and two grandsons. 

General Mackaj's cousin-german, Captun William Mao- 
kaj of Borlej, eldest son of Donald Mackaj of Borlej, secmid 
son of Donald, first of Scourie, led a companj of the Mac- 
kays at the battle of Worcester in 1651, on the side of Charles 
IL He had three sons : Captain Hugh Mackay of Scourie ; 
Donald ; and the Rev. John Madcay, minister first of Dur- 
ness, and afterwards of L^rg, above mentioned. Donald, 
the second son, was a member of the council of the Darien 
company in 1698, and was sent to Britain from the colony 
with an address to the king, and a pressing request to the 
directors to send out, with all expedition, supplies of provi- 
sions, ammunition, and men. On his return to the colony, 
he found it abandoned. His fate was a melancholy one. 
Being at sea in 1702, he harpooned a shark, and having got 
entangled with the rope, was dragged overboard and drowned. 

The eldest branch of the Mackays was that of the Clan- 
Abrach, descended from John Aberigh Mackay, second son 
of Angus Dubh, who received the lands of Achness, Brea- 
chat, and others, from his brother, Neiil Wasse (see page 5). 
Of this ftunily was Robert Mackay, writer, Thurso, the his- 
torian of the clan Mackay. According to this gentleman, 
John Aberigh, the first of this branch, gave his name to the 
district of Strathnaver. In the Gaelic language, he says, 
the inhabitants of Strathnaver are called Naverigh, and that 
tribe the SHochd-nan -Aberigh. John, their founder, some 
say, took his appellation of Aberigh from Lochaber, where 
he resided in his youth with some relatives, and from Strath- 
na-Aberich the transition is natural to Strath-n*-Averich. 
Neill Kaverich, above mentioned, was so called firom his hav- 
ing belonged to the Reay Country, that is, Strathnaver. 
The Clan-Abrach were the most numerous and powerful 
branch of the Mackays. They acted as wardens of their 
country, and never betrayed their trust 

The Bighouse branch were descendants of William Mac- 
kay of Far, younger half brother of Donald Mackay of Scourie, 
by his second wife, Christian Sinclair, daughter of the laird 
of Dun. 

The Strathy branch sprung from John Mackay of Dilred 
and Strathy, brother of the first Lord Reay, and son of Hugh 
Mackay of Far, by his wife. Lady Jane Gordon, eldest daugh- 
ter of Alexander, earl of Sutherland. 

The Melness branch came from the Hon. Colonel ^neas 
Mackay, second son of the first Lord Reay, by his first wife, 
the Hon. Barbara Mackenzie, daughter of Lord Kintail. 

The Kinloch branch descended from the Hon. Captiun 
William Mackay, and the Sandwood branch from the Hon. 
Charles Mackay, sons of the first Lord Rei^ by his last wife, 
Magory Sindau*, daughter of Francis Sinclair of Stirooke. 

The founder of the Holland branch of the Mackays, Gene- 
ral Hugh Mackay, prior to 1680, when a colonel in the Dutch 
service, and having no prospect of leaving Holland, wrote for 
some of his near relatives to go over and settle in that conn- 
tiy. Amongst those were his brother, James, and his 
nephews, £neas and Robert, sons of the first Lord Reay. 
The former he took into his own regiment, in which, in a few 

years, he became lieutenant-colonel. The latter he sent to 
school at Utrecht for a short time, and aflerwards obtained 
commissions for them in his own regiment. In the beginning 
of 1687, several British officers in the Dutch service were re- 
called to England by King James, and amongst others was 
MneaB Mackay, then a captain. On his arrival in London, 
the King made him some favourable proportions to enter his 
service, which he declined, and, in consequence, when he 
reached Scotland, he was ordered to be apprehended as a spy. 
He had been imprisoned nearly seven months in Edinburgh 
castle, when the prince of Orange landed at Torbay, and he 
was liberated upon granting his personal bond to appear be- 
fore the privy council when called upon, under a penal^ of 
£500 sterling. The Dutch Alackays married among the no- 
bility of Holland, and one of the families of that branch held 
the title <^ baron. 

MACKAY, Hugh, a distinguished military 
commauder, the third son of Colonel Hagh Mac- 
kay of Scourie, was born about 1640. His two 
elder brothers having been murdered in the man- 
ner above shown, he early succeeded to the family 
estate. Soon after the Kestoration in 1660, he 
obtained an ensign^s commission in the Royal 
Scots, then, from its commanding ofiScer, termed 
Douglas' or Dumbarton's i*egiment, and accompa- 
nied it to France, on that coi*ps being lent by 
Charles II. to the French king. It is now the 
fii'st foot of the British line. Among his bro- 
ther subalterns was young Churchill, afterwards 
the, great duke of Mai'Iborough, with whom he 
kept up a friendly correspondence till his death. 
In 1669, with several other officers, he volun- 
teered into the service of Venice, and so greatly 
distinguished himself in several engagements with 
the Turks in the island of Caudia, that he receiv- 
ed from the Republic a medal of great value, in 
acknowledgment of his services. 

In 1672 he had the rank conferred on him of 
captain in Dumbarton's regiment, and was em- 
ployed with it in the unprincipled expedition of 
Louis against the United Provinces. His regi- 
ment formed part of the division of the army 
which, under Marshal Turenne, overran the pro- 
vince of Gueldres, and captured most of the 
Dutch foitresses on the Meuse and Waal. At 
the small town of Bommel, in Guelderland, he 
was quartered in the house of a Dutch lady, the 
widow of the Chevalier Arnold de Bie, whose eld- 
est daughter, Clara, he married in 1673. 

Previous to this event, not approving of the 
cause in which he was engaged, he had resigned 
his commission in the Royal Scots, and entered 





were disposed of. Having thus reason to distrust 
the fidelity of a portion of liis force, Mackay con- 
tinued his I'etreat till he was joined by some rein- 
forcements npon whom he coald rely, when he 
tamed npon Dundee, and puraned him into Bade- 
noch. He subsequently marched to Inverness, 
whence he wrote to the duke of Hamilton, presi- 
dent of the convention, urging the necessity of 
establishing ^^a formidable gairison** at Liver- 
lochy, and small ones in other places in the north, 
without which he considered that it would be ut- 
terly impossible to subdue the Highlanders. He 
himself soon after repaired to Edinburgh, to has- 
ten the preparations for carrying such a project 
into effect ; but the plan he proposed, as he him- 
self confesses, ** considering the inability, ignor- 
ance, and little forwardness of the government to 
furnish the necessary ingredients for the advance 
of their service, was built upon a sandy founda- 
tion, and much like the building of castles in the 
air." (^Machai/*8 Memoirs^ p. 46.) 

After completing his arrangements at Edin- 
burgh, Mackay went to Stirling, to inspect the 
castle. From that place he proceeded to»Pei*th, 
and on the 26th July 1689, he began his march 
into Atliol, at the head of an army, as generally 
stated, of 4,500 men, but he tells us himself, in 
his ^Memoira,' that he had witii him only **8ix 
battalions of foot, making at the most 8,000 men, 
with four troops of hoi^se and as many dragoons." 
Among the foot were two Scottish regiments, 
which, as stated in Mr. Mackay of Rockfield^s 
Life of General Mackay, ** as well as the horse, 
were not only new levies, but were also command- 
ed by noblemen and gentlemen wholly destitute 
of military experience, and selected for their re- 
spective commands solely on account of their 
power of raising men ; little more, therefore, than 
one half of the whole number could be said to be 
disciplined." At night the general encamped op- 
posite to Dunkeld. Here, at midnight, he re- 
ceived an express from the marquis of Tullibar- 
dine, (often styled Lord Murray,) announcing 
that Viscount Dundee had entered Athol, and in 
consequence he had retreated from before the cas- 
tle of Blair, which he had for some time block- 
aded, and informing him that at the upper end of 
the pass of Killiecrankie, which lay between him 

and Lord Dundee, he had posted a guard to se- 
cure a free passage through it to his troops. 

On receipt of this alarming intelligence, Mac- 
kay despatched orders to Perth, to hasten the 
arrival of six troops of cavalry which he had left 
there, and at daybreak next day, proceeded in di- 
i*ection of the pass. At ten o^clock in the 
moniing he reached its lower extremity, when be 
halted his ti-oops, and allowed them two hours to 
rest and refi*esh themselves. Receiving notice 
that the pass was clear, he again put his men in 
motion, and they effected their passage through 
this terrific defile, with the loss only of a single 
horseman. In that singularly wild and stupen- 
dous locality, a handful of men, with no other 
ammunition than stones, stationed at intervals on 
the summit of the precipices, could easily impede 
the progress of any troops. If even at the pres- 
ent time, with the advantages of the excellent 
road, foi-med nearly sixty yeara afterwards, its 
passage is difficult to the traveller, it must have 
been much more so in General Mackay^s time, 
when it was in a state of the most savage desola- 
tion. " When the pass of Kiiliecrankie," says 
one authority, " is traversed, the country beyond 
is found to open suddenly up into a plain, which 
is expressively called the Blair or field of Athol. 
Immediately beyond the pass this plain is not 
very spacious, but is confined to that description 
of territor}' which in Scotland is called a haugh, 
or a stripe of level alluvial soil by the brink of a 
river. The road debouches upon this narrow 
plain ; the river runs along under the hills on the 
left ; on the right rise other hills, but not of so 
bold a character. Mackav no sooner arrived at a 
space sufficiently wide for drawing up his army 
than he halted and began to intrench himself. 
He left his baggage at a blacksmith's house near 
the termination of the pass, so as to have the pro- 
tection of the aimy in front." 

As it was Viscount Dundee's object to prevent 
Mackay fi*om establishing himself in Athol, he did 
not hesitate to meet him with an inferior force, 
amounting to little more than the half of that 
under Mackay. In making his dispositions, the 
latter divided ever}* battalion into two parts, and, 
as he meant to fight three deep, he left a small 
distance between each of these sub-battalions. 





airy to follow him, that be might get them again 
formed, bat only one person made the attempt, a 
servant, whose horse was shot under him. Fat- 
ting spurs to his horse, he galloped through the 
Highlanders, and when he had got sufficiently 
out of immediate danger, he turned round to ob- 
serve the appearance of the field. To his aston- 
ishment he saw none of his troops, but the dead, 
the wounded, and the dying. His army had dis- 
appeared. "In the twinkling of an eye, in a 
manner,^' he says, " our men were out of sight, 
being got pell mell down to the river-side, where 
our baggage stood.** The flight of his men must 
have been truly rapid, for although his left wing, 
which had never been attacked, had taken to flight 
before he rode off, his right wing and centre had 
still kept their ground. But now the whole of 
his line had fled from the field, pursued by the 
Highlanders, till the latter wera stopped by the 
baggage, and it was to their desire for plunder that 
those who escaped owed their safety, for had the 
Highlanders continued their pursuit, it is very 
probable that not an individual of Mackay^s army 
would have been left to relate the sad disaster of 
their discomfiture and death. 

When the general had recovered from his sur- 
prise, and the smoke had cleared away, he dis- 
covered on the right a small number of his troops. 
He subsequently came upon another portion of 
them. With these, he retired across the Garry, 
without molestation, and contrary to the opinion 
of several of his officers, who advised him to 
march through the pass of Killiecrankie to Perth, 
he proceeded several miles up Atliol, with the in- 
tention of crossing over the hills to Stirling. 
About two miles from the field of battle, he came 
up with a party of about 150 fugitives, almost 
without arms, under the command of Colonel 
Ramsay, who was quite at a loss what direction 
to take. Continuing his march along the edge of 
a rivulet which falls into the GaiTy, he came to a 
little village, where he procured fi-om the inhabit- 
ants such information as enabled him, with the 
assistance of his map, to decide upon his route. 
Early in the morning he reached Weem castle, 
the seat of his friend, the chief of the clan Men- 
zies, whose son had been in the action at the 
head of a company of Highlanders, and here he 

obtained some sleep and refreshment after his fa- 
tigues and harassing march. On Sunday, the 
28th July, the general continued his march with 
very little halting, and on Monday he arrived at 
Stirling with about 400 men. The viscount of 
Dundee fell in the battle, and thus rendered his 
victory a fruitless one to King James. On the 
side of Mackay no fewer than 2,000 men fell, and 
500 were made prisoners. The loss on the side 
of Dundee could never be accurately ascertained. 
It is stated to have been considerable, and General 
Mackay says that " the enemy lost on the field 
six for our one." 

Among the persons of rank and distinction 
slain were his brother Colonel Mackay and Brig- 
adier Balfour. His nephew, the Hon. Captain 
Mackay, had been left for dead on the field of 
battle, and was found by Glengary and his men, 
who, perceiving him still alive, carried him on a 
bam door to the nearest hut, where he remained 
some days till he could be removed in safety to 
Dunkeld. He never completely recovered the 
effect of his wounds at Kiiliecrankie, and after 
serving, and being repeatedly wounded, in several 
of King William*s battles in Flauders, he died at 
Tongue, the seat of his family, in December 1696, 
in the SOth year of his age. « 

After concentrating the troops at Stirling, Gen* 
eral Mackay, within a few days after his arrival 
at that place, found himself again at the head of 
a considerable force. He then resolved to march 
direct to Perth, and place a garrison there. On 
coming within half-a-mile of the town, he observ- 
ed a party of the enemy, consisting of about 300 
Athol men, approaching from it. The latter, see- 
ing from the dispositions made by General Mac- 
kay, that their retreat wonld be intercepted, 
threw themselves into the Tay, whither they were 
followed by Mackay^s cavalry, who cut them 
down in the water without mercy. He subse- 
quently followed Colonel Cannan, who, on the 
death of Dundee, had assumed the command of 
James* army, to the north, and stayed a night at 
Aberdeen. His arrival there gave great joy, he 
says, (Memoirs, p. 66,) to'most of the inhabit- 
ants, as they wer^ in dread of a visit from the 
Highlanders that very night. 

From Aberdeen Mackay proceeded up Deeside, 




1690, he i^esigned the chief command of the army 
and retired to his family in Holland, hia adopted 
conn try. Of his services in Scotland, he left an 
interesting account in his ^^ Memoirs/* printed for 
the first time for the Bannatyne Club in 1833. 

In 1691, he was appointed second in command 
of King William^s foi*ces, serving against the ad- 
herents of King James in Ireland. He arrived in 
that country in the beginning of May of that year, 
and signalised himself by his skill and gallantry at 
the capture of Athlone, having led his men on foot 
throngh a deep and rapid ford on the river Shan- 
non, amid a continued shower of balls, bullets, 
and grenades. Smollett says, '^ Never was a more 
desperate service, nor was ever exploit performed 
with more valour and intrepidity." At the battle 
of Aughrinr, which followed, he commanded the 
right wing of King William^s army, and the vic- 
tory, it was acknowledged, was gained chiefly by 
his foresight, good conduct, and courage. 

After the capitulation of Limerick, on the Sd of 
the ensuing October, he returned to Holland, and 
in the succeeding year, when King William took 
the field against Louis XIY. of France, Mackay, 
with the rank of lieutenant-general, was nominat- 
ed to the command of the British division of the 
confederate army in Flanders. He was killed at 
the disastrous battle of Steinkirk, July 24th, 1692. 
He had been ordered to a post which, he saw, 
could not be maintained, and sent back his opinion 
about it, but the former orders were confirmed, so 
he advanced to his death, saying only, *^ The will 
of the Lord be done.** It is stated that in the 
course of that evening, King William frequently 
mentioned with i-egret the death of one of his 
generals, but said nothing of General Mackay. 
One of the officers present took the liberty of ex- 
pressing his surprise that his majesty had made 
no allusion to his old and faithful servant, Mackay. 
** No," replied the king, " Mackay serred a higher 
Master, but the other served me with his soul.** 
The king attended Mackay*8 funeral, and when 
the body was laid in the grave, he said, ^* There 
he lies, and an honester man the world cannot 
produce.** He is still termed in his native coun- 
try, " Shenlar mor,** the great general. He was 
to have been rewarded by King William, for his 
services, with the title of earl of Scourie, but the 

intrigues of his rival, Mackenzie of Coigach or 
Cromarty, prevented it. 

The eldest of his three daughters, Margaret, 
became the wife of George, third Lord Reay. 
The two others married Dutchmen, the one a 
minister of Nimeguen, the other, the burgomaster 
of that town. 

Bishop* Burnet describes General Mackay as 
one of the most pious soldiera wiiom he had ever 
known, and highly commends him for the care 
which he took to enforce the observance of strict 
discipline, and attention to religious exercises, 
among both the officers and men under his com- 
mand. It was commonly said of him by the 
Dutch soldiers, that he knew no fear but the fear 
of God. One of his ruling principles was never 
to aid what he considered a bad cause. His Life, 
by John Mackay, Esq. of Rockfield, the represen- 
tative in the male line of the family of Scom'ie, 
was published in 1836, in one vol. 4to. 

MACKAY, Robert, an eminent Gaelic bard, 
commonly called Rob Donn, that is. Brown Ro- 
bert, the son of a herdsman, was born in 1714, at 
Durness, in Sutherlandshire. He says himself: 

" I was bom in the winter, 
*Mongst the wild frowning monntains ; 
Mj first sight of the world 
Was the snow-drift aroand me.** 

His mother, a woman of vigorous understanding, 
was well versed in Highland poetry and music, 
with which she stored his mind in his childhood. 
He never leaiiit to read. Till he was seven years 
old he tended calves, but at that age he was ta- 
ken into the service of Mi*. John Mackay, of the 
family of Skerray, a gentleman who carried on an 
extensive business as a cattle-dealer. As he 
grew to years he was employed as a drover, and 
sometimes went with herds as far as to the Eng- 
lish markets. He was afterwards engaged by 
Donald Lord Reay, the chief of his clan, as his 
cattle-steward or cow-keeper, called in some parts 
of the country a boman. He now married, and 
in course of time became the father of thirteen 

Unfortunately his fondness for deer-hunting, 
for which he was, on one occasion, summoned be- 
fore the sheriff-substitute of the county, when he 







given of some of them. The memoir which ac- 
companies them was written by Sir Walter Scott. 
MACKAY, John, an eminent botanist, was 
bom at Kirkaldy, December 25, 1772. Fie early 
discovered a strong predilection for botanical 
pnrsolts, and even at the age of 14, he liad formed 
a very considerable collection pf the rarer kinds of 
garden and hothouse plants. In the beginning of 
1791 he was placed in Dickson and Company*8 
nnrseries at Edinburgh ; of which, in 1793, he re- 
ceived the principal charge. Every summer he 
made a botanical excursion to the Highlands ; he 
likewise travei-sed tlie Western Isles, and in most 
of these journeys he was successful in adding some 
new species to the British Flora. To the elegant 
work entitled ^ English Botany,' then in course of 
publication, under the care of Dr. Smith and Mr. 
Sowerbv of Ix)ndon, he contributed various valu- 
able articles and figures of indigenous plants, and 
in February 1796, he was elected an associate of 
the Linnasan Society of London. In 1800, on the 
death of Mr. Menzies, he succeeded him as super- 
intendent of the Roval Botanic Garden of Edin- 
burgh, where he died April 14, 1802. 

Mackenzie, t1)e surname of a clan, (badge, deer grasfi,) 
which has long cherished a traditiunanr belief in its descent 
firom the Norman family of Fitzgerald settled in Ireland. Its 
pretensions to such an origin are founded upon a fragment of 
the records of Icolmkill, and a charter of the lands of Kintail 
in Wester Ross, said to have been granted by Alexander III., 
to Colin Fitzgerald, their supposed progenitor. According to 
the Icolmkill fragment, a personage described as ** Peregri- 
nna et Hibemns nobilis ex familia Geraldinorum,** that is, **a 
noble stranger and Hibernian, of the family of the Geral- 
dines,'* being driven from Ireland, with a considerable num- 
ber of followers, about 1261, was received graciously by the 
king, and remained thenceforward at the court. Having 
given powerful aid to the Scots at the battle of I^rgs two 
years afterwards, he was rewarded by a grant of Kintail, 
erected into a free barony by charter dated 9th January, 
1266. No such document, however, as this pretended frag- 
ment of Icolmkill is known to be in existence, at least, as 
Mr. Skene says, nobody has ever seen it, and as for King Al- 
exander's charter, he declares (^Highlanders^ vcl. ii. p. 235) 
that **it bears the most palpable marks of having been a for- 
gery of later date, and one by no means happy in the execu- 
tion.** Besides, the words "Colino Hibemo," contained in 
it, do not prove the said Colin to have been an Irishman, as 
Hibemi was at that period a common appellation of the Gael 
of Scotland. 

The ancestor of the clan Kenzie was Gilleon-og, or Colin 
the younger, a son of Gilleon na hair*de, that is, Colin of the 
Aird, progenitor of the earls of Ross, and from the MS. of 
14o0 their Gaelic descent may be conndered established. 
Colin of Kintail is said to have married a daughter of Walter, 
lord high steward of Scotland. He died in 1278, and his 

son, Kenneth, being, in 1304, succeeded by bis son, also call- 
ed Kenneth, with the addition of Mackenneth, the latter, 
softened into Mackenny or Mackenzie, became the name of 
the whole dan. Murdoch, or Murcha, the son of Kenneth, 
received from David II. a charter of the lands of Kintail at 
early as 1362. At the beginning of the 15th century, the 
clan Kenzie appears to have been both numerous and power- 
ful, for its chief, Kenneth More, when arrested, in 1427. with 
his son-in-law, Angus of Moray, and Macmatban, by Jameg 
I. in his parliament at Inverness, was said to be able to mus- 
ter 2,000 men. 

In 1463, Alexander Mackenzie of Kintail received Stntth- 
gan'e and many other lands from John, earl of Ross, the 
same who was forfeited in 1476. The Mackenzie chiefs 
were originally vassals of the earls of Ross, but after their for- 
feiture, they became independent of any superior but the 
crown. They strenuously opposed the Macdonalds in every 
attempt which they made to regam possession of the earl- 
dom. Alexander was succeeded by his son, Kenneth, who 
had taken for bis first wife I^dy Margaret Macdonald, daugh- 
ter of the forfeited earl, John lord of the Isles, and having, 
about 1480, divorced bis wife, he brought upon himself the 
resentment of her family. Her brother, Angus, invaded 
Roes, with a body of his island vassals, and encountering the 
Mackenzies at a place called Lagebread, defeated them with 
considerable loss. In 1491, Alexander of Lochalsh, caUed 
Alaster Macgillespoc, nephew of the lord of the Isles, made 
his appearance, at the bead of a large body of the Islanders, 
in Wester Ross, and proceeded to Stratbconnan, for the pur- 
pose of ravaging the lands of the Mackenzies. The latter, 
however, under the above-named Kenneth, assembled in 
great force, and after a fierce and obstinate battle, the Mac- 
donalds were defeated with much slaughter, and expelled 
from R4>SM. lliis engagement was called the battle of Blair- 
na-Park. The Mackenzies then proceeded to ravage the 
lands of Ardmanach and Foulis, and committed so many ex- 
cesses that the earl of Huntly, lieutenant of the north, was 
compelled to act against them as rebels and oppressors of the 
lieges. Kenneth died soon after. 

Kenneth Oig, his son by the divorced wife, was chief in 
1493. Two years afterwards, he and Farquhar Madntoeh 
were imprisoned by James V. in the castle of Edinburgh. 
Ill 1497, the Macdonalds again invaded Ross, but were en- 
countered by the Mackenzies and Munroes, at a place called 
Dnimchatt, and after a sharp skirmish, were routed and 
driven out of Ross. The same year he and Macintosh made 
their escape from the castle of Edinburgh, but on their way 
to the Highlands, they were treacherously seized at the 
Torwood, by the laird of Buchanan. Kenneth Oig resisted 
and was slain, and his head presented to the king by Buchan- 
an. His death was avenged by his foster-brother at Flodden. 
This was a man of the district of Kenlochar, named Donald 
Dubh Mac Gillechrist Vic Giilereoch. In the retreat of the 
Scots army he beard some one near him say, ** Alas ! laird, 
thou hast fallen." On inquiry he was told that it was the 
laird of Buchanan, who had sunk from wounds or exhaust- 
ion. Rushing forward, he shouted out, '*If he hath not 
fallen, he shall fall,** and slew Buchanan on the spot 

Kenneth Oig, having no issue, was succeeded by his 
brother, John, whose mother, Agnes Fraser, was a daughter 
of Lord Lovat. She had other sons, from whom sprung 
numerous branches of this wide-sprsiid family. As he was 
very young, his kinsman. Hector Roy Mackenzie, progenitor 
of the houMO of Gerloch, assumed the command of the dan, 
as guardian of the young chief. ** Under hift rule," says Mr. 
Gregory, {HighUindt cmd Jsla ofScoUand^ p. 111.) " the clan 




first earl of Seaforth, and the Hon. John Mackenzie of iMch- 
slin. His second wife was Isabel, daughter of Sir Alexander 
Ogilvie of Powrie, bj whom, with a daughter, Sybilla, Mrs. 
Macleod of Macleod, he had four sons, vis., Alexander, 
George, second earl of Seaforth ; Thomas, of Pluscardine, and 
Simon of Lochslin, whose eldest son was the celebrated Sir 
George Mackenzie of Rosehangh, lord advocate in the reigns 
of Charles II. and James VII., of whom a memoir is subse- 
quentlj given in larger tjpe. 

Colin, second Lord Kintail, was created earl of Seaforth, bv 
patent dated at Theobald's, 8d December 1623, to him and 
bib heirs male. (See Sraportii, earl of). 

The great-grandson of the third earl of Seaforth, and male 
heir of the familv, was Colonel Thomas Frederick Humber- 
ston MHckeiizie. who fell at Gheriah in India in 1783, and of 
whom a memoir is given under the head of Skaforth, earl of. 
His brtither, Francis Huiiiberston Mackenrie, obtained the 
Seaforth estates, and whs created Baron Seaforth in the 
peerage of the United Kingdom in 1796. Djing without 
surviving male issue his title became extinct, and his eldest 
daughter, the Hon. Mary Frederica Elizabeth, having taken 
for her second husband J. A. Stewart of Glasserton, a cadet 
of the house of Galloway, that gentleman assumed the name 
of Stewart Mackenzie of Seaforth. 

The clan Kenzie from small beginnings had increased in 
territory and influence till they became, next to the Camp- 
bells, the greatest clan in the West Highlands. They re- 
mained loyal to the Stuarts, but the forfeiture of the earl of 
Seaforth in 1715, and of the earl of Cromarty in 1745, 
weakened their power greatly. They are still, however, one 
of the most numerous tribes in the Highlands. In 1745 
their efiective strength was calculated at 2,500. No fewer 
than seven families of the name possess baronetcies. 

The armorial bearings of the Mackenzies are a stag's head 
and horns. It is said that they were assumed in consequence 
of Kenneth, the ancestor of the family, having rescued the 
king of Scotland from an infuriated stag, which he had 
wounded. *' In gratitude for his assistance," says Stewart 
of Garth, *' the king gave him a grant of the castle and lands 
of Castle Donnan, and thus laid the foundation of the family 
and clan Mackenncth or Mackenzie." From the stag's head 
in their arms the term Caberfae was applied to the chiefs. 

The progenitor of the Gerloch or Gairloch branch of the 
Mackenzies was, as above shown, He(*tor, tlie elder of the two 
sons of Alexander, 7th chief, by his 2d wife, Margaret Mac- 
dowall, daughter of John, lord of Lorn. He lived in the 
reigns of Kings .Tames III. and IV., and was by the High- 
landers called •' Eachin Roy," or Red Hector, from the colour 
of his hair. To the assistance of the former of these mon- 
archs, when the confederated nobles collected in arms against 
him, he raised a considerable body of the clan Kenzie, and 
fought at their head at the battle of Sauchiebum. After the 
defeat of his party, he retreated to the north, and, taking 
possession of Redcnstle, put a garrison in it Thereafter he 
joined the earl of Huntly. and from James \V. he obtained in 
1494 a grant of the lands and barony of Gerloch, or Gairloch, 
in Ross-shire. These lands originally belonged to the Siol- 
Vic-Gilliechallum, or Macleods of Rasay, a branch of the 
family of I^wis, but Hector, by means of a mor^^e or wad- 
set, had acquired a small portion of them, and in 1508 he 
got Brachan, the lands of Moy, the royal forest of Glas.Hiter, 
and other lands, united to them. In process of time, his suc- 
cessors came to possess the whole district, but not till after a 
long and bloody feud with the Siol-Vic-Gilliechallum, which 
lasted till 1611, when it was brought to a sudden close by a 

skirmish, in which Gillechallum Oig, laird of Rasay, and 
Murdoch Mackenzie, a younger son of the laird of Gerloch, 
were slain. From that time the Mackenzies possessed Ger- 
loch without interruption from the Macleods. 

Hector, the first of the boose of Gerloch, was with the clan 
at Flodden, where most of them were killed ; and he and his 
nephew, John, the chief, to whom he was tutor, narrowly 
escaped. By a daughter of the laird of Grant, to whom he 
was betrothed, but who died before the marriage was cele- 
brated, he had a son. Hector, who got the name of Came, or 
one-eyed. He afterwards married a daughter of Ranald 
Macdonald of Moydart, and, with two daughters, he had 
four sons. 

John, the eldest of these, called by the Highlanders, John 
Glesich, married Agnes, only daughter of James Eraser of 
Foinich, brother of Hugh, Ijord Lovat, and died in 1550. 
He had three sons; Hector, his heir; John, who succeeded 
Hector, and carried on the line of the family ; and Alexan- 
der, from whom descended Murdoch Mackenzie, bbhop of 
Moray and afterwards of Caithness, in the reigns of Cbaries 
I. and II. Of this branch, also, was Dr James Mackenzie, 
an eminent phyucian, author of the ' History of Health.* 

Kenneth Mackenzie, eighth baron of Gerloch, was created 
a baronet of Kova Scotia in 1700. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Findon, and was suc- 
ceeded, in 1704, by his son, Sir Alexander, second baronet,, 
who married Janet, daughter of Sir Roy Mackenzie of Scat- 
well, and with three daughters had six sons, most of whom 
died young. He himself died in 1766. His eldest son. Sir 
Alexander, 3d bnronet, married, 1st, Margaret, eldest daugh- 
ter of Roderick Mackenzie of Redcastle, issue one son. Hector; 
2dly, Jean, only daughter of John Gorrie, Esq., commissary 
of Ross, issue 2 sons, John, a general officer, and Kennetli, an 
officer in India, and 3 daughters. He died 13th April 1770. 

Sir Hector Mackenzie, his eldest son, 4th baronet of the Ger- 
loch branch, died in April 1826. His son. Sir Francis 
Alexander, 5th baronet, bom in 1798, died June 2, 1843. 
The eldest son of Sir Francis, Sir Kenneth Smith Madcenzie, 
6th baronet, bom 1832, married in I860 the 2d daughter of 
Walter Frederick Campbell of Islay. 

The Mackenzies of Portmore, county Peebles, are a branch 
of the Gerloch family. Colin Mackenzie of Portmore, great- 
grandson of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, baronet of Gerloch, 
married in 1803, Elizul>eth, daughter of Sir William Forbes 
of Pitsligo, and died in September 1830. He had three 
brothers, William Mackenzie of Muirtown, Roes-sliire; Suther- 
land Mackenzie of Edinburgh, and John, banker in luvemess. 
His son, William Forbes Mackenzie, M.P. for Peebles-shire, 
bom in April 1807, and appointed in 1831 deputy lieutenant 
for that county, was the introducer of the act of parliament 
passed in 1854, for the regulation of public houstt in Scotland, 
conunonly called " Forbes Mackenzie's Act.** 

The first of the Mackenzies of Tarbet and Royston, in the 
county of Cromarty, was Sir Roderick Mackenzie, second son 
of Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, brother of the first Lord Mac- 
kenzie of Kintail Having married Margaret, daughter and 
heiress of Torqnil Macleod of the l^w&s, he added the armo- 
riol bearings of the Macleods to his own. His son, John 
Mackenzie of Tarbet, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 
21st Mav 1628. He had four sons. The third son, Roderick 
Mackenzie, was o.i Ist December 1702, appointed justice 
clerk, and an ordinary lord of session 12th January 1703, 
when he took his seat as Lord Prestonhall. He was super- 
seded as justice clerk in October 1704, and resigned his teat 

1 1 

I ! 




to claim the anthorship. He was at pains to 
transcribe tlie whole in his own hand, with a 
plentiful introdnction of blottings, interlineations, 
and corrections, and he maintained his preten- 
sions with so mnch plansibilitj and pertinacity, 
that Messrs. Cadell and Strahan, the publishers, 
at last found it necessary to undeceive the public 
by a formal contradiction. In 1778 Mr. Macken- 
zie published his * Man of the World/ which dis- 
played tlie same tone of exquisite moral delicacy 
and elegance of style as his former work. In 1777 
he produced * Julia de Roubigii^/ a beautiful and 
tragic tale, in a series of letters, exhibiting the re- 
fined sensibility and the delicate perception of 
human character and manners wltich distinguished 
all his writings. 

Mr. Mackenzie was one of the principal mem- 
bers of the ** Mirror Club," and edited the well- 
known periodical of that name. Most of the 
other gentlemen connected with it were after- 
wards judges in the Court of Session — namely, 
I/Ord Cullen, Lord Abercromby. I^ord Craig, and 
Lord Bannatyne. * The Mirror ' was commenced 
January 23, 1779, and ended May 27, 1780, hav- 
ing latterly been issued twice a- week. Of the 
110 papere to which it extended, forty-two were 
contributed by Mr. Mackenzie, including I^ 
Roche. The sale never at any time exceeded four 
hundred copies, but when afterwards republished 
in duodecimo volumes, with the names of the 
authors, a considerable sum was obtained for the 
copyright, out of which the proprietore presented 
£100 to the Orphan Hospital, and purchased a 
hogshead of claret for the use of the club. * The 
Lounger,* a publication of a similar character, also 
conducted by Mr. Mackenzie, was commenced by 
the same parties, Februar}' 6, 1785, and was con- 
tinued weekly till January 6, 1787. Of the 101 
papei*8 which It includes, fifty -seven were written 

i bv Mr. Mackenzie, who, in one of the latter num- 

I " 

I bers, reviewed for the first time the Poems of 


' Bums, which were just then published. 

On the institution of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, Mr. Mackenzie became one of its mem- 
bers ; an I among the papers with which he en- 
riched its Transactions are an elegant tribute to 
the memory of his friend Lord Abercromby, and 
a Memoir on Grerman Tragedy, in the latter 

of which he bestows high praise on the * Emi- 
lia GalottI* of Lessing. and *The Robbers* of 
Schiller. He took lessons in German from a Dr. 
Okely, at that time studying medicine In Edin- 
burgh ; and in 1791 he published a small volume, 
containing translations of *The Set of Horses,* 
by Lessing, and of two or three other German 
dramatic pieces. He was also an original mem- 
ber of the Highland Society, and by him were 
published the volumes of their Transactions, to 
which he prefixed an account of the institution, 
and the principal proceedings of the Society. In 
these Transactions is also to be found his view of 
the controversy respecting Ossian*s Poems, con- 
taining an interesting account of Gaelic poetry. 

At the time of the French revolution he pub- 
lished various political pamphlets, with the view 
of counteracting the progress of democratic princi- 
ples in this country. One of these, entitled * An 
Account of the Proceedings of the Parliament of 
1784,* introduced him to the notice of Mr. Pitt; 
and in 1804, on the recommendation of Iy)rd Mel- 
ville and Mr. George Rose, he was appointed to 
the lucrative office of comptroller of taxes for 
Scotland, which he held till his death. 

In 1793 he wrote the Life of Dr. Blacklock, 
prefixed to a quarto edition of the blind poet*s 
works, published for the benefit of his widow. In 
1808 he brought out a complete edition of his own 
works, in eight volumes 8vo. In 1812 he read to 
the Royal Society his *Life of John Home;* and 
as a sort of supplement to it, he then added some 
Critical Essays, chiefly on dramatic poetry, which 
have not been published, but the Life itself ap- 
peared in 1822. Mr. Mackenzie himself attempt- 
ed dramatic writing, but without success. A 
tragedy, composed in his early youth, entitled 

* The Spanish Father,* was rejected by Garrick, 
and never represented. In 1773 another tragedy 
of his, styled *The Prince of Tunis,* was per- 
formed with applause for six nights at the Edin- 
burgh theatre. A third tragedy, founded on 
Lilly's * Fatal Curiosity,* called ' Tlie Shipwreck,* 
and two comedies, * Tlie Force of Fashion,* and 

* The White Hypocrite,' were produced at Covent 
Garden successively, but they proved complete 
failures. His portrait, from a painting by Sir 
Henry Raeburn, will be found on next page. 





left tome writings, states, "the next great familj are the 
Kerlies of Crug>;IetOD, who being brave warriors st4)od boldly 
up for the independence of tiieir country under WaUlace, and 
it was one of theu: forefathers who, at a place called Dunmoir 
in Carrick, was particularly instrumental in giving the Danes 
a notable overthrow. He took Kric the son of Swain pri- 
soner, for which service the king gave him lands in CarricK.** 
They took part in the Cnuuides, to which their armorial 
bearings, borne for centuries, specially refer, and several tra- 
ditiiins of adventurous exploits have been handed down. 
The loss of their early liiKtory can never be replaced. As 
corroborated by Felix O'CaiToH, in hU Translation of the 
Chronicles of Tara, and History of the Sennachies, it is that 
the first Carroll (afterwards changed to Kerlie) who cume 
from Ireland was a petty king or chief in that country. Flee- 
ing to Scotland, he was hospitably received by the king, and 
had lands assigned to him in Galloway, where he lived in great 
splendour. Henry the minstrel, the biographer of WulUce 
about 1470, also states with reference to William Carroll or 
Kerlie, the compatriot of Wallace (with whom the change iu 
the name is believed to have first occurred), that his ancestor 
accompanied David I. from Ireland, and having at Dunmoir 
in Carrick, with 700 ScHts, defeated 9.000 Danes, had lands 
in Carrick, then a part of Galloway, now of Ayrshire, given 
to him for that service. Henry, however, is wrong as to the 
period, which is believed to have been either in the 9th of 
10th century, when the Cruithne passed over to Galloway 
from Ireland. 

Carroll was the original name, in Ireland 0*Carroll, of 
which once powerful family more than one branch were petty 
kings or chiefs over different districts in the north of that 
country, even extending so far south as Meath, where were 
the hall and Court of Tara, as also Eile or Ely, now called 
King's County, the chief of all being the arch king of Argiiill. 
Since then (a peculiarity common with Galloway surnames) 
the name has been variously spelled at different periods, as 
Kerl6, Kerlie, M 'Carole, M'Carlie.and M'Kerlie. 

The castle and lands of Carleton in Carrick, (now owned 
by the Cathcarts under a charter dated 1324) was the first 
property possessed by the family in Galloway, originally 
called Carolton, the residence of Carroll. It is mentioned 
as a tradition in Ayrshire that Carleton Castle, in remote 
times, previous to the arrival of the Cathcarts in Carrick, be- 
longed to a family of the name of De Kiersly, evidently a cor- 
ruption of Kerlie. They afterwards obtained the castle and 
lands of Cruggleton, &c. This castle (the Black Ruck of 
Cree) was built by the Danes about 1098, on the highest sum- 
mit of a range of precipices about 200 feet high, overhanging 
the sea, nt the mouth of Wigtown Bay. It was considered 
impregnable, being on a small promontory wliicli juts into 
the sea; and landward defended with strung batllemented 
walls, with a fosse between them, 42 feet wide and 16 feet 
deep, over which was a drawbridge with gates, portcullis, &c 
The area within the walls contuned an acre and a quarter. 
The castle was ruinous before the year 1684. It is un in- 
teresting, though very greatly dilapidated ruin. Part of an 
unomameuted arch, and the lower parts of some walls, alone 
remain to attest its ancient spaciousness and strength. 

Chalmers, in his Caledoiwi^ hss some extraordinary errors 
in regard to Cruggleton. At the time he wrote, any peasant 
in the neighbourhood could have told him who the ancient 
owners were, but apparently without troubling himself with 
much inquiry, lie seems at once to have concluded that this 
castle must have belonged to the lords of Galloway, and that 
John Comvn the elder inherited it thnmgh his mother, from 
finding, in Dugdale*s Baronage, ni«ution of his name in cou- 

nection with it; in the extract of which short passage he 
omits Galway castle (the royal castle of Wigtown) to adapt it 
to his ideas. As an antiquarian Chalmers ought to have 
known that the castles of the lords of Gallowav were in Cen- 
tral Galloway, the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and not in 
Western Gallowav. 

From 1282 the vicissitudes attending the possession of this 
castle were many, furnishing a striking example of the inse- 
curity of property in this distracted district of Scotland, 
where charters were unknown until the 14th century, the an- 
cient Celtic proprietors having held their lands under their 
own Celtic laws. In 1282, Wm. Kerlie had as his guest Lord 
Soulis, (a secret adherent of Edward 1.,) who took the castle 
by treachery. Kerlie escaped, and in several ineffectual at- 
tempts to retake it, lost his remaining followers. In 1292, 
John Comyn, earl of Buchan, had temporary possession, as 
also of the royal castle of Wigtown. In 1296, Edward I. ap- 
pointed Henry Percy, governor of it and other castles, and in 
1297, Percy was succeeded by John of Hoddleston. In 1296, 
Wm. Kerlie, the real owner, was one of tlie first to join Sir 
Wm. W^allaoe at the csstle of the earl of Lennox, and from 
that date was his constant friend and companion in arms, iu 
the noble and desperate struggle for liberty. 

In 1297, Wallace went to Galloway, and under Kerlie*s 
guidance, Cruggleton castle, by a daring scheme, was retaken 
by surprise, and the gunison of 60 men slain, a priest and two 
women only having been spared. Kerlie was then restored 
to his patrimonial property. He however did not leave Wal- 
lace, and at the fatal battle of Falkirk in 1298, he is tradi- 
tionally saiii to iiave appeared ut the head of 500 men, most 
of whom were slain in an ineffectual attempt to rescue Sir 
John the Graeme. This patriot^s career was closed at Kobras- 
toun near Glasgow in July 1305, when he accompanied Wal- 
lace there, to await a meeting with Robert the Bruce, and 
were basely betrayed into the hands of their enemies. While 
both were asleep their arms were secretly removed, Kerlie 
slain, and the noble Wallace reserved for a worse fate. 

Wm. Kerlie was one of the few who never swore fealty to 
Edward ^he Usurper. He left an infant son, also called Wil- 
liam, bom in 1298, and therefore 7 years of age at his father's 
death. This boy was treacherously dealt with by the prior 
and monks of the monastery of '* Candida Casa,** Whithorn, 
near Cruggleton, who in 1309 concealed from Robert the 
Bruce that he existed, and was owner of the castle and lands, 
but represented that they had belonged to Lord Soulis, all of 
whose property had been directed to be sequestrated, and by 
this means obtained a charter of them for the monasterv. 


.Again in the disturbed reign of David II., when properties were 
so freely disposed of to his own supporters, Gilbert Kennedy 
(an ancestor of the Ailsa family), who had been one of his 
hostages iu England, obtained in 1366, a charter of the castle 
and lands, but it was never put in force, and in 1423 the 
prior and monks of ** Candida Casa *' got it cancelled. By 
the charter of 1309, the superiority was wrested by ** Candida 
Casa" from young Kerlie and his descendants, but this was 
unknown to them for generations, as the family were never 
disturbed in their proprietory rights by the monastery. They 
retained possession until about the end of the 16th century, 
when the Refonnation bruke up the ancient tenures, and as 
the family held under the Celtic laws without a Crown 
charter, with the ruin of the church, they loat the castle and 

The last of the family, from father to aon, who possessed 
the castle and lands, was John, who in the ** InquiiiUonsi de 
Tutela,'' under date 20th June 1583, is called therein M -Ca- 




it for the district of Mtshn'ish, bein^; that pMrt of Mull imnie- 
diatelj to the Dorth and west of Tobermory. They, likewise, 
possessed the lands of Strathordell in Skye, from which the 
chiefs usnallj took their style. Lauchlan Macfingon, or 
Mackinnon. chief of his clan, witnessed a charter by Doniild, 
lord of the Isles, in 1409. The name of the chief in 1493 is 
uncertain ; but Neil Mackiniion of Mishninh was at the head 
of the tribe in 1515.** {ffighlands and Itlei of Scotland, p. 
80.) Two years afterwards this Neil and se^'eral others, de- 
scribed as '' kin, men, serrants. and part-takers'* of Lauch- 
lan Maclean of Dowart, were included in a remission which 
that chief obtained for their share in the rebellion of Sir Do- 
nald Macdonald of Ix>chalsh. In 1545 the chiefs name was 
£win. He was one of the barons and council of the Isles 
who, in that year, swore allegiance to the king of England at 
Knockfergus in Ireland. 

'* In consequence,** says Mr. Skene, "of their connexion 
with the Macdonalds, the Mackinnons have no history inde- 
pendent of that clan ; and the internal state of these tribes 
during the government of the lords of the Isles is so obscure 
that little can be learned regarding them, until the forfeitmv 
of the last of these lords. During their dependence upon the 
Macdonalds tliere is but one event of any importance in 
which we find the Mackinnons taking a share, for it would 
appear that on the death of John of the Islea, in the four- 
teenth oontury, Mackinnon, with what object it is impoesible 
now to asoertun, stirred up his second son, John Mor, to re- 
bel against his eldest brother, apparently with a view to the 
chiefship, and his faction was joined by the Macleans and the 
Madeods. But Donald, the eider brother, was supported by 
so great a proportion of the tribe, that he drove John Mor 
and his party out of the Isles, and pursued him to Galloway, 
and from thence to Ireland. The rebellion being thus put 
down, John Mor threw himself upon his brother's mercy, and 
received his pardon, but Mackinnon was taken and hanged, 
as having been the inntigator of the disturbance.** (^Skene's 
Hu/hlanders, vol. ii. p. 259.) This appears to have taken 
place after 1380, as John, Ix)rd of the Isles, died tliat year. 
In the disturbances in the Isles, during the 16th century. Sir 
I^nchlan Mackinnon bore an active part. 

As a proof of the common descent of the Mackinnons, the 
Macgregors, and the Macnabs, although their territories were 
far distant from each other, two bonds of friendship exist, 
which are curious specimens of the manners of the times. 
Tlie one dated 12th July, 1606, was entered into between 
Lauchlan Mackinnon of Strathordell and Finlay Macnab of 
Bowaine, who, as its tenor runs, happened " to forgether to- 
gcdder, with certain of the said Fiiilay*s friends, in their 
rooms, in the laird of Glenurchy's country, and the said 
lauchlan and Finlay, being come of ane, and being of 
one surname and lineage, notwithstanding the said Lauchlan 
and Finlay this long time bygane oversaw their awn dueties 
till ndderis, in respect of the long distance betwixt their 
dwelling places,** agreed, with t^e consent of their kin and 
friends, to give all assistance and service to each other. And 
are " content to subscribe to the ftame, with their hands led 
to the penJ" Mackinnon's signature is characteristic It is 
" l^audiland, mise (i. e. myself) Mac Fingon.*' The other 
bond of manrent, dated at Kilmorie in 1671, was between 
lauchlan Mackinnon of Strathordell and James Macgregor 
of Macgregor, and it is therein stated tliat *' for the special 
love and amitie between these persons, and condescendinc; 
that they are descended lawfully Ji'a tunt breethren of auld 
detcent, wherefore and for certain onerous causes moving, we 
witt ye we to be bound and obleisit, Hkeas by the tenor here- 
of we faithfully bind and obleise us and our successors, our 

kin, friends and followers, futhfuUy to serve aue anither in 
all causes with our men and servants, against all who live 
or die.** 

During the civil wars the Mackinnons joined the standard 
of the marquis of Montrose, and formed part of his force at the 
battle of Inverlochy. Feb. 2, 1645. In 1650, Uochlan Mac- 
kinnon, the cliief, raised a regiment of his clan for the service 
of Charles IL, and at the battle of Worcester, in 1646, he was 
made a knight banneret. His son, Daniel Mohr, had 2 sons, 
John, whose great-grandson died in India, unmarried, in 1808, 
and Daniel, who emigrated to Antigua, and die<i in 1720. His 
eldest son nnd heir, William Mackinnon of Antigua, an eminent 
member of the legislature of that island died at Bath in 1767. 
The Kon of the latter, Willinm Mackinnon of Antigua and 
Binfield. Berkshire, died in 1809. The youngest of hiafoor 
sons, Henry, MHJor-general Mackinnon, a distinguished officer, 
was killed by the explosion of a magnzine, while leading on 
the main storming party, at Ciudad Rodrigo, Feb. 29, 1812. 
A tablet was erected to his memory in St. Paul's cathedral. 

The eldest son. W^illiam Mackinnon, died young, leaving, 
with 2 daughters. 2 sons, William Alexander Mackinnon, who 
succeeded his grandfather, and Daniel, colonel of the Cold- 
stream guards, of whom a memwr follows in larger type. 

William Alexander Mackinnon of Mackinnon, M.P., tlie 
chief magistnite and deputy lieutenant for the counties of 
Middlesex, Hampshire, and Kssex, and author of 'The His- 
toiy of Civilization,* and other publications (' Public Opinion,* 
* Thoughts on the Currency Question,' Ac.) bom in 1789. 
succeeded in 1809. He married Emma, daughter of Joseph 
Palmer, Esq. of Rush House, County Dublin, with issue, 3 
sons and 3 daughters. The eldest son, William Alexander, 
also M.P., bom in 1813, married daughter of F. Willes, Esq. 

lauchlan Mackinnon of Letterfeam also claims to be tlie 
heir-male of the family. Although there are many gentlemen 
of the name still resident in Skye, there is no Mackinnon pm- 
prietor of lands now either in that island or in Mull. 

The Mackinnons engaged in both rebellions in favour of 
the Stuarts. In 1715, 150 of them fought with the Macdo- 
nalds of Sleat at the battle of Sheriffmuir, for which the diief 
was forfeited, but received a pardon, 4th January, 1727. In 
1745, Mackinnon, though then old and infirm, joined Prince 
Charles with a battalion of his dan. President Forbes esti- 
mates their effective force at that period at 200 men. After 
the battle of Culluden, the prince, in his wanderings, took 
refuge in the country of the Mackinnons, when travelling 
in disguise through Skye, and was concealed by the chief in 
a cave, where I^y Mackinnon brought him a refreshment of 
cold meat and wine. Afterwards the chief and one of his 
clansmen, John Mackinnon, residing at Ellagol, conducted 
the royal fugitive in his own boat to the mainland, to the 
country of Macdonald of Morar. Not meeting with that as- 
sistance from the latter which he expected, the prince, in 
great distress, tumed round to Mackinnon, and said, **I 
hope, Mr. Mackinnon, you will not desert me too, and leave 
me in the lurch ; but that you will do all ior my preserva- 
tion you can.** The old chief, thinking that these words 
were meant for him, said, with tears in his eyes, " I ne%'er 
will leave your royal highness in the day of danger ; but will, 
under God, do all I can for you, and go with yon wherever 
you order me.** *' Oh, no,** rejoined Charles, " that is too 
much for one of your advanced years. Sir; I heartily thank 
you for your readiness to take care of me, as I am well sat- 
isfied of your zeal for me and my cause ; but one of your age 
cannot well hold out with the fatigues and dangers I must 
undergo. It was to your friend John here, a stout young 
man, I was addressing myself." " Well, then,** said John 




Tytler, wife of Lord Woodhonselee, one of the 
lords of session. Major Mercer, the friend of 
Beattie and the author of a small volnme of 
* Lyric Poems/ who held a lientenant*s commis- 
sion in the same regiment, (and a memoir of 
whom is given snbsequently in Its place) in a let- 
ter to Lord Glenbervie, thus speaks of Sir James^ 
father and uncle: *^John Macintosh was one of 
the most lively, good humoured, gallant lads I 
ever knew ; and he had an elder brother of the 
name of Angus, who served in the regiment (Col. 
afterwards Sir R. M. Kcith^s) that constantly en- 
camped next to ours, wlio was a most intelligent 
man, and a most accomplished gentleman. Mr. 
M.^s grandfather saw his two sons return home, at 
the end of the seven years' war, one with a shat- 
tered leg, and the other with the loss of an eye.*' 
His father was afterwards captain in the 68th re- 
giment, in which he served at Gibraltar, during 
the famous siege of that place. 

He received the first part of his education at 
the school of Fortrose, in Ross-shire, to which he 
was sent in the summer of 1775, and he remained 
there till he went to King's College, Old Aber- 
deen, in Oatober 1780. His passion for reading, 
in his boyhood, was so great that his father often 
complained that he would become ** a mere ped- 
ant." He read at all times and in all places, and 
would frequently sit up the gi'eater part of the 
night over his books. Whilst at school so great 
was his proficiency that he was employed by the 
usher, whose name was Stalker, to teach the 
younger boys, and ^* that boy, that Jamie Mack- 
intosh," was known all over the country as a pro- 
digy of learning. He also made some attempts at 
writing vei'ses, which, for the four winters he con- 
tinued at Aberdeen, gained him the name of ^ the 
poet.' His companion at King's College was the 
afterwards celebrated Robert Hall of Leicester. 
They lived in the same house, and read and 
studied together. They were both fond of argu- 
ment, and had almost daily discussions on most 
topics of enquiry, particularly in morals and me- 
taphysics. In their joint studies, we are told in 
Gregory's Memoir of Robert Hall, (page 22) they 
read much of Xenophon and Herodotus, and more 
of Plato ; and so well was all this known, exciting 
admuration in some, in others envy, that it was 

not unusual, as they went along, for their class- 
fellows to point at them, and say, Hhere go 
Plato and Herodotus P Under the auspices of 
these two highly gifted young men, a debating 
society was formed in King's College, which was 
jocularly termed * the Hall and Mackintosh Club.' 

In March 1784, Mr. Mackintosh took his degree 
of master of arts, and the next thing to be consid- 
ered was the choice of a profession. He himself 
wished to become an advocate at the Scottish bar, 
but his friends prefeired that he should be a doc- 
tor of medicine, and in October of the same year 
he went to Edinburgh, where for three years he 
attended the medical classes. While at the uni- 
versity of that city, he became a member of the 
Speculative Society, which met for the discussion 
of subjects in general literature and science, and 
at its meetings he soon distinguished himself as a 
keen and eloquent debater. At this time its lend- 
ers were Charles Hope, afterwards lord president 
of the court of session ; Baron Constant de Re- 
becque, the subsequently celebrated Benjamin 
Constant ; Mailcolm Lutng, the historian ; and 
Thomas Addis Emmett. He attended the lec- 
tures of Dr. Brown, the founder of the Brunonian 
system, and for k time was one of his most enthu- 
siastic disciples. He was also a member of the 
royal medical and royal pliysical societies. In 
1787 he took his degree of M.D., his thesis on the 
occasion being *' De motu musculari." 

In the beginning of the following spring he 
went to London, accompanied by one of his col- 
lege friends, Lewis Grant, the eldest son of Sir 
James Grant of Grant, then M.P. for Morayshire, 
nnd afterwards earl of Seafield and Findlater. 
His mind had an early bias towards politics, and 
as his principles were of the most liberal kind, he 
soon became a member of the Society for Consti- 
tutional information, one of the numerous political 
societies of that exciting period. He seems at 
this time to have contemplated settling in St. 
Petersburg as a physician, but the plan was not 
carried into effect. On the death of his father, 
the same year, he succeeded to the family estate 
of Kellachie, in Inverness-shire, worth about £900 
a-year, but burdened by an annuity to the widow 
of a former proprietor, who still survived. In the 
course of a year or two he was compelled to dis- 

1 1 






tation distingn^e." Family ties forbade, what 
otherwise he confessed that he should DOt have 
been averse from — the means *^of giving more 
effectual aid, by a personal residence for some time 
in Russia." It was an odd coincidence tliat an 
opportunity should now offer of going, as a jurist, 
to the same conntry for wliich he was once de- 
signed as a physician. He was also, about tlie 
same time, invited by a body of London publish- 
ers, to supeVintend a new edition of Johnson*s 
Poets, but the project never came to anytliing. 

Among the crowds of Britisli subjects who lias- 
tened to Paris, on the peace of Amiens in autumn 
1802, were Mr. and Mrs. Mackintosh, wlio re- 
mained in that capital a month, wlien he was 
presented to the Fii*st Consul. The terrible 
events of the reign of terror in France had long 
ere this modified very considerably many of the 
opinions he had expressed in the *• VindiclaB Gal- 
lic®." On the trial, February 21, 1803, of M. 
Peltier, a French refugee, editor of a Fi*ench jour- 
nal published in London, entitled ^ L^Ambigu,* for 
a libel on Napoleon Bonaparte, first consul of 
France, Mr. Mackintosh appeareiTas sole counsel 
for the defendant, while the case for the prosecu- 
tion was conducted by Mr. Perceval, afterwards 
prime minister, then attorney general, and Mr. 
Abbott, afterwards T^rd Tenterden. His address 
to the jury on the occasion was declared by Lord 
EUenborough, the presiding judge, to be "the 
most eloquent oration he ever had heard in West- 
minster Hall." A translation of this speech 
was made by Madame de Stael, and circulated 
throughout £urt)pe. No less a personage than 
I/)uis Philippe, due d'Orlcans, afterwards king of 
the French, had partly translated his ' Y indicia 
Gallicae,' and a speech subsequently delivered by 
him in the cause of Poland received the same 
honour from the patriotic princess Jablonowska. 

A short time thereafter he was appointed re- 
corder, or criminal judge of Bombay, when he 
was knighted, December 21, 1803. He arrived 
at Bombay 26th May, 1804, and on the institu- 
tion, in that year, of a court of vice- admiralty 
there, for the trial and adjudication of all prize 
and maritime cases, he was appointed judge of 
that couit. He remained in India for seven 
years, distinguishing himself by his fearlessness in 

the discharge of his official duties, and his exer- 
tions in the amelioration of the criminal law. He 
founded the Literary Society of Bombay, and con- 
tributed various valuable communications to the 
Asiatic Register, lie left Bombay in November 
1811, retiring from the recordership with a pen- 
sion of i^ 1,200 from the East India Compan}-. 
Previous to his departure the grand jury present- 
ed a complimentary address, requesting that he 
would sit for his portrait, to be hung in the hall 
of the court. The Literary Society of Bombay 
elected biro, on his diiwirture, their honorary 
president, and requested him to sit for a bust to 
be placed in their library ; and with both requests 
he complied. 

On his arrival in England, he received a com- 
munication from Mr. Perceval, then first lord of 
the Treasuiy, offering him a scat in parliament, 
but he declined it, as he could not agree with 
government on the subject of the Roman Catholic 
disabilities, being in favour of their removal. His 
answer, dated May 11, 1812, was ready to be sent 
the very day that Perceval was shot by Belling- 
ham in the lobby of the House of Commons. 
Lord Livei-pool, wlio succeeded Perceval, offered 
him the office of a commissioner for India, but 
that also he declined. lie was elected M.P. for 
the county of Nairn in July 1813. The following 
year, on the restoration of the Bourbons, he again 
visited Paris, and on his return, while the impres- 
sions which the aspect of affairs in the French 
capital had created were still fresh in his memory, 
he communicated to the Edinburgh Review (vol. 
xxiv. p. 505) some Reflections on the subject. 

In 1818, he became, by appointment of the 
court of Directors, professor of law and general 
politics in the East India Company^s college at 
Haileybury. The same year, on the death of 
Dr. Thomas Brown, he was offered the professor- 
ship of moral philosophy in the university of Ed- 
inburgh, but declined it, a determination which 
he afterwards greatly regretted, as lie had always 
been desirous of an academic career. 

Through the influence of the duke of Devon- 
shire, he was elected for Knaresborongh, in the 
parliament which met in January 1819, and was 
rechoscn for that place at four subsequent elec- 
tions. He took a prominent part on all questions 





MACKNIGHT, Jamks, D.D., a learned bibli- 
cal critic, the son of the Rev. William Macknight, 
minister of Irvine in Ayrshire, was bom Septem- 
ber 17, 1721. He received his academical educa- 
tion at the nniversity of Glasgow, and afterwards 
stndied theology at Leyden. On his retnrn to 
Scotland he was licensed to preach by the pres- 
bytery of Irvine, and after officiating for some 
time at the Gorbals, in Glasgow, he acted as 
assistant at Kilwinning. In May 1753 he was 
ordained minister of Maybole in his native coun- 
ty. In 1756 he published a * Harmony of the 
Grospels,' which met with such a favourable recep- 
tion, that he was induced in 1763 to bring out a 
second edition, with considerable improvements 
and additions. The same year he produced his 
* Truth of the Gospel History,' which still farther 
advanced his reputation as a theologian. From 
the university of Edinburgh he received the de- 
gree of D.D., and he was in 1769 chosen modera- 
tor of the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland. During the same year he was trans- 
lated to the parocliial charge of Jedburgh, and in 
1772 he became minister, first of Lady Tester's, 
Edinburgh, and in 1778 of the Old Church in that 
city, where he had for his colleague Dr. Henry 
the historisn. For upwards of thirty years he 
was engaged in the preparation of his last and 
most important work, * The New Literal Transla- 
tion from the Greek of all the Apostolical Epis- 
tles, with Commentaries and Notes,' which was 
published in 1795, in 4 vols, quarto. He died 
Januarv 18. 1800. — His works are: 

Hnrmonj of the Foar Gospela. in which the natural order 
of each is prewrred ; with a Paraphrase and Kotea. Lrnid. 
1756. 3 ToI<(. in one, 4to. 3d etiit.; with six DiMoaraes on 
.Tewish Antiquities. Lond. 1763. 4to. 3d. edit. Edin. 
1804, 3 vols. (tro. This has long been regarded as a standard 
k«ok among Dix-ines. It was translated into Latin, bj Pro- 
fessw Rockersfelder. and poUisbed at Bremen and Derenter. 
1773, 3 vols. 8to. 

The Tknth of the Gospel Historr shewn, in three books^ 
I^ondon, 1763, 4to. 

The Traralation of the First and Second Epistles to the 
Thes^alonians: with a Commentair and Notes. London. 

1787. 4lo 

A new literal Translation, frrm the original Greek, of all 
the .\postoUc Epistles ; with a Comroentan- and Koles, Phi- 
K>k^<^K Critacad, Explanatorr, and Practical. To which is 
adde^l. A Htstorr of the Life of the Apnstle Paul. Edin., 
ir.Vi, 4 TobL 4to. 3d edit.: with the Greek Text, and an 
actvunt rf the life of the Author. 1807, 6 vols. 8ra Abo 
without the Greek Text. 3 vobu Ato. and 4 rob. dro. Thb 

is a work of theological diligencSf learning and pietj not 
often paralleled. 

BTacij^CHLAK, the surname of a clan of ireat antiquity in 
Ar)(]rle!(hire; badge, the mountain ash. Thej possessed the 
barony of Strethlachlan in Gowal. and other extensiTe pos- 
sessions in the parishes of Glassrie and Kilmartin, and on 
Loch Awe side, which were separated from the main teat of 
the family bj the arm of the sea called Loch Fjme. 

Hie clan lisehlan (in Gnelio l^chninn) was one of those 
great Argyleshira clans, which, during the existence of the 
Celtic kingdom of Argyle and the Isles, formed bj S<nnerled 
in the Tith centurr. compo^ a bodj of powerful tribes under 
his swsT, and af>er the forfeitura of the last Liml of Uie Isles, 
occupied an independent pontion. They were one of those 
Gaelic tribes who adopted the oared galley for their special 
device, as indicative of their connexion, either by rendenoe or 
descent, with the Isles. An ancestor of the family, Lachlan 
Mor. who lived in the 13th century, is described in the Gaelic 
MS. of 1467. (the date 1450 usually ascribed to it having been 
found to be wrong,) as ** son of Pstrick, son of Gilchrist, son of 
Aids Alain, called the clnmt^, son of Henrv or Anradan, firom 
whom are descended also the clan Niell.** From the genealogy 
of the clan Lachlan being given with much greater minute- 
ness than that of any other of the clans, the author of the MS. 
is supposed to have been a Msclschlan, and it seems probable 
that it once fitrmed a part of the well known collection of 
ancient MS8., so long preserved bv the familv of Madadilan 
of Kilbride (see CoUecUmea de Rebus AlbtaudM, page 60). 
and eventuallv purchased bvthe Highland Sodetj of Scotland. 

Bv tradition the Maclaclilans are said to have come from 
Ireland, tlieir original stock being the O'lxNigiilins of Meatb. 

According to the Irish genealogies, the clan Ladilan, the 
Lamonds. and the M*Ewens of Otter, were kindred tribes, 
being descended from brothers who were sons of Aids AUun 
above referred to, and tradition relates that they tock p o asM 
Mon of the greater part of the district of Gowal, from Toward 
Point to Strachur at the same time; the Laimrnds being se- 
psrated from the M*Ewens by the river of Kilfinan, and the 
M'Ewens from tlie Madachlans by the stream which sqMrates 
the parislies of Kilfinan and Strath Lachlan. Aida Alain, the 
common ancestor of these fiimilies. b stated in andent Irish 
genealogies to have been the grandson of Hugh Atlaman, the 
head of the great family of 0*Neils, kings of Ireland. 

About 1330, Gilchrist Madachlnn, who b mentioned in the 
manuscript of 1467 as chief of the family of M selachian at the 
time, b a witness to a charter <^ Kilfinan granted by I jmnianiiB, 
ancestor of the Lamonds. (see CharUJanf ofPaidejf.') 

In 1293, Gilleskel Madachlan got a charter of bb knds in 
ErKsdb from BaBoL (See Tktmmms SeoO. Act$^ voL i p. 91.) 

In a document preserved in the treMicniy of ber Majesty's 
Exchequer, entitled ** Les petitions de tcrre dimiandees en 
Kscoce," there b the following entry. ** Item GiUescop Msc- 
loghlan ad demands la Baronie de Molbryde juvene. apelle 
Strath, que fn prb contre le foi de BoL** From thb it appears 
that Gillespie M selachian was in possession of the lands still 
letained by the familv. during the occupation of Scotland by 
Edward L in 1396. (See Sir Fnmeu PalgrmeM SeoUitk 
Hoopments, voL l p. 319.) 

In 1308, Gillespie Madachlan sst in the first parliament of 
Robert the Brace at St Andrews, and hb signature and seal 
tag are attached to the roll oi that pariiament. (See Tkom' 
foms Sex4L Act*. vt.|. I p. 99.) 

In 1314. Archibald Madachlan in Ergadia. granted toth* 
Preaching Friara of Glaagow fottj »biUbigs to be pttdjsarl^ 





1 1 

29th March 1822, aged 47. A Memoir of his 
life and some of his Graelic pieces are inserted in 
Mackenzie's Beauties of Gaelic Poetry (Glasgow, 

MACLAURnr, the surname of « ckn, oommonlj spelled 
MacUren (badgef the Uorel,) said to have been derived from 
the district of Lorn in Ai^grleshire, the Gaelic orthographj of 
which is Labbrin, pronounced Lanrin, hence the Madaurins 
are called the dann Labhrm. That district took its name 
from Lorn, one of the three sons of £rc, who, in 603, arrived in 
Ar|i;yle8hire from Ireland, and founded there the Scoto-Irish 
kingdom of Dalriada, a word borne by the Madaurins as a 
motto above their coat of arms. 

From Argyleshire the tribe of Laurin moved into Perth- 
shire, having, it is said, acqmred from Kenneth Macalpin, 
after his conquest of the Picts in the 9th century, the dis- 
tricts oi Balquhidder and Stratheam, and three brothers are 
mentioned as having got assigned to them in that temtoiy 
the lands of Bruach, Auchleskin, and Stank. In the church- 
yard of Balquhidder, cdebrated as containing the grave of 
Kob Boj, the burial places of their different families are 
marked off separatdj, so as to correspond with the ntuation 
which these estates bear to each other, a drcumstance which 
so fur favours the tradition regarding them. 

Among the followers of Malise, earl of Stratheam, at the 
battle of the Standard in 1138, were a tribe called '* Laver- 
nani," supposed bj Lord Hailes to have been the dan Lau- 
rin. Of Uioee Scottish barons who swore fealtj to Ed- 
ward I. in 1296, were Maurice of Tiree, an island in the 
county of Argyle which formerly belonged to the Madaurins, 
Conan of Balquhidder, and Laurin of Ardveche in Strath- 
eam, all of the dan Laurin. When the earldom of Strath- 
eam became vested in the crown in 1370, the Madaurins 
were reduced from the condition of proprietors to that of 
**kyndly" or perpetual tenants, which they continued to be 
till 1508, when it was deemed expedient that this Celtic 
holding should be changed, and the lands set in feu, ** for in- 
crease of polide and augmentation of the king's rental" The 
Madaurins were among the loyal dans that fought for James 
III. at Sauchiebum in 1488. They were also at Flodden 
and at Pinkie. In the well-known rolls of the dans pos- 
sessing chiefr, dated in 1687 and 1594, "the dan Lauren" 
are mentioned. 

A sanguinary encounter once took place between the Mac- 
laurins of Auchleskin and the Buchanans of Leny, arising 
out of the following drcumstance : At the fair of St Kessaig 
held at Kilmahog, in the parish of Callander, one of the Bu- 
chanans strode a Madanrin of weak intdlect, on the cheek, 
with a salmon which he was carrying, and knocked off his 
bonnet The latter said he would not dare to repeat the 
blow at next St George's fair at Balquhidder. To that fair 
the Buchanans went in a strong body, and on their appear- 
ance the half witted Madanrin, who had received the insult, 
for the first time told what had occurred at the fair at Kil- 
mahog. The waming cross was immediately sent through 
the dan, and every man able to bear arms hastened to the 
muster. In their impatience the Madaurins began the bat- 
tle, before all their force had collected, and were driven from 
the field, but one of them, seeing his son cut down, turned 
furiously upon the Buchanans, shouting the war-cry of his 
tribe, (** Craig Tnire," the rock of the boar,) and his dans- 
men rallying, became fired with the miri-cath^ or madness of 
battle, and mshed after him, fighting desperately. The Bu- 
chanans were skin in gi«at numbers, and driven over a 

small cascade of the Bahraig stream, which retains the 
name of LMoiMm-iSMcacAan, " the cascade of the dead bo- 
dies." Two only escaped from the fidd, one of whom was 
slain at Gartnafoaran, and the other fdl at the point which, 
from him, was ever afterwards known as Sron Lamk. Tra- 
dition variously fixes this clan battle in the reign of one of 
the Alexanders, that is, between 1106 and 1286, and in the 
16th centurv. 

About 1497, some of the dan Laurin having carried off the 
cattie torn the Braes of Lochaber, the Maodonalds followed 
the spoilers, and, overtaking them in Glenuchy, after a sharp 
fight, recovered the " lifting." The Madaurins straightway 
sought the assistance of their kinsman, Dugal Stewart of 
Appin, who at once joined them with his followers, and a 
conflict took place, when both Dugal and Maodonald of Kep- 
poch, the chiefs of their respective dans, were among the 
slain. This Dugal was the first of the Stewarts of Appin. 
He was an illegitimate son of John Stewart, third lord ot 
Ix>m, by a lady of the dan Laurin, and in 1469 when he at- 
tempted, by force of arms, to obtain possession of his father's 
lands, be was assisted by the Madaurins, ISO of whom fell 
in a battle that took place at the foot of Bendoran, a moun- 
tain in Glenurchy. 

The dan Laurin were the strongest sept in Balquhidder, 
which was called " the country of the Madaurins." Although 
there are few families of the name there now, so numerous 
were they at one period that none dared enter the church, 
until the Madaurins had taken their seats. This invidious 
right claimed by them often led to unseemly brawls and 
fights at the church door, and lives were sometimes lost in 
consequence. In 1532, Sir John Madanrin, vicar of Bal- 
quhidder, was killed in one of these quarrels, and several of 
his kinsmen, implicated in the deed, were outlawed. 

A deadly feud existed between the Madaurins and their 
neighbours, the Macgregors of Rob Roy's tribe. In the 16th 
century, the latter slaughtered no fewer than eighteen honse- 
holdeni of the Madanrin name, with the whole of their fami- 
lies, and took possession of the farms which had bdonged to 
them. The deed was not investigated till 1604, forty-six 
years afterwards, when it was thus described in their trial 
for the slaughter of the Colquhouns: "And sidyk, John 
M^Coull cheire, ffor airt and pairt of the crewall murthour 
and buming of auchtene houshalders of the clan Lawren. 
thair wy ves and baims, committit fourtie sax seir syne, or 
thairby." The verdict was that he was " dene, innocent, 
and acquit of the said crymes." The hill farm of Inveraen^, 
on " The Braes of Balquhidder,** was one of the farms thus 
forcibly occupied by the Macgregors, although the property of 
a Madanrin family, and in the days of Bob Roy, two centu- 
ries afterwards, the aid of Stewart of Appin was called in to 
replace the Madaurins in their own, wbidi he did at the head 
of 200 of his men. All these farms, however, are now the 
property of the chief of dan Gregor, having been purchased 
about 1798, from the oommisnoners of the forfdted estates. 

The Madaurins were out in the rebdlion of 1745. Ac- 
cording to President Forbes, they were fbllowen of the Hur- 
rays of Athol, but although some of them might have been 
so, the majority of the dan fought for the Pretender with the 
Stewarts of Appin under Stewart of ArdsheiL Among them 
was Madanrin of Invementy, who was taken priscmer after 
the battle of Culloden, but made bis escape in a very singu- 
Ur marmer from the soldiers who were conducting him to 
Carlisle. The incident has been introduced hy Sir Walter 
Soott into ' Bedgauntiet,* where '' Pate-in-Peril" ia the h«ro of 
it On the way to England the party had reached the well- 
known ** Devil's Beef Stand," otherwise called "* Johnstone^s 

1 1 

■ I 




A complete System of Fluxions : with thmr application to 
tlie most considerable Prohlems in Geometry and Matoral 
Philosophy. Edin. 1742, 2 voU». 4to. 

Account of Sir Isaac Newton*s Philoeophical DiscoverieSf 
published from his MS. papers ; with an Account of the Life 
and Writings of the Author, by Pat. Blurdoch. London, 
1748, 4to. 

Treatise of Algebra, in three Parts. To which is added, 
An Appendix concerning the General Properties of Geometri- 
cal Lines. Lond., 1748, 8vo. 1766, 8vo. 

On the Construction and Measure of Curves; by which 
many infinite series of Curves are either Measured or reduced 
to Simple Curves. PhiL Trans. Abr. vi. 356. 1718. 

A New Universal Method of describing all kinds of Curves, 
Dy means of Right lines and Angles only. lb. 392. 1719. 

Concerning Equations with impossible Roots. lb. Abr. vii. 
145. 1726. 

On the Description of Curve IJnes. lb. viii. 41. 1785. 

Rule for finding the Meridional Parts to any Spheroid, with 
the same exactness as in a Sphere, lb. 516. 1741. 

Of the Bans of the Cells where the Bees deposit their 
Honey. lb. 709. 1743. 

Cause of the Variation of the Obliqtuty of the Ecliptic. 
Ess. Phvs. and Lit. i. 174. 1754. 

Concerning the sudden and surprising Changes observed on 
the Surface of Jupiter's Body. lb. 184. 

MACLAURIN, John, Lord Dreghorn, an 
able lawyer, son of the preceding, was bom at 
Edinburgh, December 15, 1734, old style. He 
received the mdiments of his education at the 
High school, and subsequently went through the 
usual academical course at the university of that 
city. On 8d August 1756 be was admitted a 
member of the faculty of advocates at Edinburgh, 
and after practising at the bar for many years 
with much reputation, he was, on 17th January 
1788, raised to the bench, when he took the*titlo 
of Lord Dreghorn. He died December 24, 1796. 
^ A Dissertation to prove that Troy was not taken 
by the Greeks,' read by him before the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh, of which he was one of the 
original members, was inserted in the Transac- 
tions of that Society in 1788. He kept a journal 
of the various important events that happened in 
Europe from 1792 to 1785, from which, sboitly 
before his death, he made a selection, with the 
view of publication. His works, in a collected 
form, were published at Edinburgh in 2 vols, in 
1798. At a very early period, as we learn from 
the Life prefixed, he displayed a natural turn for 
poetical composition, and among his school- fellows 
was distinguished by the name of ^ the poet.* His 
poems, however, do not rank very high. Most of 
them were thrown off from a private printing 

press of his own for circulation among his friends ' 
He was the author of the following works : 

Observations on some Pomts of Law ; with a System of 
the Jndidal Iaw of Moses. Edin. 1759, 12nio. 

Connderations on the Nature and Origin of litenuy Plro- 
perty. Edin. 1767, 8vo. 

Information for Mango Campbell, late Officer of Ezom at 
Saltcoats, in a Criminal Prosecution before the Hi^ Coiort of 
Jastidary in Scotland, for the alleged Murder of the late 
Alexander Earl of Eglinton. London, 1770, 8vo. 

Arguments and Decisions in Remarkable Cases before tlw 
High Court of Justidary, and other Supreme Courts in Scot- 
land. Edin. 1774, 4to. 

A Dissertation to prove that Troy was not taken by the 
Greeks. Trans. Edin. Soc. i. 43. 1788. 

Works. Edin. 1798, 2 vols. 8vo. 

He also wrote three dramas of no great merit, entitled 
'Hampden,' 'The Pulilic,* and 'The PhilosopherV Opera.** 
Several of his pieces will be found in Donaldson's CoUectioii, 
printed at Edinburgh in 1760. 

Macleah, the name of a dan (badge, blackberry heath) 
of supposed Irish descent, founded by one of the Fltisgerald 
family, as the clan Kenzio is said to have been by another. 
The Macleans are not mentioned among the native tribes in 
the Gaelic MS. of 1450, and the Norman or Italian origin of 
their chiefs is therefore the more probable, the Fitxgeralds 
having sprung from the Florentine Geraldi, one of whom 
came over with William the Conqueror. Their progenitor, 
according to Celtic tradition, was one Gillean or Gille-oin, a 
name signifying the young man, or the servant or foUower of 
John, who lived so early as the beginning of the 6th century. 
He was called Gillean-^ni-Tuiodh^ that is, Gillean with the 
axe, from the dexterous manner in which he wielded that 
weapon in battle, and his descendants bear a battle-axe in 
their crest, between a Inurel and a cypress branch. Macal- 
lans, the GhcHc pronunciation of the UHme, may mean the 
great stranger, from moffmu, great, and o^ieiMW, a fordgner. 
(See vol. ii., p. 707, art Mac.) 

The Macleans have been lix^ated in Mull dnoe the 14tb 
century. They appear originally to have belonged to Moray. 
Mr. Skene says: " The two oldest genealogies of the Madeana, 
of which one is the production of the Beatons, who were here- 
ditary sennachies of the family, concur in deriving the dan 
Gille-eon from the same race from whom the clans bdongihg 
to the great Moray tribe are brought by the MS. of 1450. OiP 
this dan the oldest seat seems to have been the district of Lorn, 
as thpy first appear in subjection to the lords of Lorn ; and thdr 
situation being thus between the Cnmerons and Mnonachtans, 
who were undisputed branches of the Moray tribe, there can 
be little doubt that the Macleans belonged to that tribe ahm. 
As their oldest seat was thus in Arg^Ie, while they are un- 
questionably a part of the tribe of Moray, we may infer that 
they were one of those dans transplanted from North Moray 
by Malcolm IV., and it is not unlikely that Glen Urquhart waa 
their original reddenoe, aa that district is said to have been in 
the possession of the Macleans when the Biasets came in.** 

The first of the name on record, Gillean, lived in the reign 
of Alexander III. (1249—1286), and fought against the 
Norsemen at the battle of Largs. In the Ragman Roll we 
find Gilliemore Madlean described as del Counte de Perth, 
among those who swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296. Aa 
the county of Perth at that period induded Lorn, it is proba- 
ble that he was the son of Gillean and ancestor of the Mao- 
leani. In the rugn of Robert the Bmce mention ia made of 

. r^J /- 






in thtt year a feud of a most implacable character broke ottt 
between the Macleans and the Campbells, arising out of an 
oocnrrenoe, irhich forms the sabject of Miss Baillie's cele- 
brated tragedy of * The Family Legend,' and is thus related 
by Mr. Gregory : ** I^inchlan Cattanach Maclean of Dowart 
married Lady Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of Archibald, 
second earl of Argyle ; and, either from the drcamstanoe of 
their union being unfruitful, or more probably owing to some 
domestic quarrels, he determined to get rid of his wife. 
Some accounts say that she had twice attempted her hus- 
band's life ; but, whatever the cause may have been, Mac- 
lean, following the advice of two of his vassals, who exercised 
a considerable influence over him from the tie of fosterage, 
caused his lady to be exposed on a rock, which was only vis- 
ible at low water, intending that she should be swept away 
by the return of the tide. This rock Hm between the island 
of IJsmore and the coast of Mull, and is still known by the 
name of the * Lady's Rock.' From this perilous situation 
she was rescued by a boat accidentally passing, and conveyed 
to her brother's house. Her relations, although much exas- 
perated against Maclean, smothered their resentment for a 
time, but only to break out afterwards with greater violence ; 
for the laird of Dowart, being in Edinburgh, was surprised, 
when in bed, and assas^nated by Sir John Campbell of Cal- 
der, the lady's brother. The Macleans instantly took arms, 
to revenge Uie death of their chief, and the Campbells were 
not slow in preparing to follow up the fend ; but the gov- 
ernment interfered, and, for the present, an appeal to arms 
was avoided." {Gregorys Hiffhlands and liU»^ pp. 127, 
128.) In 1529, however, the Madeans joined the Clandonald 
of iHia against the earl of Ai^Ie, and ravaged with fire and 
sword the lands of Roseneath, Craignish, and others belong- 
ing to the Campbells, killing many of the inhabitants. The 
Campbells, on their part, retaliated by laying waste great 
portion of the isles of Mnll and Tiree and the lands of Mor- 
vem, belonging to the Madeans. In May 1580, Madean of 
Dowart and Alexander of Isia made their personal submis- 
sion to the sovereign at Stiriing, and, with the other rebel 
island chiefs who followed their example, were pardoned, 
upon giving security for their after obedience. 

In 1545, Maclean of Dowart acted a very prominent part 
in the intrigues with England, in furtherance of the project 
of Hemry VIII., to force the Scottish nation to consent to a 
marriage between Prince Edward and the young Queen Ma* 
ry. He and Maclean of Lochbuy were among the barons of 
the IsIm who accompanied Donald Dubh to Ireland, and at 
the command of the earl of Lennox, daiming to be regent of 
Scotland, swore allegiance to the king of England. One of 
the two plenipotentiaries sent by Donald Dubh to the Eng- 
lish court at this time, was Patrick Madean, brother of 
Dowart, described as justidar of the Isles and bulie of Icolm- 
kill. Of the money sent by the English king to pay the 
islesmen engaged in the expedition against the regent Ar- 
ran, Maclean of Dowart seems to have had the chaige, but 
not making a proper diWsion of it, the insular chiefs sepa- 
rated in discontent, and the expedition came, in consequence, 
to an end. Macvurich, in a note quoted by Mr. Gregory, 
says : " A ship came from England with a supply of money 
to carry on the war, which landed at Mull ; and the money 
was given to Madean of Dowart to be distributed among the 
commanders of the army ; which they not receiving in pro- 
portion as it should have been distributed amongst them, 
caused the army to disperse." 

The dan history subsequently consisted chiefly of fends in 
which the Dowart family were engaged with the CoU branch 
of the Macleans, and the Macdonalds of Kintyre. The dis- 

pute with the former arose from Dowart, who was generally 
recognised as the head of the Clan-lean, insisting <m being 
followed as chief by Maclean of Coll, and the latter, who held 
his lands direct from the crown, dedining to acknowledge 
him as such, on the ground that being a free baron, be owed 
no service but to his sovereign as his feudal superior. In con- 
sequence of this refusal, Dowart, in the year 1561, cawed 
Coil's lands to be ravaged, and his tenants to be imprisoned. 
With some difficulty, and after the lapse of several yean, 
Coll succeeded in bringing his case before the privy ooandl, 
who ordered Dowart to make reparation to him for the ii^iBry 
done to his property and tenants, and likewise to refrain 
from molesting him in future. But on a renewal of the fend 
some years after, the Madeans of Coll were expelled from 
that island by the young laird of Dowart. 

Tlie quarrel between the Macleans and the Macdonalds of 
Isla and Kintyre was, at the outset, merely a dispute as to the 
right of occupancy of the crown lands called the Rhinnt of 
Isla, but it soon involved these tribes in a long and bloody 
feud, and eventually led to the destruction neariy of them 
both. The Madeans, who were in possession, claimed to hold 
the lands in dispute as tenants of the crown, but the privj 
council dedded that Macdonald of Ida was really the crown 
tenant In 1562, the Macdonalds of Isla, assisted by thoee 
of Sleat, invaded the isles of Mull, Tiree, and Coll, and in 
1565 the rival chiefs were compelled to find snratiee, to the 
amount of £10,000, that they would abstain from mntoal 
hostilities. But even this did not restrain a high spirited 
tribe like the Madeans. On the death of James Maedouald 
of Dunyveg, Hector Maclean of Dowsrt ravaged with fire and 
sword the isle of Gigha, being part of the jointure lands of 
Lady Agnes Campbell, Macdonald's widow, and in conse- 
quence Queen Mary, then at the castle of Dunbar, granted, 
on 28th April, 1567, a commission of lieutenandry to theearl of 
Argvle against him and his dan. {AndUda Seoiiea, p. 898.) 

Lachlan Maclean of Dowart, called Lachlan Mor, waa chief 
of the Macleans in 1578. He is sud to have got the name of 
Jfor, from his great stature, but, as we have already shown 
in the artide on Campbell (vol. i. p. 544), this term was 
frequently applied to denote superior rank. Under him the 
feud with the Macdonalds assumed a most sangninaiy and 
relentless character. He is described as a young man of an 
active and energetic spirit, and of superior talents improved 
by a good education, but of a cruel and fierce dispontimi. 
He had succeeded young to the chiefship, and during his 
minority the estates were managed by his kinsman, Hector 
Maclean, whose father, Allan Maclean of Gigha and Torinak, 
brother of the former Maclean of Dowart, is celebrated in 
tradition as a warrior, by the name of AUin tta^n Sop, To 
obtain possession of the estates for himself, Hector designed 
to deprive the young chief of his life, but Lachlan Mor dis- 
covered his purpose, and on attaining his majority, had him 
apprehended, and after imprisoning him for a considerable 
time in the castle of Dowart, he was removed to the isle of 
Coll, and beheaded by Lachlan's order. The following year, 
on a renewal of the fend between the Madeans and the Mac- 
donalds of Ida, the king and conndl commanded the diiefii 
of both tribes to subscribe assurances of indemnity to each 
other, under the penalty of treason. But although Macdon- 
ald of Dnnyveg, at this time, married Madean's nster, hosti- 
lities were only suspended between the dans, to break out no 
long time after, with increased violence. It was in the year 
1585 that this most destructive feud reached its hdght, and 
that under the following drcumstances: 

Macdonald of Sleat, on his way to visit his kinsman, 
Angus Macdonald, was driven by stress of weather to the 




was spared. With two of his followeni who had escaped the 
fate of their companions, he was thrown into a dongeon, and 
not released for a year afterwards, when he and other 
prisoners were exchanged for Maclean*s son, and the other 
hostages in the hands of Angus Maodonald. 

Previous to his liberation, however, with the assistance of 
a hundred Spanish soldiers belonging to the Florida, a ship 
of the Spanish Armada driven bj a storm into the harboor of 
Tobermory in Mull, I^u^lan Mor had ravaged and plunder- 
ed the isles of Rum and Big, occupied by the Clanranald, and 
those of Cauna and Mndc, belonging to the clan Ian. In 
this expedition he is said to have burned the whole inhabi- 
tants of these Isles, sparing neither age nor sex. On the 
mainland he besieged for three days &Iac Ian*s castle of Min- 
g^rry in Ardnamurchan. The Macdonalds, on their side, as- 
sisted by a band of English mercenaries, wasted the lands of 
the Macleans with fire and sword. 

The mutual ravages committed by the hostile clans, in 
which the kindred and vassal tribes on both sides were in- 
volved, and the effects of which were felt throughout the 
whole of the Hebrides, attracted, in 1589, the serious atten- 
tion of the king and coundl, and fur the purpose of putting 
an end to them, the rival chiefs, with Macdonald of Sleat, on 
receiving remissions, under the privy seal, for all the crimes 
committed by them, were induced to proceed to Edinburgh. 
On their arrival, they were committed prisoners to the castle, 
and, after some time, Maclean and Angus Macdonald were 
brought to trial, in spite of the remissions granted to tliem ; 
one of the principal charges against them being their trea- 
sonable hiring of Spanish and English soldiers to fight in 
their private quarrels. Both chiefs submitted themselves to 
the king*s mercy, and placed their lives and lands at his dis- 
posal. On payment each of a small fine they were allowed 
to return to the Isles, Macdonald of Sleat being released at 
the same time. Besides certain conditions being imposed 
upon them, they were taken bound to return to their con- 
finement id the castle of Edinburgh, whenever they should 
be summoned, on twenty days* warning. Not fulfilling the 
conditions, they were, on 14 th July 1593, cited to appear be- 
fore the privy council, and as they disobeyed the summons, 
both I^chhin Mor and Angus Maodonald were, in 1594, for- 
feited by parliament 

At the battle of Glenlivat, in that year, fought between 
the Catholic earls of Huntly, Angus, and Enrol, on the one 
side, and the king^s forces, under the earl of Argyle, on the 
other, Lachlan Mor, ut the head of the Macleans, particularly 
distinguished himself. Argyle lost the battle, but, says Mr. 
Gregory, (Highlands and hle» of Scotland^ p. 259,) ** the 
conduct of Lachlan Maclean of Dow art, who was one of Ar- 
gyle*s officers, in this action, would, it imitated by the other 
leaders, have converted the defeat into a victory. That chief 
acted the part of a brave and skilful soldier, keeping his men 
in their ranks, and employing, with good effect, all the ad- 
vantages of his position. It was his division which inflicted 
the principal loss on the rebels, and, at the close of the ac- 
tion, he retired in good order with those under his command. 
It is said that, after the battle, he offered, if Argyle would 
give him five hundred men in addition to his own clan, to 
bring the eari of Huntly prisoner into Argyle*s camp. This 
proposal was rejected, but having come to the ears of Huntly, 
incensed him greatly against Maclean, whose son afterwards, 
according to tradition, lost a large estate in Lochaber, through 
the animosity of that powerful nobleman.** 

In 1596 Lachlan Mor repaired to court, and on making his 
lahmisnon to the king, the act of forfeiture was removed. 
He also received from the crown a lease of the Rhinns of 

Isla, so long in dispute between him and Maodonald of Duny- 
veg. While thus at the head of favour, however, his unjust 
and oppresuve conduct to the family of the Macleans of Coll, 
whose castle and bland he had seized some years before, on 
the death of Hector Maclean, proprietor thereof, was brought 
before the privy council by Lachlan Maclean, then of Coll, 
Hector*s son, and the same year he was ordered to deliver up 
not only the castle of Coll, but all his own castles and strong- 
holds, to the lieutenant of the Isles, on twenty-four houxB* 
warning, aUw, to restore to Coll, within thirty days, all the 
lands of which he had deprived him, under a penalty of 
10,000 merks. In 1598, Lachlan Mor, with the view of ex- 
pelling the Macdonalds from Isla, levied his vassals and pro- 
ceeded to that island, and after an ineffectual attempt at an 
adjustment of their differences, was encountered, on 5th Au- 
gust, at tlie head of Lochgruinard, by Sir James Macdonald, 
son of Angus, at the h^d of his clan, when the Macleans 
were defeated, and their chief killed, with 80 of his principal 
men and 200 common soldiers. Lachlan Barroch Maclean, a 
son of Sir Lachlan, was dangerously wounded, but escaped. 
Sir I^u^lan, according to Sir Robert Gordon, had consulted 
a witch before he undertook this journey into Isla ; she ad- 
nsed him, in the first place, not to land upon the island on 
a Thursday ; secondly, that he should not drink of the water 
of a well near Gruinard ; and lastly, she told him that one 
Maclean should be slain at Gruinard. ** The first he trans- 
gressed unwillingly,*' says Sir Robert, " being driven into the 
island of Isla by a tempest upon a Thursday ; the second he 
tranHgrcssed negligentlie, haveing drank of that water before 
he wes awair ; and so he was killed ther at Groinard, as wes 
foretold him, hot doubtfnllie. Tims endeth all these that 
doe trust in such kynd of responces, or doe hunt after them.** 
{Hist p. 238.) 

Hector Maclean, the son and successor of Sir Lachlan, at 
the head of a numerous force, iifterwards invaded Isla, and 
attacked and defeated the Maolonalds at a place called Bern 
Bige, and then ravaged the whole island. He was one of 
the principal chiefe of the Isles seized by I^rd Ochiltree, the 
king's lieutenant, on his expedition to the Isles in 1608, and 
carried to Edinburgh. The following year he and Maodo- 
nald of Dunyveg were selected to accompany the king's com- 
missioner on his survev of the Isles. With two of his bro- 
there, and Hector Maclean of I^ochbuy, and almost all the 
principal islesmen, he was present at lona when the cele- 
brated ^'Statutes of Icolmkill" were enacted. He was also 
one of the six principal islandere who met at Edinburgh on 
28th June 1610, to hear his majesty's pleasure declared to 
them, when they were compelled to give sureties to a large 
amount for their reappearance before the council in May 
IGll. In the conditions imposed upon the chiefs for the pa- 
cification of the Isles in 1616, we find that Bfadean of Dow- 
art was not to use in his house more than four tun of wine, 
and Coll and Lochbuy one tun each. At this time Maclean 
of Dowart and his brother Lachlan, having delayed to find 
the sureties required of them, were committed to ward in ^ 
Edinburgh castle, whence the former was soon liberated, and 
allowed to live vrith Achc^n of Gosfurd, his father-in-law, 
under his own recognisance of £40,000, and his father-in- 
law's for 5,000 merks, that he should remain there until per- 
mitted by the coundl to return to the Isles. Dowart's bro- 
ther was not liberated till the folk)wing year. 

Sir lachlan Maclean of Morvem, a younger brother of 
Hector Maclean of Dowart, was in 1631 created a baronet of 
Nova Scotia by Charles I., and on the death of his elder bro- 
ther he succeeded to the estate of Dowart In the dvil wan 
the Macleans took amis under Montrose, and fought valiantly 




CapL Hoodf RN., and another, Lonisa, became the wife of 
Hod. Ralph Pelham Meville, son of the earl oC AbeipiTenDj. 

The first of the Lochbar branch of the Macleans was Heo- 
tor Reganach, brother of Lachlan Lubanicb abore mentioned. 
He had a aon named John, or Mnrohard, whose great-grand- 
son, John Oig Maclean of IxMshbaj, received from King 
James IV., sereral charters of oonfinnation nnder the great 
seal, of the lands and baronies which had been held bj his 
progenitors. He was killed, with his two elder sons, hi a 
familj fend with the Macleans of Oowart His only surriv- 
ing son, Murdoch, was obliged, in oonseqnence of the same 
fend, to retire to Ireland, where he remained for several 
years, and married a daughter of the earl of Antrim. By the 
mediation of his father-in-law, his differences with Dowart 
were satisfactorily adjusted, and he retomed to the isles, 
where he spent his latter years in peace. His son, John 
Moir Maclean of Lochbuy, was so expert a fencer that, ac- 
cording to a history of the family, he fought on a stage in 
EcUnburgh before the king and court, and killed a famous 
Italian swordsman, who had challenged all Scotland. By his 
wife, a daughter of Macdonald of the Isles, he had two sons. 
Hector, who succeeded him, and Charles, progenitor of the 
Macleans of Tapull. From the latter family descended Sir 
Alexander Maclean of Ottar, mentioned in the preceding 
page, who sttMched himself to the interests of James VII. 
He accompanied the fallen monarch to France, and rose to 
the rank of colonel in the French service. 

The house of Lochbuy has always maintained that of the 
two brothers, Lachlan Lubanich and Hector Reganaoh, the 
latter was the senior, and that, consequently, the chiefship of 
the Macleans is vested in its head ; ** but this,** says Mr. 
Gr^ry, " is a point on which there is no certain evidence." 
The whole clan, at different periods, have followed the head 
of both families to the field, and fought xmder their command. 
Of this house was Hector Maclean, elected bishop of Argyle 
in 1680. He had in his younger years taken arms for the 
king in the civil wars, but being of a religious dispoation he 
ultimately entered the church. The Lochbuy fsmily now 
spells its name Maclaine. 

The Coll branch of the Macleans, like that of Dowart, de- 
scended from Lachlan Lubanicb, said to have been grand- 
father of the fourth laird of Dowart and the first laird of 
Coll, who were brothers. John Madean, sumamed Garbh, 
son of Iju:hlan of Dowart, obtained the isle of Coll and the 
lands of Quinish in Mull from Alexander, eari of Ross and 
lord of the Isles, and afterwards, on the forfeitnre of Cameron, 
the lands of Lochiel. The latter grant engendered, as we 
have seen, a deadly feud between the Camerons and the 
Macleans, which led to much contention and bloodshed be- 
tween them. At one time the son and successor of John 
Garbh occupied Lochiel by force, but was killed in a conflict 
with the Camerons at Corpach, in the reign of James III. 
His infant son would also have been put to death, had the 
boy not been saved by the Macgillonies or Maclonichs, a tribe 
of Loohaber that generally followed the clan Cameron. This 
youth, subsequently known as John Abrach Maclean of Coll, 
was the representative of the family in 1498, and from hhn 
was adopted by his successors the patronymic appellation of 
Maclean Abradi, by which the lairds of Coll were ever after 

The tradition concerning this heir of Coll is thus related 
by Dr. Johnson, in his Tour to the Hebrides : ** Very near 
the house of Madean stands the castie of Coll, which was the 
manrion of the laird till tha house was bnUt On the wall 

was, not long ago, a stone with an inscription, importing, 
* That if any man of the dan of Madooksh shall appear 
before this castie, though he come at midnight with a bud's 
head in his hand, he shall there find saliBty and protaetioii 
against all but the king.* This is an old Highland treaty 
made upon a memorable occasioo. Madean, the son of 
John Garbh, who recovered CoU, and oonqoered Barra, had 
obtained, it is said, from James XL, a grant of the lands of 
Lochiel, forfeited, I suppose, by some offence against the 
state. Forfeited estates were not in those days qoietiy re- 
signed: Madean, therefore, went with an armed force to 
seise his new possessions, and, I know not for whatreaaon, 
tock his wife with him. The Camerons rose in defence of 
then* chief, and a battie was fVmght at the bead <^ Lochnesa, 
near the place where Fort Augustus now stands, in whieb 
Lochiel obtained the victory, and Madean, with his follow- 
ers, was defeated and destroyed. The lady fell into the banda 
of the conquerors, and being found pregnant, was placed hi 
the custody of Maclonich, one of a tribe or family branched I i 
from Cameron, with orders, if she brought a boy, to destroj 
him, if a girl, to spare her. Madonioh's wife, who was witk 
child likewise, had a girl about the same time at which Lady 
Madean brought a ooy ; and Madonich, with more genero- 
sity to his captive than fidelity to his trust, contrived that 
the children should be changed. Madean being thus pre- 
served from death, in time recovered his original patrimony; 
and in gratitude to his friend, made his castle a place of re- 
fuge to any of the dan that should think himself in danger; 
and, as a proof of redprocal confidence, Madean took upon 
himself and his posterity the care of educating the heir ot 
Maclonich. This story, like all other traditions of the High- 
lands, is variously related ; but, though some dicnmatanoea 
are uncertain, the principal fact is true. Madean undoubt- 
edly owed his preservation to Madonich ; fw the treaty be- 
tween the two families has been strictly observed ; it did not 
mnk into disuse and oblivion, but continued in its full force 
while the chieftains retained their power. The power of pn>- 
tec^on subsists no longer; but what the law permits is yet 
continued, and Madean of Coll now edueates the heir of 

The account of the conversion of the simple islanders of 
Coll from popery to protestantism is curious. The laird had 
imbibed the prindples of the Reformation, but fbund his peo- 
ple rdnctant to abandon the religion of their fathera. To 
compd them to do so, he did not trouble himsdf witli argu- 
ment (Mr reasoning of any sort, but took his station one Son- 
day in the path which led to the Roman Catholic dinroh, 
and as his dansmen approached, he drove them back with 
his cane. They at once made their way to the protestant 
place of worship, and from this persuanve mode of 0Qnv«>- 
sion, his vassals ever after called it the religion of the gold- 
beaded stick. Lachlan, the seventh proprietor of CoU, went 
over to Holland with some of bis own nnen, in the reign of 
Charles II., and obtained the command of a company in 
General Mackay*s regiment, in the service of the prinee of 
Orange. He afterwards returned to Scotland, and was 
drowned hi the water of Lochy in Lochaber in 1887. 

Dr. Johnson seems to have been especially gratified with 
his reception at Coll. " We were at Coll,** he says, " nnder 
the protection of the young laird, and wherever we roved, 
we were pleased to see the reverence with whidi his anbjeots 
regarded him. He did not endeavour to dazzle them by any 
magnificence of dress ; his only distinction waa a feather in 
his bonnet ; but, as soon as he appeared, they forsook thehr 
work had dustered about him ; he took them by the hand, 
and they seemed mntaally delighted. He haa the proper 




ther*8 death, by leading bis clan to battle, the Highlanders 
having a strong aversion to follow a deformed leader. He 
was therefore designed for the ebnrch, and with that view 
was placed with the monks of Beaoliea, to receive the reqni- 
ute ecclesiastical upbringing. On coming of age, and duly 
set apart for his holj woric, he set out upon a tour to the 
west coast, the isle of Skye, and other places adjacent, where 
he built the churches of Rilmuir in Sleat, in the cburchjard 
of which parish the celebrated Flora Macdonald lies buried, 
and Kilchrennan in Glenelg. Disregarding the recent decree 
of Pope Innoo^t III., strictlj enjoining the celibacy of the 
clergy, he mamed, and had sevnral children. One of his 
sons he called GUUe-Fkinnan^ in honour of the renowned St 
Finnan, and as the Fh is here not pronounced in the Gaelic, 
Ghilli-inan became of course Madennan. 

The Maclennans inhabited with the Macraes the district of 
Kintail in Ross-shire, the boundary between them being a 
river which runs into Loch Duich. At the battle of Auld- 
earn in 1645, they were intrusted with the standard of Lord 
Seaforth, and they defended it so gallantly, that great num- 
bers of them were cut down around it. Eighteen of the wi- 
dows of the Maclennans slain on this occasion married their 
neighbours the Macraes. Like the latter, the Maclennans 
were subordinate to the Seaforth branch of the Mackenzies, 
and in the difierent rebellions, fought under the renowned 
** Caber feidh,** or Caberfae, as the Mackrazie*s banner was 
called, from the deerV head in the centre. 
, The old Jacobite ballad of Sherifimuir, to the tune of 

** We ran and they ran," 

was written by a clergyman of this name, the Rev. Murdoch 
Blaclennan of Crathie in Braemar. He became minister of 
that parish in 1749, and died there 22d July 1783, in the 
82d year of his age. An abridged version of it is inwerted in 
Motherwell and Hogg*s edition of the Works of Bums, vol. ii. 
page 164. 

Maclkod, the name of one of the most considerable clans 
of the western isles (badge, the red whortleberry), divided 
into two tribes independent of each other, the Macleods of 
Harris and the Macleods of Lewis. To the progenitors of 
this clan a Norwegian origin has commonly been assigned. 
They are also supposed to be of the same stock as the Camp- 
bells, according to a family history referred to by Mr. Skene, 
which dates no farther back than the early part of the 16th 

The genealogy claimed for them asserts (see Dovglas* Bar- 
onage^ page 375) that the ancestor of the chiefs of the clan, 
and he who gave it its clan name, was I/)yd or Leod, eldest 
son of King Olave the Black, brother of Magnus, the last 
king of Man and the Isles. This Leod is said to have had 
two sons : Tormod, progenitor of the Macleods of Harris, 
hence called the Siol Tormod, or race of Tormod ; and Tor- 
quil, of those of Lewis, called the Siol Torquil, or race of 
Torquil. Although, however, Mr. Skene and others are of 
opinion that there is no authority whatever for such a de- 
scent, and ** The Chronicle of Man" gives no countenance to 
it, we think the probabilities are in its favour, from the man- 
ifestly Norw^an names borne by the founders of the clan, 
namely, Tormod and Torquil, and from their position in the 
isles, from the very commencement of their known history. 
The dan itself, there can be no doubt, are the descendants of 
the andent Gaelic inhabitants of the western ides. 

Tormod, the son of the first Tormod. nded with Bruce, in 
the struggle for Scottish independence, and always remamed 

faithful and loyal to him. His son, Malcolm, g^ a 
charter from David II., of two-thirds of Glenelg, on the 
mainland, a portion of the fbrfdted lands of the Biasets, in 
consideration for which the reddendum was to provide a gal- 
ley of 36 oars, fbr the king*s use whenever xequired. This is 
the eariiest charter in possesdon of the Madeoda. The same 
Mdcolm obtained the lands in Skye which were kmg in pos- 
sesdon of his descendants, by marriage with a danf^ter of 
MacArailt, said co have been one of the Norwegian nobles of 
the Isles. From the name, however, we would be indined to 
take this MacArailt for a Cdt The sennachica sometimes 
made sad dips. 

Madeod of Harris, originally dedgnated **de Glendg," 
that bdng the first and prindpal possesdon of the fiunily, 
seems to have been the proper chief of the dan Leod. The 
island or rather peninsula of Harris, which is adjacent to 
Lewis, belonged, at an early period, to the Macmariea of 
Garmoran and the North Ides, under whom the chief of the 
Siol Tormod appears to have possessed it. From this famflj, 
the superiority of the North Ides passed to the Maodonalds 
of Ida by marriage, and thus Harris came to form a part of 
the lordship of the Isles. In the ide of Skye the Siol Tor- 
mod possessed the districts of Dunvegan, Duirinidi, Brac^ 
dale, Lyndde, Troutemess, and Minganish, being about two- | 
thirds of the whole island. Their prindpal seat was Dunvegan, 
hence the chief was often styled of that place. 

The first charter of the Madeods of Lewis, or Siol Torquil, 
is dso one by King David II. It is historically known that 
in 1369, the year before his death, that monarch proceeded in 
person, at the head of a formidable expedition, against the 
rebellious lord of the Isles, and compelled him and his vassal 
chiefs, at Inverness, to submit to his authority. One of the 
means employed by him on this occasion to effect that pur- 
pose, and to keep the rude northern chiefs to the obedience of 
the laws, was the promise of rewards and the bestowal of 
lands, on some of the prindpal of them. It is even said, 
{Fordun a Goodal^ vol. ii. p. 380,) that he used artifice to 
divide them and induce them to day or capture one another. 
Certdn it is, that it was in this rdgn that the practice of 
bonds of manrent or friendsliip among the chiefs and nobles 
began. The charter referred to contained a royal grant to 
Torquil Madeod of the barony of Assynt, on the north-western 
coast of Sutheriandshire. This barony, however, he is sdd 
to have obtained by marriage with the hdress, whose name 
was Macnicol. It was held from the crown. In that char- 
ter he has no dedgnation, hence it is thought that he had 
then no other proper^. The I^wis Madeods hdd that island 
as vassals of the Maodondds of Isla from 1844, and soon 
came to rival the Harris branch of the Madeods in power and 
extent of territory, and even to dispute the chiefship with 
them. Their armorial bearings, however, were different, the 
family of Harris having a casde, while that of Lewis had % 
burning mount The possesdons of the Siol Torquil were 
very extendve, comprehending the isles of Lewis and Rasay, 
the district of Watemess in Skye, and those of Assynt^ Co- 
geach, and Gerloch, on the mainland. 

To return to the Harris branch. The grandson of the 
above-mentioned Mdcolm, William Madeod, sumamed Aek^ 
krack, or the derk, from bdng in his youth designed for the 
church, was one of the most daring chiefs of his time. To 
avenge an insult which he had received, when young, from 
the Fraaers, he had no sooner succeeded to his patrimony, 
than he ravaged the estate of Lovat in the Aurd. Having 
afterwards incurred the resentment of his superior, the lord 
of the Ides, that powerful chief invaded his territoiy with % 
large force, but was defeated at a place called Loduligachan, 




I . 

Jm univerBtj of Gla^ow ; bat in thu he was foiled bj the 
interpoeitimi of the eari of Argjle. He oontiniied, notwitb- 
standing, to retain possesuon of the estates of the heiress, 
and of the command of the clan, till his death in 1559.** 
The heiress of Harris iras one of Queen Mary's maids of hon- 
onr, and the earl of Argjrle, having ultimately become her 
guardian, she was given bj him in marriage to his kinsman, 
Duncan Campbell, younger of Auchinbreck. Throug)i the 
previous efforts of the e«rl, Tormod Macleod, on receiving a 
legal title to Harris and the other estates, renounced in fa- 
vour of Argyle all his claims to the lands of the Ciandonald, 
and paid 1,000 merks towards the dowry of his niece. He 
also gave his bond of service to Argyle for himself and his 
dan. Mary Macleod, in consequence, made a complete sur- 
render to her uncle of her title to the lands of Harris, Dun- 
vegan, and Glenelg, and Argyle obtained for him a crown 
charter of these estates, dated 4th August, 1579. Tormod 
adhered firmlj to the interests of Queen Mary, and died in 
1584. He was succeeded by his eldest son, William, under 
whom the Harris Madeods assisted the Madeans in their 
feuds with the Macdonalds of Isla and Skye, while the Lewis 
Madeods supported the latter. On his death in 1590, his 
brother, Roderick, the Rory Mor of tradition, became diief of 
the Harris Madeods. In 1595, he went with 500 of his clan 
to Ulster, to assist Bed Hugh 0*Donnell, at that time in re- 
bdlion against the queen of England. In 1601 he had a 
quarrel with Macdonald of Sleat, an account of which, with 
its results, has been already given, (see vol. iL p. 714). 

In December 1597, an act of the Estates had been passed, 
by which it was made imperaUve upon all the chieftains and 
landlords in the Highlands and Isles, to produce their title- 
deeds before the lords of Exchequer on the 15th of the fol- 
lowing May, under the pain of foifeiture. The heads of the 
two branches of the Madeods disregarded the act, and a gift 
of their estates was granted to a number of Fife gentlemen, 
for the purposes of colonization. They first began with the 
Lewis, in which the experiment failed, as afterwards narrat- 
ed. Roderick Macleod, on his part, exerted himself to get 
the forfeiture of his lands of Harris, Dunvegan, and Glenelg, 
removed, and ultimately succeeded, having obtained a remis- 
sion from the king, dated 4th May, 1610. He was knighted 
by King James VI., by whom he was mudi esteemed, and 
had several friendly letters from his majesty ; also, a particu- 
lar license, dated 16th June, 1616, to go to London, to the 
court, at any time he pleased. In the Denmylne MS., in the 
Advocates* Library, there are various letters of Sir Roderick, 
prindpally concerning the escape of Sir James Macdonald of 
iHia in 1615. To ensure their obedience to the laws, the 
privy council had ordered the chiefs to appear before thern 
once a-year, on the 10th July, or oftener if required, on be- 
ing duly dted ; and on the suppression of the rebdiion of Sir 
James Macdonald, the same year, still more stringent regula- 
tions were adopted. They were compelled to exhibit 
each a certain number of their prindpal kinsmen, and were 
only to maintain in household certain proportiona of gentle- 
men, according to their rank, Madeod being allowed six; 
they were also to reside at certain spedfied places on their 
estates. Various other conditions were imposed on them, 
the most important of which was one relating to the educa- 
tion of their children. The chiefs were required to send all 
thdr children above nine years of age to school in the Low- 
lands, to be instructed in reading, writing, and speaking the 
English language ; and none could be served heirs to thdr 
fathers, or recdved as tenants to the king, until they had re- 
ceived that education. The very quantity of wine they were 
to use in their bouses was regulated, Madeod*s allotment 

bdng four tuns, and eadi chief was bound to take strict or- 
der throughout his whole estates that none of his tenants or 
vassals should buy or drink any wine. This last obligation 
proceeded on the narrative that ** the great and extraordinazy 
excesse in drinking of wyne, commonlie usit among the eom- 
m<mis and tenantis of the Yllis, is not only ane occanoon of 
the beastlie and barbarous arndties and inhumanities that 
fallis oute amangis tharoe, to the offens and displeasoor of 
God, and contempt of law and justice; but with that it 
drawis nomberis of thame to miserable necesdtie and povar- 
tie, sua that they are oonstr^ynit, quhen they want from thdr 
awne, to tak from thair nichtbours.** Fmding that this regr 
ulation, strict as it was, was evaded, the privy coniidl in 
1622 passed an act prohibiting masters of vessels, under the 
penalty of confiscaUon of the artide, from carrying more 
wine to the Ides than the quantity allowed to the chi^ and 
gentlemen. In the preamble of this act the rcMon of this 
new r^ulation is thus stated : — ** With the insatiable desyre 
quhaurof the saidis Islanderis ar so far possesst, that, when 
tliair anyvis ony schip or uther veschell there with wines, 
thay spend both dayes and nights in their excesse <^ drink- 
ing sa lang as thair is anie of the wyne left ; sua that, bdng 
overcome with drink, thair ftdlis oute many inconvenientis 
amangis thame, to the breck of his miyesteis peace,** &a 
Sir Roderick died in the beginning of 1626. By his wife, a 
daughter of Macdonald of Glengarry, he had, with six dangfa- 
ters, five sons, viz. John, his heir; Sir Roderick, progenitor 
of the Madeods of Talisker ; Sir Norman, of the Madeods of 
Bemera and Muiravonside ; W'illiam, of the Madeods of Ha- 
mer ; and Donald, of those of Grisemish. 

The history of the Siol Torquil, or Lewis Madeods, as it 
approached its dose, was most disastrous. Roderick, the 
chief of this branch in 1569, got involved in a deadly feud 
with the Mackenzies, which ended only with the destruction 
of his whole family. He had married a daughter of John 
Mackenzie of Kintail, and a son whom she bore, and who 
was named Torquil Comumach^ from his residence among his 
mother*s relations in Stratbconnan, was disowned by him, on 
account of the alleged adultery of his mother with the breve 
or Celtic judge of the Lewis. She eloped with John Mao- 
Gillechallnm of Rasay, a cousin of Roderick, and was, in 
consequence, divorced. He took for his second wife, in 1541, 
Barbara Stewart, daughter of Andrew Lord Avandale, and 
by this lady had a son, likewise named Torquil, and snmamed 
Oigkre^ or the Heir, to distinguish him from the other Tor- 
quil. About 1566, the former, with 200 attendants, was 
drowned in a tempest, when sailing from Lewis to Skj% and 
Torquil Connanach immediately took up arms to vindicate 
what he conceived to be his rights. In his pretenuons he 
was supported by the Mackenzies. Roderick was appre- 
hended and detained four years a prisoner in tlie castle of Stor- 
noway. In his extremity that chief had sought the assistanoe 
of Donald Gorme or Macdonald of Sleat, who, with his sanction, 
took steps to procure his own recognition as heir of the line 
of Lewis, founding his claim on an alleged confession of 
Hugh Madeod, the breve of the island, that Torquil CofUKm- 
ach was in reality his son. But the feud between the Mac- 
donalds and Mackenzies was put an end to by the mediation 
of the Regent Moray. Before bdng released from his capti- 
vity, the old chief was brought before the R^nt Mar and 
his privy council, and compelled to resign his estate into the 
hands of the crown, taking a new destination of it to himself 
in liferent, and alter his death to Torquil ConmanacK ee his 
son and heir apparenL On regaining his Uberty, however, 
he revoked all that he had done when a prisoner, on the 
ground of coerdon. This led to new com motions, and in 

I L ^■i — ■ 





, I 

w(sre at length driyen from it by the MackensieB. Neill sur- 
rendered to Roderick Macleod of HnrrUf who, on bdng 
charged, under pain of trtfason, to deliyer him to the privj 
council at Edinburgh, gave him up, with hia aon, Donald. 
Neill was brought to trial, convicted, and executed, and ia 
said to have died " verr Chriatianlie,'* in April 1613. Do- 
nald, his son, was banished from Scotland, and died in HoW 
.and. Roderick and William, two of the ions of Rorj Oig, 
were seized bv the tutor of Kntail, and executed. Mal- 
colm, the other son, apprehended at the same time, made his 
escape, and continued to harass the Mackenues for years. 
He was prominently engaged in Sir James Macdonald's re- 
bellion in 1615, and afterwards went to Flanders, but in 
1616 was once more in the J^wia, where he killed two gen- 
tlemen of the Mackenzies. He subsequently went to Spain, 
whence he returned with Sir James Macdonald in 1620. In 
1622 and 1626, commissions of fire and sword were granted 
to I^rd Kintail and bis clan agunst *' Malcolm MacRoari 
Macleod.** Nothing more is known of him. 

On the extinction of the main line of the Lewis, the re- 
presentation of the family devolved on the Macleods of Ra- 
say, afterwards referred to. The title of Lord Macleod was 
the second title of the Mackenzies, earls of Cromarty. 

In the civil wars, Sir Roderick Macleod of Harris, son of 
John, commonly called John Mor, supported the royal cause, 
and Charles L was so sensible of his services that he wrote 
him a kind and friendly letter, dated at Durham, 2d May 
1639, promising him his constant favour and protection. His 
eldest son, also named Roderick, acquired, from his humour, 
the surname of Roderick the Witty. Being a minor during 
the usurpation, the whole clan followed his uncles. Sir Rod- 
erick Macleod of Talisker and Sir Nonnan Macleod of Beme- 
ra. At that time the Macleods could bring into the field 
700 men. At the battle of Worcester in 1651, the Macleods 
fought on the side of Charles II., and so great was the slaugh- 
ter amongst them that it was agreed by the other dans that 
they should not engage in any other conflict until they had 
recovered their losses. The Harris estates were sequestrated 
by Cromwell, but the chief of the Macleods was at last, in 
May 1655, admitted into the protection of the Common- 
wealth by General Monk, on his finding security for his 
peaceable behaviour under the penalty of £6,000 sterling, 
and paying a fine of £2,500. Both his uncles, however, 
were expressly excepted. 

At the Revolution, Macleod of Macleod, which became the 
draignation of tlie laird of Harris, as chief of the clan, was 
favourable to the cause of James VII., and a letter written 
to him by Viscount Dundee, dated Muy, June 23, 1689, giv- 
ing an account of the preparations of the other chiefs, and of 
his own proceedings, and enclosing a lett«r from the exiled 
monarch to him, is printed in Browne's History of the High- 
lands. In 1715, the effective force of the Macleods was 1,000 
men, and in 1745, 900. The chief, by the advice of Presi- 
dent Forbes, did not join in the rebellion of that year, and so 
saved his estates, but many of his clansmen, burning with 
zeal for the cause of Prince Charles, fought in the ranks of 
tlie rebel army. 

At page 47 it is mentioned that the bad treatment which 
a daughter of the chief of the Macleods experienced from her 
husband, the captain of the Clanranald, bad caused them to 
take the first opportunity of inflicting a signal vengeance on 
the Macdonalds. The merciless act of Macleod, by which 
the entire population of an island was cut off at once, is de- 
scribed by Mr. Skene {Hist of the IHghUrndt^ vol. ii. page 
277), and is shortly thus. Towards the close of the 16th 
centwy, a small number of Macleods accidentally landed on 

the island of Eigg, and were hospitably received bj the in- 
habitants. Offering. bowe\'er, some indvilitiei to the young 
women of the island, they were by the nude relatives of the 
latter bound hand and foot, thrown into a boat, and arat 
adrift. Being met and rescued by a party of their own elans- 
men, they were brought to Dunvegan, the residence of their 
chief, to whom they told their story. Instantly manning his 
galleys, Macleod hastened to Eigg. On descrpng hb a|H 
proach the islanders, with their wives and children, to the 
number of 200 persons, took refuge in a large cave, situated 
in a retired and secret place. Here for two days they re- 
mained undiscovered, but having nnfortnnately sent <nit a 
scout to see if the Macleods were gone, their retreat was de- 
tected, but they refhsed to surrender. A stream of water 
fell over the entrance to the cave, and pertly coneealed it. 
This Macleod caused to be ttimed from its course, and then 
ordered all the wood and other combustibles which could be 
found to be piled up around its mouth, and set fire to, when 
all within the cave were suffocated. 

The Siol Tormod continued to possess Harris, Dunvegan, 
and Glenelg till near the close of the I8th century. The 
former and the latter estates have now passed into other 
hands. A considerable portion of Harris is the property of 
the earl of Dunmore, and many of its inhabitants have emi- 
grated to Cape Breton and Canada. The climate of the 
island is sud to be favourable to longevity. Martin, in his 
account of the Western Isles, says he knew sevo^l in Harris 
of 90 years of age. One Lady Macleod, who passed the most 
of her time here, lived to 103, had then a comely head of 
hair and good teeth, and enjoyed a perfect understanding till 
the week she died. Her son. Sir Norman Macleod, died at 
96 ; and his grandson, Donald Macleod of Bemera, at 91. 
Glenelg became the property first of Charles Grant, Lord 
Glenelg, and afterwards of Mr. Baillie. From the family of 
Bemera, one of the principal branches of the Harris Mae- 
leods, sprung the Macleods of Luskinder, of which Sir Wil- 
liam Macleod Bannatyne, a lord of session, was a cadet. For 
a brief memoir of him, see vol. i. p. 286. 

The first of the house of Rasay, the proprietor of which is 
the representative and heir male of the I^ewis branch of the 
Macleods, was Malcolm Garbh Macleod, the second son of 
Malcolm, 8th chief of the Lewis. In the reign of James V. 
he obtained from his father in patrimony the island of Rasay, 
which lies between Skye and the Ross-shire district of Ap- 
plecroas. In 1569 the whole of the Rasay family, except one 
infant, were barbarously massacr^ by one of their own kins- 
men, under the following circumstances. John MacGille- 
challum Macleod of Rasay, called Ian na Tvaidk, or John 
with the axe, who had, as stated on p. 48, carried off Janet 
Mackenzie, the first wife of his chief, Roderick Macleod of 
the Lewis, married her, after her divorce, and had by her 
several sons and one daughter. The latter became the wife 
of Alexander Roy Mackenzie, a grandson of Hector or Ea- 
chan Roy, the first of the Mackenzies of Gerloch, a marriage 
which gave great offence to his clan, the Siol vie Gillecbal- 
lum, as the latter had long been at feud with that particular 
branch of the Mackenzies. On Janet Mackenzie's death, he 
of the axe married a sister of a kinsman of his own, Ruari 
Macallan Macleod, who from his venomous disposition was 
sumamed Nimhneach, The latter, to obtain Rasay for bis 
nephew, his sister's son, resolved to cut off both his brother- 
in-law and his sons by the first marriage. He accordingly in- 
vited him to a feast in the island of Isay in Skye, and after 
it was over, he left the apartment. Then, causing them to 
be sent for one by one, he had each of them 




Beul, in the reign of Jaiiie8 III., uf the Uodtf of Ardchyle, and 
Wester Duiuioh, in the bHn>iiy of Gieiidochiurt and county of 
Perth, diited January 1, I486. He had also a chnrter frum 
•lames IV., of the huida of Ewir nud LeiragMn, tn the same 
barony, dated January 9, 1502. He died soon thM«M(ter, 
leaving a son, Finl.-ty Macnab, fifth Uird of Mitcnab, who hi 
witness in a cliarter, under the great seal, to Dancau Camp- 
bell of Glenorchy, wherein he is debigued *' Fkikuu Macnaby 
dominuM de eodem^^ &c, SepL 18, 1511. He died about tbe 
close of the reign of James V. 

His sun, Fuihiy Macnab of Bovain and of that ilk, 6tli chief 
frt)m Gilbert, alienated or mortgaged a great portion of his 
lands to Campbell of Glenorchy, ancestor of the marquis of 
Hreadalbane, as appears by a charter to ** CoUn Campbell uf 
Glenurchy, his heirs and assignees whatever, according to the 
deed granted to him by Fmlay Macnab of Bovain, 24tli No- 
vember, 1552, of all and sundry the huids of Bovain and Ard- 
chyle, &&, confirmed by a diarter under the great seal from 
Mary, dated 27th June, 1553." Gleuor chy*s right of sqperiur- 
ity tlie Macnal»8 always refused to acknowledge. 

His son, Fmlay .Macnab, tlio seventh laird« who lived in 
tlie reign of James VI., was the chief who entered into the 
bond of friendship and manrent with his cousin, Lauchian 
Mackinnon of StrathordelU 12th July, 1606, quoted at page 
28 of tliis volume. This cbief earned on a deadly feud with 
the Neishes or M^Ilduys, a tribe which po6«es»ed the upper 
parts of Stratheam, and inhabited an iitland in the lower part of 
Ludi Earn, called from them Neibh island. Many battles were 
fought between them, with various success. The Inst wus at 
Glehbuultachan, abont two miles north of Loch Kuin fout, in 
which the Macnabs were victorious, and tlie Neishes cut off 
almost to a man. A small renmaut of them, however, ttill 
lived m the island referred to, the head of which was an old 
man, who subsisted by plundering the people in the neigh- 
bourhood. One Christmas, the cliief uf tbe Macnabs had 
sent his servant to Crieff for provisions, but, on his return, he 
was waylaid, and robbed of all his purchases. He went 
home, therefore, empty-handed, and told his tale to the laird. 
Macnab bad twelve sons, all men of great strength, but one 
in particular exceedingly athletic, who was called for a byname, 
Icun VMon Mac an Appa^ or "Smooth John Macnab." In 
the evening, these men were gloomily meditating some signal 
revenge on their old enemies, when their tather entered, and 
said in Gaelic, " The night is the night, if the lads were but 
Uds ! " Eiich man instantly started to his feet, and belted on 
his dirk, lib claymore, and his pistols. Led by their brother 
John, they set uut, taking a fishing-boat on their shoulders 
tn>m Ix}ch Tay, carrying it over the mountains and gleus 
till they reached Loch Earn, where they launched it, and 
passed over to the island. All was silent in the habiUition of 
^eittii. Having all the boats at the inland secured, they had 
gune to sleep without fear of surprise. Smooth Juhn, with 
his foot dashed open tbe door of Neish's house; and the 
party, rushing in, attacked the unfortunate family, every one 
of whom was put to the sword, with the exception of one 
man and a boy, who concealed thenuielves under a bed. 
Carrying uff the heads of the Neishes, and any plunder they 
could secure, the youths presented themselves to their father, 
while the piper struck up the pibroch of victory. 

The next laird, ** Smooth John," the son of this Finlay, 
made a dintinguislied figure in the reign of Charles L, and 
suffei-ed many hardships on account of his attachment to tlie 
royal cause. After the battle of Alford in 1645, he joined the 
army of Montrose, witli his clan, and was of great service to 
him at the battle of KiUyth. He was subsequently directed 
by Montrose to giurison Ins caatle of Kinuudiiie, and he con- 

tinued there until besieged by General Leslie, when, their pio- 
visions failing, he endeavoured, with 800 nicn, to maka bit 
escape, during the darkness of the night. Marehiog oal« 
sword in hand, they all got off, except Macnab himself and 
one of his men, who were sent prisouem to Edinbui]^ llaO" 
nab was condemned to death, but escaped the night prsvkNW 
to the day on which he was ordered fur execution. He was 
killed at the battle of Worcester in 1651. During the coin- 
monwealth, his castle of Eilau Rowan was burned, his estates 
ravaged and sequestrated, and the family papers >g>*in hM^> 
Taking advantage of the troubles of the tunes, his powerful 
neighbour, Campbell of Glenurchy, in the heart of wliose pos- 
sessions Macnab's lands were situated, on the pretence that he 
had sustuned coniuderable losses frum the clan Macnab, got 
possession of the estates in recompense thereo£ 

This chief of the Macnabs married a daughter of Campbell 
of Glenlyun, and with one daughter, li;id a son, Alexander 
Macnab, ninth laird, who was only fuur years old when bia 
father was killed on Worcester battle-field. His mother and 
friends applied to General Monk for some relief from the 
family estates for herself and children. That general nuule a 
favourable report on the application, but it had no effect. It 
was directed to Captain Gascoigne, governor of Fiularig, and 
was in the following tenns : '* I do hereby dechire, that it 
was not intended by my order for repairing tlie laird of Glen- 
urchy 's losses by the Macnabs out of their estates, that the 
s:une should extend to the molesting or intenneddling with 
the ebtates of any of the Macnabs who live peaceably. And 
forasmuch as I understand that the widow of the laird of 
Macnab hatli lived peaceably, yon are hereby authorised, and 
I desire, in case any vexation be offered to the outing or di»- 
possetising of the said widow and her children of tbe aaid 
lands, or anything that belongs tu them, under colour ai the 
said order, to preserve the rights that to tliem bebng, aa if 
the said order had never been made, and to enter and receive 
them into their lauds ; and this favour also is to be extended 
for Arcliibalu Macnab uf Acharne. Given under my band 
and seal at Dalkeith, 18th January, 1654. (Signed) S. S. 
George Monk." After the Restoration, appUcation was made 
to the Scottish Estates, by the Lady Macnab and her son, 
for redress, and in 1661 they received a oonsidenible portion 
of their huids, which the family enjoyed till tbe beginning of 
tbe present century, when they were sold. 

By his wife, Elizabeth, a sister of Sir Alexander Menuea, 
of Weem, baronet, Alexander Macnab of that ilk bad a son 
and heir, Robert Macnab, tenth laird, who married Anne 
Campbell, sister of the earl of Breadalbane. Of several cbil- 
dreii only two survived, John, who succeeded his father, and 
Archibald. The elder sou, John, held a commission in the 
Black Watch, and was taken prisoner at the battls of Preston- 
pans, and, with several others, confined in Doune Castle, un- 
der the charge of Macgregur uf Glengyle, where he remained 
till after the battle of CuUoden. The majurity of tlie dan 
took the side of the house uf Stuart, and were led by AUister 
Macnab of Inshewan and Archibald Macnab of Acbame. 
They were mostly incorporated in the Duke of Perth's regi- 
ment, of which Alexander Macnab of Dundum was the 
standard bearer. The others juined a body of Breadalbane 
men under tbe command of Campbell of Glenlyon. The 
younger son, Archibald, obtained in 1740 a oommisMon aa 
eiiMgn in the Black Watch (now the42d Highlanders), oo ita 
onbodiment, and served hi Germany with that regiment. In 
June 1745 he was appointed captam of Loudoun*s High- 
landers, and in 1757 he distinguislied himself at the battle et 
Fellinghaiifien. Under General Wolfe, be was present at tbe 
battle of Quebec He served also throughout the American 





I . 

then Picts. The parish of Dnnnicben, in FoifHn»hire, derived 
Its name from the Gaelic dun^ a hill, and the word JVecAlon, 
the name of a Pictiah chief who is traditionally reported to 
have resided in the parish. According to Buchanan of Auch- 
mar, {Hiitory of tite Origin of the Clam^ p. 84,) the heads 
of this clan were for ages thanes of Loch Tay, and possessed 
ail the country between the south nde of Loch-Fyne and 
LochawCf parts of which were Glenira, Glenshira, Gl^ifine, 
Mild other places, while their principal seat was Dunderraw 
on Loch-Fyne. 

In the reign of Robert IIL, Maurice or Morioe Macnaugh- 
ton had a charter from Colin Campbell of Lochow of sundry 
lands in Over I^ochow, but their first settlement in Aigyle- 
shire, in the central parts of which their lands latteriy wholly 
lay, took place long before this. The Macnaughtons are said 
to have been originally a branch of the tribes of the province 
of Moray, when united under its maormors. (Skene's His- 
tory of the Highlands^ vol iL p. 201.) These maormors 
were the roost powerful cliiefs in Scotland during the middle 
ages. When Malcolm the Maiden attempted to civilize the 
ancient pnmnoe of Moray, by introducing Norman and Saxon 
families, such as the Bissets, the Comyns, &c., in the place 
of the rude Celtic natives whom he had expatriated to the 
south, he gave lands in or near Strathtay or Strathspey, to 
Nachtan of Moray, for those he had held in that province. 
He had there a residence called Dunnachtan castle. Kisbet 
{Heraldry^ vol. L p. 419) describes this Nachtan as *' an em- 
inent man in the time of Malcolm IV.,** and says that he 
'' was in great esteem with the family of Lochawe, to whom 
he was very assistant in tlieir wars with the ^lacdougals, for 
which he was rewarded with sundry lands.** The family of 
Lochawe here mentioned were the Campbells. 

The Macnaughtons appear to have been fairly and finally 
settled in Argyleshire previous to the reign of Alexander III., 
as Gilchrist Macnaughton, styled of that ilk, was by that 
munarch appointed in 1287, heritable keeper of his castle and 
island of Frechelan (Fraoch Elian) on Lochawe, on condition 
that he should be properly entertained when he should pass 
that way, whence, a castle embattled was assumed as the 
crest of the family. 

This Gilchrist was father or grandfather of Donald Mac- 
naughton of that ilk, who being nearly connected with the 
Macdougals of Lorn, joined that powerful chief with his dan 
agaiuHt Robert the Bruce, and fought agiunst the latter at 
the battle of Dalree in 1806, in consequence of which he lost 
a great part of his estates. In Abercromby*s * Martial 
Achievements,* (vol. i. p. 577,) it is related that the extraor- 
dinary courage shown by the king in having, in a narrow 
pass, slain with his own hand several of his pursuers, and 
amongst the rest three brothers, so greatly excited the admi* 
ration of the chief of the Macnaughtons that he became 
thenceforth one of his firmest adherents. 

His son and successor, Duncan Macnaughton of that ilk, 
was a steady and loyal subject to King David II., who, as a 
reward for his fidelity, conferred on his son, Alexander, lands 
in the island of Lewis, a portion of the forfeited possessions 
of John of the Isles, which the chiefo of the clan Naughton 
hi^ld for a time. The ruins of their castle of Macnaughton 
are still pointed out on that island. 

Donald Macnaughton, a younger son of the family, was, 
in 1436, elected bishop of Dnnkeld, in the reign of James I. 

Alexander Macnaughton of that ilk, who lived in the be- 
ginning of the 16th century, was knighted by James IV.. 
whom he accompanied to the disastrous field of Flodden. 
where he was slain with nearly the whole chivalry of Scot- 
land. His sun, John, was succeeded by his second son. 

Malcolm Macnaughton of GlemAma, his ddest son having 
predeceased him. Malcolm died in the end of tht reign M 
James VL, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander. 
John, the second son of Malcolm, being of a handsome ap- 
pearance, attracted the notice of King James VI., who ap- 
pointed him one of his pages of honour, on his accession to 
the Enghsh crown. He became rich, and purchased lands in 
Kintyre. He was also sheriff-depute of Aigyleshire. His 
elder brother, Alexander Macnaughton of that ilk, adhered 
firmly to the cause of Charles I., and in his service, like all 
who remained loyal to him, sustuned many severe loMea. 
At the Restoration, as some sort of compensation, h« was 
knighted by Charles II., and. unlike many others, he recdved 
from that monarch a liberal pension for life. Sir Alexander 
Macnaughton spent his later years in London, where he died. 
His son and successor, John Macnaughton of that ilk, ano- 
ceeded to an estate greatly burdened with debt, but did not 
hesitate in his adherence to the fallen fortunes of the Stuarts. 
At the head of a considerable body of his own clan, he joined 
the viscount Dundee, and was with him at RiUiecrankia. 
James VII. signed a deed In his favour, restoring to hu fam- 
ily all its old lands and hereditary rights, but, as it never 
passed the seals in Scotland, it was of less value than the p*- 
per on which it was written. His lands were taken from 
him, not by forfeiture, but ** the estate,** says Buchanan of 
Auchmar, *" was evicted by creditors for sums noway equiva- 
lent to its value, and, there being no diligence used for relief 
thereof, it went out of the hands of the family." His aon, 
Alexander, a captain in Queen Anne's guards, was killed io 
the expedition to Vigo in 1702. His brother, John, at the 
beginning of the last century was for many years collector ol 
customs at Anstruther in Fife, and subsequently was ap- 
pointed in.spector - general in the same department. The 
direct male line of the Macnaughton chiefs liecame extinct at 
his death. 

The chiefithip is now in an Iriith family, descended from 
Shane Dhu, grandson of Sir Alexander Macnaghton, slain at 
Flodden, who went to Ireland in 1580, as secretary to his kins- 
man, the 1 Rt earl of Antrim, and settled there. His son Daniel 
Macnaghton, Esq., married Catherine, niece of the celebrat- 
ed primate, George Dowdall, and their great-grandson, Ed- 
nmnd Alexander Macnaghten, Esq. of Beardiville, bom Au- 
gust 3, 1762, was M.P. for County Antrim, and a lord of the 
treasury. The clan Macnaghton elected this gentleman and 
his heirs to the chieftiunship. At his decease in 1882. it de- 
scended with his family estates to his brother. Sir Francis 
Workman Macnaghten, bom August 2, 1763, educated for the 
Imw, and knighted on being appointed a judge of the supreme 
oourt of judicature at Madras, in 1809. In 1815 he was 
transferred to that of Bengal, and in 1823 he assumed the 
addiUunal surname and arms of Workman. He retired 
from the bencli in 1825, and was created a baronet, July 16, 
1836. He died Nov. 22, 1843. By his wife, the eldest daugh- 
ter of Sir William Dunkin of Clogher, a judge of the supreme 
court of judicature, Calcutta, he had 6 sons and 10 daugh- 
ters. Of the eldest son, in the following paragraph, llie 
2d son, William Hay, of the Bengal Civil Service, was created 
a baronet in 1839, and was assattinated at Cabul, Dec. 25, 
1841. StQart Macnaghten, the youngest son, bora Jane 20, 
1815, educated at Edinburgh and Trinity College, Dublin, (B. A. 
1835), called to the bar at the Middle Temple. 1839; married 
in 1848, Agnes, daughter of James Eastmont, Esq. of St, 
Bemers, omt Ediiibui^, and widow of Capt I^ewis Shedden. 

The eldest son. Sir Edmund Charles Workman Macnagh- 
ten, of Dunderave, Bushmills, county Antrim, 2d baronet. 




the old chief, and placed him in irons. Neiil Macneill, called 
Wevittlache, waa found innocent and liberated throngli tlie 
iiiflaenoe of his uncle. Barra's elder tons, on being cbai^ged 
tri exhibit their father before the privy council, refused, on 
which thej were proclaimed rebels, and commianon was given 
to the captain of the Clanranald against them. In conse- 
quence of these proceedingR, which occurred about 1613, 
Clanranald was enabled to secure the peaceable sacoession of 
his nephew to the estate of Barra, on the death of his father^ 
which happened soon after. {Oregofy'i HighkmdM <md Idei^ 
p. 846.) 

The island of Barra and the adjacent isles are still pos- 
sessed by the descendant and representatiTe of the faroilj of 
MacneilL Their feudal castle of Cbisamul has been already 
mentioned. It id a building of an hexagonal form, strongly 
built, with a wall above thirty feet high, and andiorage for 
small vessels on every side of it. In one of its angles is a 
high square tower, on the top of which, at the comer imme- 
diately above the gate, is a hole, through which the gock- 
man, or watchman, who sat there all night, tlirew down 
stones upon any who might attempt to surprise the gate in 
the darkness. Martin, who visited Barra in 1708, in his 
* Description of the Western Island^,* says that the Highland 
Chroniclers or sennachies alleged that the then chief of Bar- 
ra was the 84th lineal descendant from the first Macneill 
who had held it. He relates that the inhabitants of this and 
the other islands belonging to Macneill were in the custom of 
applying to him for wives and husbands, when he named the 
persons most suitable for them, and gave them a bottle of 
strong waters fur the marriage feast 

The chief of tlie Macneills of Gigha, in the first half of 
the 16th century, was Neill Macneill, who was killed, with 
many gentlemen of his tribe, in 1530, in a feud with 
Allan Maclean of Torlusk, called Altin nan 8op^ bn>- 
tlier of Maclean of Dowart. His only daughter, Anabolla, 
made over the lands of Gigha to her natural brother, Neiil. 
The latter was present, on the English side, at the batt,le of 
Ancrum-Moor, in 1544, but it is uncertain whether he was 
there as an ambassador from the lord of the Isles, or fought 
in the English ranks at the head of his clansmen. He sold 
Gigha to James Macdonald of Isla in 1554, and died without 
legitimate issue in the latter part of the reign of Queen Mary. 

On the extinction of the direct male line, Neill Macneill 
vie Eachan, who had obtained the lands of Taynish, became 
heir male of the family. His descendant. Hector Macneill of 
Taynish, purchased in 1590, the island of Gigha from John 
Campbell of Calder, who had acquired it from Macdonald of 
Isla, so that it again became the property of a Macneill. 
The estates of Gigha and Taynish were pomessed by his de- 
scendants till 1780, when the former was sold to Macneill of 
Colonsay, a cadet of the family. 

The representative of the male line of the Macneills of 
Taynish and Gigha, Roger Hamilton Macneill of Taynish, 
married Elisabeth, daughter and heiress of Hamilton Price, 
Esq. of Raploch, Lanaiicshire, with whom he got that estate, 
and assumed, in consequence, the name of Hamilton. His 
descendants are now designated of Raploch. 

The principal cadets of the Gigha Macneills, beades the 
Taynish family, were those of Gallochallie, Carskesy, and 
Tirfcrgns. Torquil, a younger son of Lachlan Macneill Buy 
of Tirfergus, acquired the estate of Ugadale in Argyleshire, 
by marriage with the heiress of the Mackays in the end of 
the 17th century. The present proprietor spelUi his name 
Macneal. From Malcolm Beg Macneill, celebrated in High- 
land tradition for his extraordinary prowess and great strength. 

son of John Oig Macneill of Gallochallie, in the reign of Jantes 
VI., sprung the Macneills of Afkbonan. Malcolm^ only 
son, Neill i^g, had two sons, John, who suooeeded him, and 
I>onald Macneill of Crerar, ancestor of the MacneiUi of Co- 
lonsay, now the possessors of Gigha. Many cadets of tht 
Macneills of Gigba settled in the north of Ireland. 

Both branches of the clan Neill laid claim to the chiefidiip. 
According to tradition, it has belonged, since the middle of 
the 16th oentury, to the house of Barra. Under the date of 
1650, a letter appears in the register of the privy oonndlf ad- 
dressed to "'• TorkiU Macneill, chief and principal of the dan 
and surname of Macnelia." Mr. Skene conjectures this Tor- 
kill to have been the hereditary keeper of Castle Sweyn, and 
connected with neither branch of the Macneills. He is said, 
however, to have been the brother of Neill Macneill of Gtgtia, 
killed in 1580, as above mentioned, and to have, on his bro- 
ther's death, obtained a grant of the non-entries of Gigha as 
representative of the family. If this be correct, according to 
the above designation, the chiefship was in the Gigha line. 
Torquil appears to have died without leaving any direct suc- 


The first of the family of Colonsay, Donald Macneill of 
Crerar in South Knapdale, exchanged tliat estate in 1700, 
with the duke of Arfryle, for the islands of Colonsay and Or- 
on.say. The old possessors of these two islands, whidi are 
only separated by a narrow sound, dry at low water, were the 
Macduffies or Macphies (see Macphis). Donald's great- 
grandson, Archibald Macneill of Colonaay, sold that island to 
his cousin, John Macneill, who married Hester, daughter of 
Duncan Macneill of Dunmore, and had six sons. His eldest 
son, Alexander, younger of Colonsay, became the purchaser 
of Gigha. Two of his other sons, Duncan and Sir John 
Macneill, have distinguished themselves, the one as a lawyer 
and judge, and the other as a diplomatist. 

Duncan, the second son, bom in Colonsay in 1794, after 
being educated at the universities of St Andrews and Edin- 
burgh, was admitted advocate at the Scottish bar in 1816. 
In 1824 he was appointed sheriff of Perthshire, and in No- 
vember 1884, solicitor-general for Scotland, which office he 
held till the following April, and again from September 1841 
to October 1842. At the latter date he was appointed lord- 
advocate, and continued so till July 1846. He was elected 
dean of the faculty of advocates, and in May 1851 was raised 
to the bench as a lord of aession and justiciary, when he a»> 
sumed the title of Lord Colonsay. In May 1852 he was ap- 
pointed lord-justice-general and president of the court (tf 
session, snd in the following year was sworn in a privy coun- 
cillor. He was M.P. for Argyleshire from 1843 to 1851. 

Sir John Macneill, G.C.B., and F.R.S.E., the thiid son, 
waa bom at Colonsay in 1795, and in his 19th year graduated 
M.D. at the university of Edinburgh. He practised for some 
time in the East, as a physician, and in 1831 was appointed 
assistant envoy at the court of Persia. In 1834 he became 
secretary of the embassy, and received the Persian order of tlie 
Lion and Sun, and in June 1836 was appointed envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentinry to that court. In 
1839 he was created a civil knight grand cross of the order of 
the Bath. During htK residence in Persia be became thor- 
oughly acquainted with the habits, policy, and rraources of 
the Asiatic nations ; and was enabled, even at that period, to 
point out the aggressive designs of Russia with nugular pen- 
etration and ability. In 1844 he returned home, and soon 
after he was placed at the head of the board appointed to 
superintend the working of the new Scottish Poor law act of 
1845. In 1851 he conducted a special inquiry into the 




From the Campbells of Jnrerawe sprang the Caiiiipbells uf 
Shirwan, Kilmartin, and Cruachan. 

In 1660, Dongall Campbell, or, as he was called, the Ma- 
oonochie of Inveraogh, engaged in the rebellion of the mar- 
quis of Argyle, in whone armament of the clan Campbell be 
held the rank of major. He was tried with the marquis in 
1661 and attainted. He was soon afterwards executed at 

After the Revolution of 1688, Dougall s son, James Ma- 
oonochie, who, at his father*8 death, was little more than nine 
years old, applied to government for the restoration uf the 
Argjleshire property, which had got into the possession of 
an uncle, but was unsuooessfnl. From King William III., 
however, he obtained a grant in compensation, which he 
invested in the purchase of the lands of Kirknewton, in 
the muir now called Meadowbank, Mid Ix>thian, which 
his descendant still possesses, and, adopting Lowland cus- 
toms, all the family took the name of Maconochie. His only 
son, Alexander Maconochie, was a writer in Edinburgh. The 
son of the latter, Allan Maconochie, a celebrated lawyer, bom 
January 26, 1748, died June 14, 1816, was a lord of session 
and justidary, under the title of Lord Meadowbaitk, being 
appointed to the former in 1796, and to the latter in 1804. 
While attending the university of Edinburgh, he whs one of 
the five students who originated the Speculative Sodety, and 
was afterwards for some time Professor of the Laws of Na- 
ture and Nations in that university. He was the author of 
a pamphlet entitled * Considerations on the Introduction of 
Trial by Jury in Scotland,* and in 1815, when the Scottish 
jury court was instituted, he was appointed one of the lords 
commissioners. He is said to have been the inventor of moss 
manure, now extensively employed in various counties of 
Scotland, and printed for private distribution a tract on the 
subject. He married Elizabeth, third daughter of Robert 
Wellwood, Esq., of Garvock, by whom he had issua 

His eldest son, Alexander Maconochie, passed advocate in 
1799, and after being sheriff-depute of the county of Had- 
dington 1810, solicitor-general 1818, and lord-advocate 1816, 
was appointed a lord of session and justiciary in 1819, when 
he also took the title of Lord Meadowbank. He resigned in 
1841, and died Nov. 80, 1861. On the dnath of his cousin, 
Robert Scott Welwood, be succeeded to the entailed estates 
of Garvock and Pittiver, in the county of Fife, and assumed 
the name of Welwood of Garvock (see Welwood). He mar- 
ried Anne, eldest daughter of I/>rd-pre8ident Blair; issue, 
with 6 daughters, 4 sons, viz. — 1. Allan Alexander Macono- 
chie, LL.D., bom in 1806. passed advocate in 1829, and in 
1842 appointed professor of civil law and the law of Scotlund 
in the university of Glasgow. 2. Robert Blair, writer to the 
signet 8. William Maximilian George. 4. Henry Dundas. 

Macphbrsoh, the name of one of the two principal 
branches of the clan Chattaii, the badge of which was the 
box evergreen. In the Celtic the Macpbersons are called the 
clnn Vuirich or Muirich, from an ancestor of that name, who, 
in the Gaelic MS. of 1450, is said to have been the ** son of 
Swen, son of Heth, son of Nachtan, son of Gillichattan, from 
whom came the clan Cbattan." The word Gillichattan 
means a votary or servant of St. Kattan, a Scottish saint, 
M» Gilliclirist means a servant of Christ; hence Gilchrist. 

Tlie descent of the heads of the Macpbersons from the an- 
aent chiefs of the clan Chattan has been unbroken, and tra- 
dition is uniformly in favour of their right to the chiefship of 
the whole clan. The claim of the Macintoshes, the other 
principal branch of the clan Chattan, to the chiefship has 
been already disposed of (see vol. ii. p. 744 d teq.y Their own 

traditional story of their descent from MaodnC thane of Fife, 
is extremely improbable, and if it were true, it would prove 
that tliey were not a branch of the clan Chattan at alL On 
their own showing, they obtained the chiefship by marriage, 
and that from tlie head of tlie Macpbersona, whom thiey no- 
knowledge to have been at one period chief of the dan Chat- 
tan. The rule of clanship excludes femalee from the roocM 
aion, and the heir male, not the heir of line, became chief of 
the clan Chattan. 

It was from Muirich or Murdoch, who succeeded to the 
chiefship in 1153, that the Macpbersons derive the name of 
the dan Muirich or Vuirich. This Muirich waspanon of 
Kingussie, a religious establishment in the lower part of Bad- 
enoch, and the surname, properly Macpheraain, was given to 
his descendants from his office. He was the great-grandaoo 
of Gillichattan Mor, the founder of the dan, who Uved in the 
reign of Malcolm Canmore, and having married, on a papal 
dispensation, a daughter of the thane of Calder, he had five 
sons. Tlie eldest, Gillichattan, the third of the name, and 
chief of the clan in the reign of Alexander II., was father of 
Dougal Dall, the chief whose daughter Eva married Angos 
Macintosh of Madntosh. On Dougal Dairs death, as he had 
no sons, the representation of the family devolved on his cou- 
sin and heir male, Kenneth, eldest son of Eoghen or Ewen 
Baan, second son of Muirich. Ndll Ckrom^ so called from 
his stooping shoulders, Muirich*s third son, was a great arti- 
ficer in iron, and took the name of Smith from his trade. 
Ferquhard Gilliriach, or the swift, the fourth son, is said to 
have been the progenitor of the MacGillivrays, who followed 
the Madntosh branch of the dan Chattan, and from David 
Dubh, or the Swarthy, the youngest of Muirich*s sons, were 
descended the clan Dhai, or Davidsons of Invemahavon. 

The portion of the clan Chattan who adhered to Kenneth 
settled in Badenoch. Kenneth's son, Duncan Macpherson of 
Cluny, lived in the reign of Robert the Bruce, and fought on 
his side, at the head of his clan, at Bannockbnm. He re- 
cdved a commission to expel the Comyns from Badenodi, 
and on their forfeiture he obtained, for his services, a grant 
of their lands. He was also allowed to add a hand holding 
a dagger to his armorial bearings. His grandson, Donald Mor 
Macpherson, was chief in 1886, when a battle took place at 
Invemahavon between the dan Chattan and the Camerons, 
in which a great number of the former were killed, and the 
latter were nearly cut off to a man. The laird of Madntoeh 
having carried away the cattle of the Camerons, at different 
times, on account of the nonpayment of their rents, for the 
lands held of him in Lochaber, they marched into Badenoch 
to the number of 400, resolved upon reprisals. To oppooe 
them Madntosh collected his followerB, and called the Mac- 
pbersons and Davidsons to his aid. A dispute about prece- 
dency greatly weakened his force, and gave the Camerons 
the advantage. Tlie command of the right wing was claim- 
ed both by Cluny and Davidson of Invemahavon, the leader 
of the Davidsons, the former as chief of the dan Chattan, 
and the latter as the head of the eldest branch. Macintosh 
dedded against Cluny, on which the Macpbersons withdrew 
from the field. In the conflict that ensued, many of the 
Madntoshes and nearly all the Davidsons were slain. The 
Macpbersons, sedng this, forgot their wounded pride, and 
next day attacking the Camerons, defeated them with 
great loss, thdr leader bdng among the killed. It is the 
opinion of some writers, and among the rest of Shaw, the 
historian of Moray, that this quarrel about preoeden<7 was 
the origin of the celebrated judicial combat on the North 
Inch of Perth in 1896, which has already been described on- 
der the h<*ad Macdvtobh. and that the parties were the 




th« oommencement of tb« action, the Glengnnr men, who 
were on the right, kept firing as thej advanced, but the 
Macphenona, on the left, came sooner in contact with the 
dragoons, and reoeiTed the whole of their fire. When the 
balls were wbiszing about thero, Clunj exclaimed, ** What 
the devil is this?** Lord George told him that they had no 
remedj but to attack the dragoons, sword in hand, before 
thejr hiid time to charge again. Then, drawing hL» sword, he 
cried out, ** Claymore," and Glnny doing the same, the Mao- 
phemons rushed down to the bottom ditch of the enclosure, 
and cleairing the hedges as they went, fell sword in hand upon 
the king*8 troops, killing many and putting the rest to flight 

At the battle of Falkirk, the Macphersons formed a portion 
of the first line. They were too late for the battle of Cnllo- 
den, where their asustance migbt have turned the fortune of 
the day, and they did not come up till after the retreat of 
Charles from that decisiTe field. In the subsequent devasta- 
tions committed by the English army, Cluny^s house was 
plundered and burnt to the ground. Every exertion was made 
by the government troops for his apprehension, but they 
never could lay their hands upon him. At first he lived with 
Lochiel in a retreat at Benalder, a hill on his own property 
on the borders of Rannoch. Towards the end of Prince 
Charles* wanderings, for the purpose of meeUng the prince, 
he set out for Auchnacaiy, where he supposed him to be, but 
missing him there, he retraced his steps, and found him in a 
miserable hovel with Lochiel, at a pliice called Mellenauir or 
Millanuir, on the side of Benalder. On entering the hut, 
Cluny would have kneeled befure the prince, but the latter 
prevented him, and, giving him a kiss, said, *' I am sorry, 
Cluny, yon and your regiment were not at Culloden : I did 
not hear till very lately that you were so near us that day.** 
Tlie day following Cluny conducted the prince and his at- 
tendants to a little shieling about two miles farther into Ben- 
alder, and after passing two nights there he took him to a 
more secure retreat called the Cage, which he had fitted up 
for him, and where he lay concealed for several weeks till the 
arrival of the French frigate which conveyed him back to 

For himself Cluny had several places of concealment on his 
estate. He lived for nine years in a cave at a short distance 
from where his house had st^x>d. " This cave,** says General 
Stewart, (Sketches of the Highlanders, vol. i. pp. 60, 61.) 
" was in the front of a woody precipice, the trees and shelv- 
ing rocks completely concealing the entrance. It was dug 
ont by his own people, who worked by night, and conveyed 
the stones and rubbish into a lake in the neighbourhood, that 
no vestige of their labour might betray the retreat of their 
master. In this sanctuary he lived secure, occasionally visit- 
ing his fnends by night, or when time slackened the rigour of 
the search. Upwards of a hundred persons knew where he 
was concealed, and a reward of £1,000 was offered to any 
one who should give information against him ; and as it was 
known that he was concealed on his own estate, eighty men 
were constantly stationed there, besides the parties continu- 
ally marching into the country, to intimidate his tenantry, 
and induce them to disclose the place of his concealment.** 
But neither the fear of danger nor the hope of reward could 
prevail on any of his people to betray him, or even to discon- 
tiime their faithful services. 

For the purpose of discovering his retreat. Sir Hector 
Monro, at that time a lieutenant in the d4th regiment, at the 
head of a large party, continued two years in Badenoch, yet 
so true were the clan to their chief that not a trace of him 
could be found. On one occasion, while spending a few hours 
at night convivially with his friends, he escaped by a back 

window of the house they were in, just as the soldiery were 
breaking open the door. He became so cautions that, on 
parting with his wife, or any of his friends, he never told 
tliem to which of his places of concealment be was going, or 
suffered any one to accompany him, that they might have it 
in their power to answer, when questioned, that thej knew 
not where he was. He escaped to France in 1755, mod died 
at Dunkirk the following year. 

Frequent mention is made in the Stuart papers of a sum of 
money, amounting to £27,000, which the prince had intrust- 
ed to another person, by whom it was lodged in the hands of 
Cluny. Before quitting Scotland the prince gave Cluny in- 
structions that " not one farthing** was to be assigned awaj 
without an <x-der from himself. Another note to him, dated 
from on board the French vessel in which he embarked for 
France, directs £750 to be divided among the Macgregon, 
the Stewarts, the Macdonalds of Glengary and Reppoch, and 
the *' Lokel clan,** as the Gamerons of Lochiel are called. He 
likewise directs especial care to be taken of *' rings, seU, 
(seah^) and other trifels** belonging to him, and all lying in 
certain ** bozks,** that is, boxn. The last letter that seems 
to have been written to him by the prince on the subject, 
dated '* Ye 4th Septeml)er, 1754,** and addressed "• For G. 
M. (that is, Cluny Macpherson) in Scotld,** is as follows : 
*^ Sir, This is to desire you to come as soon as you can con- 
veniently to Paris, bringing over with you all the effccta 
whatsoever that I left in your hand when I was in Scotland, 
as also whatever money you can come at, for I happen to be 
at present in great straits, which makes me wish that you 
should delay as little as possible to meet ine for that effecL 
You are to address yourself when arrived at Paris, to Mr. 
John Waters, Banker, &c. He will direct you where to 
find your sincere friend. C. P.** This letter is copied from 
the original draught in Charles* own hand, among the Stuart 
papers, in possession of her majesty. In the perilous cir- 
cumstances in which Cluny was then placed, it is not known 
whether he was able to comply with all the directions he re- 
ceived regarding the application of the money, but it is be- 
lieved that when he escaped to France he was enabled to give 
the prince a good account of the same. 

E wen's son, Duncan, was bom in 1750, in a kiln for drying 
com, in which his mother had taken refuge after the destruc- 
tion of their house. During his minority his uncle, Major 
John Macpherson of the 78th foot, acted as his guardian. 
He received back the estate which had been forfeited, and, 
entering the army, became lieutenant-colonel of the 8d foot- 
guards. He married, 12th June, 1798, Catherine, youngest 
daughter of Sir Evan Cameron of Fassfera, baronet, and on 
his death, Ist August 1817, was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Ewen Macpherson of Cluny, the 28d chief from Gillichattan 
Mor; a captain on halfpay, 42d Highlanders, a magistrate 
and a deputy-lieutenant of Invemess-shire ; married 20th 
December 1832, the youngest daughter of Henry Davidson of 
Tulloch Castle, Ross-shire, with issue. 

In Cluny castle are preserved various relics of the rebdlion 
of 1745 ; amongst the rest the prinoe*s target and lace wrist 
raffles, and an autograph letter from Charles, promising an 
ample reward to his devoted friend Cluny. There is abK> the 
black pipe chanter on which the prosperity of the house ot 
Cluny is said to be dependent, and which all trae members of 
the dan Vuirich firmly believe fell from heaven, in place of 
the one lost at the conflict on the North Inch of Perth ! 

The war-cry of the Macphersons was *' Craig Dho,** the 
name of a rock in the neighbourhood of Cluny Castle. The 
chief is called in the Highlands '*Mac Mhurich Chlanaidh,** 
but everywhere else b better known as Cluny Macpherson. 




pherson was invited, and Dr. Blair, from whom 
this account is taken, says that he had a chief 
hand in convoking the* meeting. Among those 
present were Patrick, Lord Elibank, Principal 
Robertson, the historian, Mr. John Home, Dr. 
Adam Ferguson, Dr. Blair himself, and many 
others. After much conversation with Macpher- 
son, it was agreed that he should, without delay, 
go through the Highlands for the purpose of col- 
lecting all the Gaelic poetry he could find, the ex- 
pense to be defrayed by a subscription raised 
from the meeting, with the aid of such other 
friends as they might apply to with that object. 

The same year (1760) Macpherson set off to 
the Highlands ; and, du'ing his tour, he from time 
to time transmitted to Dr. Blair and his other 
literary friends, accounts of his progress in col- 
lecting, from many different and remote parts, all 
the remains he could find of ancient Gaelic poetry, 
either in writing or preserved by oral tradition. 
Ill the course of his journey he wrote two letters 
to the Rev. James M^Lagan, at one period mini- 
ster of Amalrie, and aftei'wards of Blair in Athol, 
in the first of which, dated from Ruthven (in 
Badenocb), 27th October, 1760, he says, *' I have 
met with a number of old manuscripts in my tra- 
vels ; the poetical part of them I have endeavour- 
ed to secure." The second, dated from Edin- 
burgh, 16th January, 1761, contains this passage: 
^' I have been lucky enough to lay my hands on a 
pretty complete poem, and truly epic, concerning 
Fingal.'' This is the first intimation of that re- 
markable work which was soon to create a most 
extraordinary sensation in the literary world. 

The districts through which Macpherson travel- 
led, in the prosecution of bis undertaking, were 
chiefly the north-western parts of Inverness-shire, 
the Isle of Sky e, and some of the adjoining islands; 
" places," says the Report of the Committee of 
the Highland Society, afterwards published, *^from 
their remoteness and state of mannere at that pe- 
riod, most likely to afford, in a pure and genuine 
state, the ancient traditionary tales and poems, of 
which the recital then formed the favourite amuse- 
ment of the long and idle winter evenings of the 

On his return to Edinburgh, Macpherson im- 
mediately set about translating the Gaelic poems 

which he had collected into English. Soon after, 
he published the fruits of his mission, in 2 vols. 
4to, the first in 1762, under the patronage of Lord 
Bute, containing * Fingal, an ancient Epic Poem 
in six books, with other lesser Poems ;' and the 
second in 1763, with the title of ^ Temora, an Epic 
Poem, in eight books, with other poems.* Both 
professed to have been composed by Ossian, the 
son of Fingal, a Gaelic prince of the fourth cen- 
tury, and translated from the Graelic language. 

From the first the genuineness of these poems 
became a matter of dispute, and for some years 
a violent controversy raged upon the subject. 
Among those who believed in their authenticity 
were Dr. Blair, Dr. Gregory, Lord Karnes, the 
Rev. Dr. Graham of Aberfoyle, and Su* John Sin- 
clair, baronet ; and amongst the most distinguish- 
ed of those who denied their genuineness were 
Mr. Hume the historian, Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
Dr. Smith of Campbelltown, and Mr. Laiug, au- 
thor of *■ Notes and Illustrations* introduced into 
an edition of Ossian's Poems, published in Edin- 
burgh in 1805. The latter were replied to by 
Mr. Alexander Macdonald in a work entitled 
^Some of Osdian*s lesser Poems rendered into 
verse, with a preliminary discourse in answer to 
Mr. Laiug's Critical and Historical Dissertations 
on the antiquity of Ossian's Poems,* Liverpool, 
1805, 8vo. They were also condemned as spuri- 
ous in a work entitled ^ An Inquiry into the Au- 
thenticity of the Poems of Ossian.* By W. Shaw, 
A.M. London, 1781. So strong was Dr. John- 
son^s prejudice against them, that in his ^ Journey 
to the Western Islands,* he declared that ** the 
poems of Ossian never existed in any other form 
than that which we have seen,** meaning in Mac- 
phcrson*s translation, and ^^ that the editor or au- 
thor never could show the original, nor can it be 
shown by any other.** Sir James Macintosh, too, 
in his ^ History of England,' expresses himself 
very strongly against their authenticity. At the 
close of a long and eloquent passage concerning 
them he says: ** Since the keen and searching 
publication of Mr. Laing, these poems have fallen 
in reputation, as they lost the character of genu- 
ineness. They had been admired by all the na- 
tions, and by all the men of genius in Europe. 
The last incident in their story is perhaps the 




In 1773, lie issued a prose translation in two 
Tolumea, cl the * Iliad of Homer,* which was re- 
ceived with ridicule and abiuM}, and universally 
considered a failure. The same year he wrote a 
threatening letter to Dr. Johnson, in consequence 
of his remarks on Ossian in his celebrated ^ Tour 
to the Hebrides.* Tlie latter returned a most 
sarcastic reply, wherciu he told him, with the 
most cutting contempt, that his "abilities since 
his Homer, were not so formidable." In 1775, 
Macpherson published * A History of Great Brit- 
ain, fi*om the Restoration to the Accession of the 
House of Hanover,^ in 2 vols. 4to; and, along 
with it, the data on which his statements were 
founded, in two additional volumes of * Original 
Papers,* for which last work he is snid to have 
received the sum of £3,000. 

Aliout this time ho was employed by the go- 
vcmmcnt to write two pamphlets in vindication 
and suppoi-t of the measures which led to the 
American war, and to the ultimate independence 
of the colonies of North America, now the United 
States. He was also appointed agent to the nabob 
of Arcot, in behalf of whom he also published 
two works. As il was thought requisite that he 
should have a seat in parliament, in order the more 
effectually to attend to the nabob's interests, in 
1780 he was elected member for Camelfoixl, for 
which place he was rcchoscn in 1784, and again in 
1790. Declining health induced him to retire to 
an elegant mansion, named Belleville, which he 
had built in the parish of Alvie, Inverncss-shii^e, 
where he died February 17, 179G. 

Mr. Macpherson died wealthy. By his will, 
besides the £1,000 for the publication of the ori- 
ginals of Ossian, and the bequest of several large 
legacies to his friends, he left £300 for a monu- 
ment to be erected to his memory at Belleville. 
] le also directed that his body should be conveyed 
to Westminster abbey, and it was accordingly in- 
terred at Poet's corner. 

His works are : 

Tlie Highlander; an Heroic Poem, in C cantos. 17.^8, 12mn. 

Fragments of Ancient Poetrv: coUected in the Highlands 
of Scotland, and translated from the Gaelic or Krse I^ngnnge. 
1760. 8vo. 

Fingal; an ancient Epic Poem, in six books; together 
with several other Poems composed by Ossian, tlie son of 
FineaL Translnted from the Gaelic I/ingnage. I/)nilnn, 
17G2, 4to. 

Temora ; an ancient Epio Poem, in eight booki ; tofather 
with several other Poems composed bj Osaian, aon of FSqchI* 
Translated from the Gaelic Language. I.ondon, 1769, 4to. 

Introduction to the History of Great Britain and Irdaiid. 
Tendon, 1771, 4to. 2d edition revised and greatly anhu^ged. 
Tendon, 3773, 4to. 

The Iliad of Homer. Translated bto IVoM. 177S, S 
vols. 4to. 2d edit. London, 1778, 4tA. 

The Histoiy of Great Britain from the Bestontioa to the 
Ascension of the Honse of Hanover. London, 1775, 2 toIb. 
4 to. I>ublin, 4 vols. 8vo. 

Original Papers; containing the Secret Histoiy of Great 
Britain, from the Restoration to the Accession of tht Hooae 
of HanoTcr. To which are prefixed, Extracts from the Life 
of James II., as written bj himself. Lond., 1775, 2 Tola. 4to. 

'l*he Rights of Great Britain assarted against tho Claims of 
the Colonies; being an Answer to the Declaration of the 
General Congress. 1776, 8vo. 

A Short History of the Opposition during the last Sesston 
of Parliament 1779, 8vo. 

Letters from Mohammed Ali Chan, Nabob of Arcot, to 
the Court of Directors. To which is aimexed, a State of 
Facts relative to Tanjore; with .in Appendix of Original 
Papers. 1777, 4to. 

The History and Management of the East India Company, 
from its origin in IfiOO to the Present Time : vol. i. contain- 
ing the Aflfaim of the Camatic; in which the Rights of the 
Nabob arc explained, and tl:o Injustice of the Company 
proved. 1779, 4to. 

Ode on the Arrival of the Earl Marischal in Scotland. 
Publiylied in the European Magazine for 1796. 

MACPHERSON, David, an industrious histo- 
rical writer and compiler, was born iu Scotland in 
1747, and died August 1, 1816. Duiing tlio latter 
part of his life ho was one of the deputy keepers 
of the public record**. All his works display labo- 
rious research, and contain much valuable informa- 
tion. Thev arc: 

I>e Oiygynale Cronjkil of Scotland, be Andrew Wyntown, 
rriour of Sanct Scrsis, ruche in I.och Levyn. Kotr first 
publi:ihed, with Kctes and a Glossary. Lond. 1795, 2 vols. 
4 to. The same. I^nd. 1795, 8vo. 

Gongniphical Illustrations of Scottish History ; containing 
the Names of Places mentioned in Chronicles, Historiea, Re- 
cords, &c ; with Corrections of the corrupted Names, and 
Explanations of the difficult and disputed points in the His- 
torical Geography of Scotland. With a Compendious Chro- 
nology of the Battles, to 1603. Lond. 1796, 4to. 

Aun.ols of Commerce, Manufactures, Fisheries, and Ka\-i- 
gntion ; with brief Notices of the Arts and Sciences connected 
with them; contuning the Commercial Transactions of the 
British and other countries, frotn the earliest acconnta to the 
meeting of the Union Parliament in 1801. Comprehending 
the valuable part of the late Mr. AnderHon*s Histoty of Com- 
merce, &C. Lond. 1805, 4 voUi. 4to. 

The History of European Commerce with India. To which 
is subjoined, a Review of the Arguments for and against the 
Trade with India, and the management of it by a Chartered 
Company ; with an Appendix of anthentic acconnta. Lond. 
1812, -If). 

>tAcriiiR, or Macfif, a contraction of Macduffle, the 




< 1 1 


namt of a clan (in tbe Gaelic tbe Clann Dhubhie, or the dark 
eohmml tribe,) which held the island of Colonsay in Arg}-le- 
thire, till the middle of the 17th ccnturr, when they were 
dispotMMed of it by the Macdonalds. They were a branch 
of tbe andent Albionic race of Scotland, and like all the 
tribes that claimed to be so, adopted the pine for their badge. 
On the acHith ude of the diurcb of the monastery of St 
Aofoatine in Colonsay, according to Martin (writing ui 1703), 
** Re tbe tombs of ^lacduiBe, and of the cadets of his family ; 
there b a sliip under sail, and a two-handed sword engraven on 
tbe principal tombstone, and this inscription : * Ilic jacet &Ial- 
colambiis Macduffie de CoUonsay ; * his coat of arms and colour- 
staff is fixed in a stone, through which a hole Is made to hold 
iL About a quarter of a mile on the south side of the church 
therc is a cmm, in which there is a stone cross fixed, called 
Macdnifie*s cross ; for when any of the heads of this family 
were to be interred, their corpses were hiid on this cross for 
some moments, in their way toward the church.*' 

Donald Macduf&e is witness to a charter by John, earl of 
Rom, and lord of the Isles, dated at the earl's castle of Ding- 
wall, 12th April 1463 {RegitUr oftht Great Seal, lib. vi. Ko. 
17.) After the forfeiture of the lordship of the Isles in 1493, 
the clan Duffie followed the Macdonalds of Isl.i. The name 
of the Maodnffie chief in 1531 was Murroch. In 1609 Donald 
M:icfie in Colonsay was one of the twelve chiefs and gentle- 
men who met the bisliop of the Isles, thu king's representa- 
tive, at lona, when, with their consent, the nine celebrated 
** Statutes of Icolmkiir* were enacteil. In 1615, Malcolm 
Macfie of Colonsay joined Sir James Macdonald of Isla, after 
his escape from the castle of Kdinburgh, and was one of the 
principal leaders in his subsequent rebellion. He and 18 
others were delivered up by Coll Macgillespick Macdonald, 
the celebrated Colkitto (left-handed) to the earl of Argrle, 
It whom he was brought before the privy council. He ap- 
pears afterwards to have been slain by Coikitto, as by tlie 
Conncil Records fur 1623 we lenm that the latter was accused, 
with sereml of his followers, of being " art and paii*t guilty of 
tlie felonie and cruell slaughter of umquhiil M.*tIcolm Macphle 
of Collonsay.** 

A branch of llie dan Duffie, after they had lost their in- 
heritance, followed Cameron of Loch icl, and settled in I.och- 
aber. At the battle of Culloden several of them were slain. 

C«illonsay was acquired by the Arg)'Ie family ufler they 
had expelled the M:icdonald:», and in 1700 it came into the 
posse^cuon of the MacneilU, iiy whom it is now held. 

Several gcnlU-menof the name of .Macfie have distinpiibhed 
themselves us merchants, particularly in Greenock and Liver- 
pouL William Macfie, INq., of Langhoiise who died in Nov. 
1851, was for sorneiime IVovost of (jreenock. « 

Macquahuik (^Clann Guarie), the name of a minor dan 
which possessed the small inland of Uiva, one of the Argylc- 
shire Hebiide.'t, with a portion of Muil, and the badge of which 
Wiis the piue. The Gaelic MS. of 1450 deduces their descent 
from Guarie or Gotlfrey, called hy the Highland Sennachies, 
Got or Gorbred, said to have been •' a brother of Fingon, an- 
cestor of the Muckinnon^, and Anrias or Andrew, ancestor of 
the Macgrcgors.** I'his is the bdief of Mr. Skene, who adds, 
** The hlitory of the 2iIacquniTies resembles that of the Mac- 
kinnons in many rexpccts ; like them they had migrated far 
fri»m the bead-quarters of their race ; thoy becime dependent 
on the lord.1 of the I.slci% and followed them ns if they had 
become a branch of the clan.** 

According to a history of the family, by one of its mem- 
bers, in 1249 Cormac Mhor, then ** chief of Ulva*s hde,** 
Idned Alexander II., with bis followers and three galleys of 

sixteen oars each, in his expedition against the western 
islands, and after that monarcirs death in the island of Ker- 
rera, was attacked by Haco of Norway, defeated and slain 
His two sons, Allan and Gregor, were compelled to take re- 
fuge in Ireland, where the latter, sumamcd Garbh or the 
rough, is s:iid to have founded the powerful tribe of the Mac- 
Guires, the chief of which at one time possessed the title of 
Lord InnUkillen. Allan returned to Scotland, and his do* 
scendant. Hector Macquarrio of Ulva, chief in the time of 
Robert the Bruce, fought with his clan at Bannockbum. 

The first chief of whom there is any notice in the public 
records was John Mucquarrie of Ulva, who died in 1473. 
{Iteff, of Great Seal^ 31, Ko. 159.) His son, Dunslaff, was 
chief when the last lord of the Isles was forfeited twenty 
years afterwards. After that event, the Macquarries, like 
the other vassal tribes of the Macdonalds, became indepen- 
dent. In war, however, they followed the banner of their 
neighbour Mai'Ienn of DowarL With the latter, Dunslaff 
supported the claims of Donald Dubh to the lordship of the 
Isles, in the beginning of the 16th century, and in 1504, 
** MacGorry of Ullowaa** was summoned, with some other 
chiefs, before the Estates of the kingdom, to answer f«>r bis 
share in Donald Dubirs rebellion. The submission of Maclean 
of Dowart, in the following year, implied also that of &Iac- 
quarrie, and in 1517, when the former chief obtained his own 
remission, he stipulated for that of the chief of Ulva and two 
other chiefs. Dunslaif married a daughter of Macneill of 
Taynish, the bride's tocher or dower consistmg of a piebald 
horse, with two men and two women. 

His son, John Macquarrie of Ulva, was one of the barons 
and conndl of the Isles who in 1545 supported the preten- 
bions of Donald Dubh, on his second escape from his forty 
years* imprisonment. He was also one of the thirteen chiefs, 
who were denounced the same year for carrying on a traitor- 
ous correspondence with the king of England, with the view 
of transferring their allcguince to him. In 1609 Gillespock 
.Macquarrie of Ulva was one of the island chiefs present in 
the island of lona when the nine " Statutes of Icolmkill" 
were passed. Allan Macquarrie of Ulva was slain, with most 
of his followers, at the battle of Inverkeithing against the 
Engltsh pailinmentnry troops, 20th July 1651, when the 
Scots anny was defeated, and a free passage opened to Crom- 
well to the whole north of Scothnnd. 

According to tradition one of the chiefs of Ulva preserA'ed 
his life and estate by the exercise of a timely hospitality 
under the following circumstances : Maclean of Dowart had 
a natural son by a beautiful voung woman of his own clan, 
and the boy having been born in a bam was named, from his 
birth-place, Allan-a-Sop^ or Allan of the strax. The girl 
afterwards became the wife of Maclean of Torloisk, residing 
in Mull, hut though he loved the mother he cared nothing for 
her boy, and when the latter c.ime to see ber, he was very 
unkind to him. One morning the lady saw from her window 
her son approaching and hastened to put a cake on the fire 
for his breakfa.Kt. Her husband noticed this, and snatching 
the cake hot fi-om the girdle, thnist it mto his stepson's 
hands, forcibly cl:i5ping them on the burning bread. The 
lad's hands were severely burnt, and in consequence he re- 
frained from going again to Torloisk. As he grew np Allan 
became a mariner, and joined the DaniKh pirates who infested 
the western isles. Ficm his connige he soon got the com- 
mand of one galley, and subsequently of a £otilla, and made his 
name both fe.tred and famous. Of him it m.iy be said that — 

" Sir R.-ilph the Rover sailed away. 
Ho scoured the scu for many a day. 





1 i 


I ■ 

And now, grown rich with plunder*d ttore, 
He tteen his waj for ScuUiuid*s shore.** 

The thonglit of hb motiier bron^t him bock onoe mote to 
the itthuid of Mull, and one morulng he anchored hia fallert 
in front of the house of Torloiak. Hia mother had been kxig 
dead, but his stepfUUicr hastened to the shore, and wcloomed 
hhn with apparent kindness. The crafty old man had a fiAid 
with Maoqnarrie of Ulva, and thought tlits a farourable op- 
portunity to execute his vengeance on that chief. With this 
object he suggested to Allnn it wns time he should settle 
on land, and said that he could r.udly get possession of the 
islaud of Ulva, by only putting to death the htird, who was 
old and useless. Allan agreed to the proposal, and, setting 
snil next morning, appeared before Macqu:irrie*s hun!*e. Tlie 
chief of Ulva was greatly alanued when he saw the pirate 
giiUeys, but he resolved to receive their commander liosiii- 
tnbly, in the hope that good treatment would induce him to 
go away, without plundering his house or doing him any in- 
jury. He causeil a splendid fenst to be prepared, and wel- 
comed Allan to Ulva with every appearance of sincerity. 
After faisting together tlic whole d.iy, in the evening tlic 
pirate-chief, when about to retire to his ships, thanked tlie 
cliief for his entertainment, remarking, at the same time, that 
it had cost him dear. " How so?** said Macquarrie, " when J 
bestowed this entertainment upon you in free goo<l will.*" 
** It is true," said Allan, wliu, notwithstanding his being a 
pirate, seems to have been of a fmnk and generous disposi- 
tion, *' but it has disammgcd all my plans, and quite altervd 
the purpose for which I came hither, which was to put you 
to death, seize your castle and hinds, and settle myself hen* 
in your stead.** Macquiurie replied that he was sure such a 
suggestion was not his own, but must have originated with his 
stepfather, old Torloisk, who was his personal enemy. He 
then reminded him that ho had made but an indifferent hus- 
band to his mother, and was a cruel stepfather to himself, 
adding, " Consider this matter better, Allan, and you will sec 
that the estate and harl>our of Torloisk He as conveniently 
for you as those of Ulva, and if you must make n settlement 
by force, it is much better yon should do so at the expense of 
the old churl, who never sljowed you kindness, than of a friend 
like me who always loved and honoured you." 

Allan-a-Sop, remembering his scorched fingers, straight- 
way sailed back to Torloisk, and meeting his stepfather, who 
came eagerly expecting to hear of lif acqnarrie's de;ith, thus 
accosted him : ** You hoary old villain, you instigated me to 
nmrdor a better man than yourself. Have yon forgotten 
how you scorched my fingers twenty years ago with a buni- 
ing cuke ? Hie day has come when that breakfast nmst be 
paid for.** So 8:iying, with one stroke of his battle-axe he 
lilt down hut stepfather, took possessuon of his castle and 
property, and establuihed there that branch of the clan Mac- 
lean afterwards represented by BTr. Clephane Maclean. 

Hector, brother of Allan Macquarrie of Ulva, and second 
son of Donald the 12th chief of the Macquarries, by his wife, 
a daughter of Lauchlan Oig Maclean, fbunder of tlie Macleans 
of Torlouk, obtained from his father tlie lands of Onnaig in 
Ulva, and was the first of the Macquarries of Onnaig. This 
family frequently intennarried with the Maelcans, b«)tli of 
J^ibny and Dowart Lauchlan, Donald*! tliird son, was 
ancestor of the Maoquanies of I^ggnii, and John, the fourth 
son, of those of Balh'ghartan. 

Lauchhm Macquarrie of Ulva, the 16th chief in regular 
succession, was compelled to disp(Mfe of his lands for behoof 
of his creditors, and in 1778, at the age of C3, he entered the 
army. He sened ia the American war, and died in 1818, at 

the age of 103, witlioot nale issoe. lie wiai the hoA cliief of 
the Macquarriei, and the propricter )if Uhra wbea Dr: Soh 
uel Jofansou and Mr. Boswvll visited that island In 1778. 

Tlie room where tht Doctor apeut tha nigiil'ia jci libava 
in the old mansion of tha MaeqttarriaiL Ur. Jahna nn aiid 
the chief, whom he waa antprised to find a panoii «f gnat 
poHteneaa and iateUigenee, had a «onT«natian> atbaat' tha 
usage known by the name of JIftrekekt m m / it n m t^ wbieb lar- 
meriy existed in Ulva, and waa n fliie pahl to the dtlcf bj hit 
vassals on the marriage of a virgin. In anawtr to tha Doe- 
tor's reference to Blaekstone, wito haa espvcaaed Ua iSafaaBef 
that any sndi claim on the part of landlorda over csWifd, 
Maequarrie informed the Eughsfa aage thai tlio eldeat einl- 
dren of marriages were not esteemed amongit the Gael as 
among other nations, most of whom adhered to disttnet Uiwt 
of primogeniture, on account of the parentage of the eldest 
child, from the abm-e-meaticMied custom, being rendered 
doubtful i hence, l»rotherB were verv commonly preferred to 
the proper heirs apparent He likewise told him that he 
himself had been in the habit of demanding a sheep, on occa- 
sion of e\-er7 marriage iii Ulva, for wbidi he had subatituted 
a fine of five shillings in money. Dr. Johnson waa veiy for- 
cibly impressed with the following iiistanee of aeoond sight 
related to him by the Maequarrie chief. He said that once 
when he was in Edinbtirgh, an old female domestic of the 
familv in Ulva foretold that l.e would return home on a eer- 
t.-tin day, with a new aen*ant in a livery of red and green, 
which he accordingly did; but he declared that the idea of 
the sen'ant and the liver}- ocntrreil to him only when lie was 
in Edinburgh, and that the woman could know nothing of his 
intentions at the time. 

A large portion of the ancient patrimonial property was 
repurchased by General Macquarrie, long governor of, New 
South Waleii, and from whom Macquarrie county, Blacqnar- 
rie river, and INirt Macquarrie in that colony, Maoqnanie's 
harbour, and Macqu:irrie island in the S<mth Pacific, derive 
their name. He was the eldest cadet of his family, and was 
twice married, first, to Miss B.niille of Jerviswood, and sec- 
ondly, to a daughter of Sir John Campbell of Airds, by whom 
he had an only son, Ijiehlan, who died without issue. 

Tlie island of Ulva is about two miles long, averaging a 
mile and a qu.nrter in breadth, and contains about GOO inhab- 
itants. The name is derived from the Scandinavian Vffiar^ 
and means the island of wolves, thoee animals having .nn- 
cientlv abounded there. 

MikCQUECX, the surname of one of the subordinate tribes of 
the dan Chattan, the he;id of which u Macqneen of Corry- 
brough, Inveriicss-shire. The founder of this tribe is add to 
have been Roderick Dhu Hevan MacSweynor MacQneen,who, 
about the beginning of tl:e 15th century, received a grant of 
territoiy in the county of Inverness. He belonged to the 
family of the lord of the Isles, and Lis desctiidauta from him 
were called the clan Revan. 

The Alacqneeiis fought, under the standard of Macmtosh, 
captain of the cl.iii Cliattan, at the battle of Hariaw in 1411. 
On 4th April 1G09, Donald Mncqueen of Corrybrongh aigned 
the bond of nuinrent, with the chiefs of the other tribes oom- 
posing the clan Chattan, whereby they bound themaelves to 
support Angus Macintosh of that ilk as their captun and 
leader. At this period, we arc told, the tribe of Maequeen 
comprehended twelve distinct families, all landowners in the 
counties of Inverness and Kaime. 

In 1778, I^rd Macdotiald of Sleat, who had been created 
an Iribh peer by that title two years before, having raised a 
Highland regiment, conferred a Keutenaitcy in it on a aun of 






Donald Macqncen, then of- C«m7broagli, and in the letter, 
dated S6Ui January of tliat rcnr, in irhidi lie intimated the 
appointmani, he mjn, " It dttes ino great honour to hnre tlie 
■ona of ehieftaina in tlio regiment, and as tlie Mncqneens 
liare bera iBTarinbly nttadietl to oar frnnilr, to irliom we 
belieifv we oire our existence, I nni proud of tlie nomination." 
Thm were the ilaoqueciis acknowledged to have been of 
>laedoBaU origin, although tliej ranged themeelv^s among 
the tribes of the chin Chattan. 

MACQUEEN, Kobert, of BiaxficKl, an cmi- 
uent kiir}-cr and jadge, was bom May 4, 1722. 
Ho was tlic eldest son of John ^lacqnccn, Esq. of 
Braxfidd^ Lanarkshire, for some time sheriff sub- 
stitnte of the npper wanl of that county. After 
receiving the nidinieuts of education at tlie gram- 
mar scliool of Lanark, lie was sent to tlic univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, and apprenticed to a writer to 
the signet in that city. In lli-k he was admitted 
advocate. Tlie many intricate and important 
fi'ndal qnestions arising out of the rebellion of 
1745, respecting the forfeited estates, in which he 
had the good fortime to be appointed counsel for 
the crown, first brought him into notice, and for 
many 3'ear8 be had a larger pi^ctice than any 
other member of the bar at that period. As a 
feudal lawyer he was considered the first in Scot- 
land in his time, and he has been known to plead 
from fifteen to twenty causes in one day. 

In November 1776, he was appointed a jndge 
of the court of session, when he assumed the title 
of Ix)rd Braxfield. In February 1780 he was ap- 
pointed a lonl of justiciary, and in December 1787 
was promoted to be lord -justice-clerk. This last 
office he held during a most interesting and criti- 
cal period — that between 1793 and 1795. lie 
presided at the memorable political trials of Muir, 
Palmer, Skining, Margarot, c^c, in 1793-4, con- 
ducting himself with gi'cat firmness and intrepi- 
dity, but is considered to have U'cated the pris- 
oners with nnnecessaiy harshness. He failed, 
however, in all his attempts to intimidate them. 
"It is altogether unavailing," said Skirviug to 
him, " for your lordship to menace me ; for I have 
long Icanied to fear not the fiice of man." Even 
on the bench he s]iokc the broadest Scottish dia- 
lect. '*IIae ye ony coimsel, man?" he said to 
Maurice Mar;,'arot, when placed at the bar on a 
charge of sedition. " No," was the answer. 
♦'Do you want to hae ony appointit?" *'Xo," 
replied Margarot, **I only want an interpreter 

to make me nndcrstaud what your lordship 
savs ! " 

Lord Braxfield died May dOtli, 1799, in his 78th 
year. Ho was twice married, first to lilary Ag- 
new, niece of Sir Andrew Agnew, baronet, by 
whom he had two sons and two daughters ; and 
secondly, to Elizabeth, daughter of the lord chief 
baron Ord, without issue. 'Jlic elder son, Robert 
Dundas Macqueen, inherited the estato of Brax- 
field, and maiTied Lady Lilian Montgomer}', 
daughter of the earl of Eglinton. Tlic second en- 
tered the anny. The elder daughter, Mary, be- 
came the wife of William Honyman, Esq., advo- 
cate, afterwards I^rd Armadale, a lord of session, 
created a baronet in 1804. The younger married 
John Macdonald of Cianronald. 

Mackar^ .1 minor cbn of RoM-tthire, which has fi-om time 
immemorial been subordinate to tlio Seaforth branch of tlio 
Muckenzies. The badge of the Macraes was the fir-club 
moss, and tliey are generally considered of the pure Gaelic 
stock, although they bare abfo been stated to be of Irish ori- 
gin, and to have come over to Scotland about the middle of 
the loth ccntnn*. They are said to have fought under Fitz- 
gcntld, tliO Mipposed founder of the clan Mackenzie at the 
battle of Lnrgs in 12G3. They settled fi»t in the Aird of 
Lovut, but snWqucntly emigrated hito Glenslieil in the dis- 
trict of Kintail, Boss-shire. Dr. Johnson has inserted in his 
' Tour to the Western Isles,* a story which he s.iys he heard 
in tliO Hebrides, that the Macraes '* were originally an indigent 
and sul)onlinate cUm, senants to the Mnclennans, who, in 
the wars of Charles I., took arms at the call of the heroic 
Montrose, and were, in one of his battles, almost destroyed. 
The women that were left at home, being thus deprived of 
their husbands, like the Scythian ladies of oiii, manied tlirii 
servants, and the Macraes became a considerable nice." Tiie 
writer of the account of the parish of Glenshcil, in the New 
Statistical Account of Scotland, pronounces this an unwor- 
thy invention, *' destitute of all foundation, and contr:idicte<l 
by ample evidence, written and tmditional." Some one had 
imposed on the crcdnlity of tlic gi-eat lexicographer. At the 
battle of Auldearn, in May lC4o, the Macraes fought undci 
the Mackenzie chief in the ranks of Montrose, and more of 
tlicir number fell than of the Maclennans. They were de- 
feated at tlio battle of Glenslieil, under William earl of Sea- 
forth iu 1719, when u body of 400 Spaniards attempted to 
make a landing in tlic Stuart interest. When that nobleman, 
for his bhai-c in the troubles of 1-715 and 1719, was obliged 
to retire to the Continent, and his lands wera forfeited, so 
strong was the attachment of the Macnies and Maclennans 
to him, that, during tlio time the forfeiture lasted it bafflod 
all the efforts of government and its commissioner, Ross of 
Feame, to penetrate into his territory, or to collect any rents 
in Kintail. On one occasion Koss and his son with a party of 
men set off to collect the rents, and fciring some attack on 
the way, he sent his son forward, on his own horse, when a 
shot from a rifle laid him dead. The father and his party 
immediately ab:mdoned their intentions, and returned home 
in haste. Scaforth's tenants were aided in their resistance by 
tlio advice uf Donald .Murchison of Auchtertyre, uho regu- 

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lurlv collected the reutd, und found means to remit them to 
Seaforth, then in France. 

Tlie chief or head of the Chnn */c Kath Mhohtch^ or 
"Hairy Mncraes," culled by Kisbet the "Macrncha," and 
pronounced AlacCmws, was Macmo of Inverinate in Kintnil. 
A ^IS. genealog:<:ul acconnt of the, trntten by the 
Rev. John Macnic, minister in Dingirnll, trho died in 1704, 
was in possession of the Lite IJetitcnant-colonel Sir John 
^Iftcrae of Ardintoul. This sechided and primitive tribe were 
remarkable for their f^reat size and courap.\ and it L-i recorded 
that one Duncan Macrae, who lived in the bepnning of the 
18th centnrjf had such amazing strength, that ho carried for 
some distance a btone of immense size, and laid it down on 
the farm of Achnangart, where it U vet to bo seen. lie ren- 
dered himself famous hj nvovering stolen cattle from the 
reivers of I-,ochaber, cither belonging to himself or his neigh- 
bours. He was the author of several p<ietical picce.«, and was 
killed, with many of his clan, at SherifTmuir in 1715. His 
claymore, long preserved in the Tower of I/)ndun, was shown 
as ** the great liiglilandcr's swonl." 

A prcnt number of the clan M.ncrae enlist od in the Seaforth 
Highlanders, when that regiment w.ns raised in 177H, and 
their mutiny at I^ith boon after their enrolment gave rise to 
a memorable ocairrence whidi was called '' the atlair of the 
wild Macraws." The regiment had been rai.-icd chirfly from 
.tmong his own tenantry, by the reston'd earl of Seaforth, 
grandson of the earl who had been attainted for his partiei- 
p:ition in the rul>cl lion of 1715. It fonned a corps of>0 
men. Of these, al»out 000 were Hij;lilandei"s, 500 of whom 
were Mackenzies and M.nenies, from his lordship*ii own e>tntc, 
and the remainder were obtained fmm the estates of Se.nt- 
wcll, Kilcoy, Appleerr-5S, Rcdcastle, and others belonging 
to gentlemen of the name of Mackenzie, .ill of whom had 
sons or brothers among the officers. Knibodied at KIgin in 
Mny of tho year mcnlioned, the regiment was inspected by 
General Skene, when it was found so eflVctive that not one 
man was rejected. In the month of August the regiment 
proceeded to Kdiubnr^h, and in September m.nrched to Leith 
for embarkation to the Ka<t ludirs ; but it not been long 
qtuirtcrcd in that town when the men showed signs of dis- 
Cftntcnt, and murmurs began l^) be e.Tpre5>ed amonirst them 
that "they had been sold to the Kost India Company." 
They had enlisted to bene only for a limited period, and 
not out of Great Brit:iin, and they complained of an intringe- 
ment of their agreement, and that part of their pay and 
bounty money was in arrear, kept back from them, as they 
alleged, by their officers. 

As they could obtain neither 8:itisfaction nor redress, on 
Tuesday, 22d September, wiien the regiment was drawn up 
on I.eith Links, preparatory to entering the boats which were 
to convey them to the transports lying in I^ilh roads, .ibout 
600 of the men refused to embark, and marching out of Leith, 
with pipes playing and two plaids fixed on poles instead of 
colours, took up a position on Arthur's Seat, an eminence 
800 feet high, in the immediate neighbourhood of Fdinburgh. 
Tliere they remained for three nights, .imply supplied in the 
U'.e.intime with proviaious by the iiihabiUmts of the 
Two days were spent in negotiations with them, in wiiich the 
earls of Dnnmore and Seaforth, Lord Macdonald, Sir James 
Grant of Grant, and other gentlemen connected with the 
Highlandit, took an active and prominent part, and on Friday 
morning a bond was signed by the dake of Buccleuch, the 
earl of Dnnmore, Sir Adolphus Oughton, and Genenil Skene, 
the latter two tho officers first and second in command of the 
forces in Scotland, cont.iining the following conditions: A 
pardim to the Highlanders for all past offences ; all levy mo- 

ney and arrears due to them to be paid befbn emfaukatioii, 
and that they should not be sent to the East Indiei. The 
soldiers being satisfied, m.irched down the lull with pipes 
playing, the earls of Seaforth and Dnnmore at their hMd, 
and returned to their quarters at I^ith. The result of an 
inquiry which was afterwards made was, that there was no 
foundation for complaints against tho officers on the gmnnd 
of pay or arrear, and that " the cause of the retiring to Ar- 
thur's Seat was. from an idle and ill-fomided report that the 
regiment was sold to the East India Company, and tlie 
officers were to leave them on their being embarked on board 
the transports." The regiment subsequently embarked with 
the greatest cheerfulness, accompanied by their ctdonel, the 
e.irl of Seaforth, one-half of the men Wing sent to Guernsey, 
and the other half to Jersey. In May 1781, having express- 
ed their willingness to go to the East Indies, the regiment 
embarked at Portsmouth for Madras. The colonel, the eflrl o( 
Seaforth, died before they reached St. Helena, when his cousin, 
Lieutenant-colonel Humberston Mackenzie, succeeded to the 
command. The regiment was first c.illed the 78th, but the 
number was subsequently altered to the 72d, and in 1823 it 
got the name of •*the duke of Albany's Highlanders.** 

When the second battalion of the Ross-shiro Highlanders, 
or 78th regiment, raised in 1804, one gentleman of this 
name, Christopher Macrae, brought eighteen of his own clan 
.18 part of his portion of recruits for an ensigncy. This regi- 
ment sened in Egypt in 1807, and at El Hamet, a village on 
tho Nile, nearly six miles si\wve Rosetta, a desperate affair 
t«K)k \t\iwc, the llritiAli being ntt.iekcd by a strong body of Turks, 
Albanians, and Arabs, and a great number of officers and men 
were killed. On this ccca.sion, says General Stcw.irt of Garth, 
in his • Sketches of the Highlanders,' '* Sergejuit John Mac- 
rae, a young man abi^ut twenty-two years of age, but of good 
size and strength of ann, showed that the broadsword, in a 
firm hand, is as good a weapon in close fighting as the bay- 
onet. Macrae killed six men, cutting them down with his 
broadsword, (of the kind usually worn by sei^ants of High- 
land corp:j>.) when at last he made a dash out of the ranks on 
a Turk, whom he cut dov. n ; but .is he w.ia returning to the 
sqnarc he was killed by a blow from behind, his head being 
nearly split in two by the stroke of a sabre. Lieutenant 
Christopher Macrae, aln»ady mentioned as having brought 
eighteen men of his own name to the regiment as part of his 
quota of recruits, for an cnsigncy, was killed in this affair, 
with six of his followers and n.imesakes, besides the sergeant. 
On tho pass.ige to Li»bon in October 1805, the same ser- 
geant came to me one evening (General Stewart was a m.ijor 
in the regiment) crying like a child, and complaining that 
tiic ship's cook had called him English names, which he did 
not understand, and thrown some fat in his face. Thus a 
lad who in 1805 was so soft and to childish, displayed in 
1807 a courage and vigour worthy a hero of Osuan." 

Roth males and females of the Macraes are said to have 
evinced an extraordinary tsistc for poetry and nmsic. John 
Macrae, Wtter known among his countrymen as Mac Virtsi, 
whose family are said to have possessed tho gift of poetry fur 
.•*ome generations, emigrated to America, in consequence 
of the innovations on the ancient h.ibits of the Highlanders, 
and feelingly regretted, in Gaelic verse, his h.iving left his 
native country. A poem composed by him on a he.ivy loss 
of cattle is considered by many equal to anything in the 

One of this clan was an able governor of Madras, in com- 
memomtion of whom a monument is erected on a rinng 
ground in the parish of Prestwick, Ayrshire. 

Captain James Macrae of Holmains in April 1790 had the 




aittfortmie to iilioot Sir James Rmnsav of DnniflT, luironet, in 
t dnd at Moudburgb, ami tru oblifred in conseqncnoe to 
leare Seutland. He was cited beftnre the l:i;;1i court of justi- 
eiarjr upoo criiniiuil letters to take In:i trini for murder, in the 
(uUoiring July, and outlan-ed fur non-appearance. He Iind 
ptnionslj conrered his estate to trustees, tvlio, in conformity 
vith Ilia instruction^ exccnteii an entail of it. He died 
ifarmd 16th Jauuary 1820, learing a son and a daughter. 

MACniMMOXf the surname of a minor sept, (the Siot 
Cknumum,') who irere the hereditary pipers of Madeod of 
Jladcod. 'riie? had a sort of seminary for the instruction of 
learners in l>a«^)i;*c mu>ic, and trere the most celebrated b:i<;- 
]4pe players in the Highl;mdii. Tiie fintt of wliom there is 
Mj notice was Ian Odhar, or dun-colonrcd John, trlio lived 
iboot 1600. About the middle of tlio 17th century, Patrick 
Mor MacKmmofi, liaring lost seven sons, (he had ciglit in 
ill) within a year, composed for the bagpipe a touching * La- 
ment for the cliildren,* called in Gaelic Cumhadh na Cloitwe. 
Id 174d Madeod*s piper, e:tteemed the bent in Scotland, was 
called Donald Ran MacRimmon. When thnt chief, who was 
(^tpoaed to Prince Charles, with Slnnra of Culc;iirn, at the 
head of 700 men, were defeated by I^ird Lewis Gordon, and 
the Farqnharsons, at Invemry, 12 miles from Aberdeen, Do- 
nald Ban was taken priMucr. On this occasion, a striking 
nuufk of mtpect was paid to him by his brethren of the bag- 
pipe, vhicli at once obtained his release. The pipers in I^rd 
Lcwift* following did not play the noxt morning, as wn.s their 
wont, and on inquiry as to tlris unusual circumstance, it was 
foand by liis lonlsliip and his officers that the pipes were si- 
lent because XacRimmon was a prisoner, when he was hn- 
Rwdiately set at liberty. He was, however, shortly aflcr- 
vvds killed in the night attempt, led by the laird of Macleod, 
to capture the prince at Moyhall, the seat of I«aily Macintosh 
Mar Inverness. 

On tlie passing of the heritable jnri.Hdic-tiun abolition bill in 
1747, the occupation of the hereditary bagpipers was gone. 
DonaM Dnbh M.ncRimmon, the last of them, died in 182*2, 
«^ 91. The affecting lament, Tha til, tha til, tha til, MhJc 
OnmNiW, " MacRimmon shall never, shall never, shall never 
ittnm,** was composed on his departure for Canad.i. 

Mac Boby, a surname derived from the name Rodnicic, 
ailed Rnari in tlie Highlands. The clan Rory were so styled 
trom I»oderick, the eldest of the three sons of Reginald, second 
■jun of Somcrltrd of the I>les by his second marri.-ige. This 
Rideridc was lord of Kintyre and one of the most noted )ii- 
rates of Ilia dav. His descendants became extinct in the 
third generation. The chm Donald and clan Duugnll sprung 
froni Roderick's brothers. 

MacSorij^y, a surname derived from the Norse Somcried, 
vbich means Samu«l. In the Gaelic it is Somhairlc. The 
Catnerons of Glennevis were called 5IacSorley, while those of 
Stroqw were MacGillonies, and those of Letterfinlay were 
MacMartins. These septs, says Gregory, (Ilighlamda and 
Itla, p. 77,) were all .nnciciit families in Lochaber, and seem 
to have adopted the surname of Cameron, although not de- 
Kended of the familv. 

MacVuiiiich, the stuiiame of a family which for scvend 
;;nientions held the office of bard and genealogist to the 
Mscdonaldi of Cbinrauald. Kiel ^facVuirich, the last of the 
bardic race, lived to a great age in South UiAt, and died in 
1726. He wrote in the Gaelic language the hi:$tory of the 
CLummald, as well as ctiHectetl some ancient poetry, and the 

annals of past times. Ail his own compositions have been 
lost, excepting three pieces which are given in Mackenzie's 
* Reautiea of Gaelic Poetry,* pp. 05 — C7. 

The following curious and interesting declaration of Lncli- 
Ian MncVuirich, son of Nicl, taken by desire of the Comntit- 
teo of the Highland Society of Scot. cnl, appointed to inquire 
into the nature and autiienticity nf the poems of Ossian, will 
throw much light on the bardic office, as well as furnish some 
information regarding the celebrated Red Book of ClanniU- 
aid. It is a translation of the ori^nal written in Gaelic, and 
addressed to Henry ^lackenzie, Esq., at the time he was 
writing the Society's report of Ossian. *^ In the house of 
Patrick Nicolson, at Torlum, near Castle Burgh, in the shire 
of Inverness, on the ninth day of August, compeared, in the 
lifty-niuth year of his age, Lachlan, son of Miel, son of I«nch- 
lan, son of Niel, son of Donald, son of I.achlan, son of Kiel 
.Mor, son of I«achlan, son of Donald, of the surname of ^Inc- 
Vuirich, before Roderick M*Xeil, Ksq. of Barra, and declared,. 
That, according to the l>ost of his knowledge, he is the eight- 
eenth in descent from Muireach, whose posterity had offici- 
ated as bards to the family of Clanrsinald ; and that they h:id 
from that time, as the salary of their office, the farm of Sta- 
oiligary, and four pennies of Drinii.'vdale, during fifteen gene- 
rations ; that the sixteenth descendant lost the four pennies 
of Drimisdale, but that the seventeenth descendant retained 
the farm of Staoiligary for nineteen years of his life. That 
there was a right given them over these lands, as long as 
there should be any of the posterity of Muireach to preserve 
and continue the genealogy and hiKtory of the Macdonalds, 
on condition thnt the bard, failing of male issue, was to edu- 
cate his brother's s«ni, or repn'sentative, in order to pre:>ervo 
their title to the lands; and that it was in pursuance of this 
custom that his own father, Niel, had been taught to rend 
nnd write hiittory and poetry by Donald, son of Niel, son of 
Donald, his father's brother. 

*' He remembers well that works of Ossian written on 
p.iR'hment, were in the custody of his father, as received 
trom his predecessors; that some of the parehments were 
made up in the form of books, and that othera were loose and 
separate, which contained the works of other burds l)CMdes 
those of Ossian. 

'* He remembers that his father had a book, which was 
called the J^td Book, made of pajier, which he had from his 
predecessors, and which, as his father informed him, contain- 
ed a gooil deal of the history of the Highland clans, together 
with pnrt of the works of Ossian. That none of those books 
are to be found at this day, bcc.ius3 when they (his family) 
were deprived of their lands, they li>st their alacrity and zeal. 
That he is not certain what became of the parehments, but 
thinks that some of them were carried away by Alexander, 
son of the Rev. Alexander Macdonald, and others by Ronald 
his son ; and he saw two or three of them cut down by tai- 
lors for measures. That he remembers well that Clanranald 
made his father give up the Red Book to James Macpherson 
from Badcnoch: it was near as thick as a Bible, but 
that it w.ns longer and broader, though not so thick in the 
cover. That the parehments and the Red Book were v^Tittcn 
in the linnd in which the Gaelic used to he so written of old 
both in Scotland and Ireland, before people began to use the 
English hand in writing Gaelic; and that his father knew 
well how to read the old hand, lliat he himself had some 
of the parchments af\er his father's death, but that because 
he had not been taught to read them, and had no reason to 
set any value on them, they were lost He 8.iys that none 
of his forefathera had the name of Paul, but there were two 
of them who were called Cathal. He savs that the Red 




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! i' 

MAI I?, 



Rook was not written by one injKi, Imt that it w:i8 written, 
Innn h;;c to .■i;:c. I»y tlic fsmulr of CUn >fliuiric1i, «ho were 
preserving nnd contuiuin;; tlie history of the Macdonnlib, and 
of other hea<]« of l{i|;hland cl.-ins. 

" Af^er tlio nbove dechtmtion was taken down, it trai read 
to him, and lie acknowled^wl it was right, in presence of I?o- 
iiald M'Donahl of Balron.ild, James :iM>onaId of Garrlie- 
lich, Kwan M 'Donald of Griininish, Alexander M-r^ean of 
Ifostcr, Mr. Alexander Nic«»hion, minister of Benliecnhi, and 
Mr. Allan M 'Queen, minister of North I'ist, who wrote this 
diflnration." The last I-:ichlan above mentioned as father 
of Neil Mor and son of Dimald, was eallcd for distinct ion's 
^ake, I^chunn Mor Mac Mhuirich Albannaich, or I^ichlan 
Mor Slac Vuirich of Scotland. He lived in the 1 Jlh ccntu- 
rv, and was the author of a remarkable war-sonp, composed 
wholly of epithets airnngod in alphabetical order, to rouse 
the cUn l)«)nald previous to the tie (if Ilariaw. (See Mac- 
krmiti Deauliei of Gaelic Potti-y, p. G2, Note.) 

Kverv jjieat Highland family had their bard, who>c busi- 
ness it was to recite at cntertaiiinieiits tho immenue stores of' 
poetry which he had hoarded up in his menmrT, and to pre- 
een'e the genealogy and commemoRite the mihtary actions of 
the heroes or cliieJ's. >Vhen Neil MacVuirich, the ln»t of the 
bards, died in 172G, the biirdic order became extinct in Scot- 

Maddeuty, Uai-on. See Stuatiiallas, Viscount of. 

M.AIK, or ^Iajok, Juiix, a scholastic divine .ind 
liistorinn, was born at the villngc of Gleghoniic, 
parish of North Honvick, in 1469. lie went to 
the iinivcisity of rnris in 140;), and stndicd at the 
colleges of St. Unibc nnd Montncnie. In 1496 he 
became M.A, and 2 years after removed to the 
college of XavaiTo. In 1508 he was ci-cated D.I). 
It npiKjars from some passages in his writings 
that in the early part of the ICth cetitniy he was 
a member of Christ's college, Cambridge. lie 
R'tnnied to Scotland in 1518, in which year he 
became a member of the university of Gla.««gow, 
being then styled canon of (he chapel royal and 
>icar of Dunlop. In 1521 he was professor of 
theology in the nniverslty of Glasgow. He snb- 
seqiicntly held also the office of treasurer of the 
royal chajjcl of Stirling, and about 1523 he became 
professor of divinity in the college of St. Salvator, 
St. Andrews, where lie remained five 3'ears. He 
was certainly there in 1528, when, at the dawn of 
the Reformativ>ii in Scotland, a friar who had 
preached a sei«mon at Dundee against the licenti< 
ous lives of the bishops, and against the abuse of 
cursing from the altar and false miracles, being 
accused of liei-esy, " went,** says Calderwood, ** to 
Sanct Andrewes, and communicated tho heads of 
his sermoun with Mr. Johnc ^laior, A^hose word 
was then hoidin m an oracle in maters of reltgi- 

oiin. Mr. Johno said, his doctrine mlglit wcUl be 
defended, and contcancd no licrcsic.** Tho friar 
nltimatcly was compelled to fly to Rngland, where 
he was cast into prison by command of Henry the 

^lair liim<ie1f, although lie remained a clinreli- 
man, in consequence of tlie religious distractions 
of the times, went back to Paris, when hereanmcd 
his lectnres in the college of Montacnte. While 
in France he had among his pupils scvernl irlio 
were afterwards eminent for their learning. Quo 
of the most distinguishe<l of thcin was his conu- 
tryman, George nuehannn, who had studied logic 
under him at St. Salvator^s college, and had fol- 
lowed him to Paris. In 1530 lie returned once 
more to Scotland, and resumed his lectnres as pro- 
fessor of theology in the university of St. An- 
drews. He was present, with the other heads of 
the university, in the parish church of that city, 
when John Knox, who had been one of his stu- 
dents, preached his first sermon in public in 1547. 
^L•. Tytler, in his History of Scotland, (vol. v. p. 
211) Referring to Patrick Hamilton the martyr, 
speaks of him as having been *^ educated at St 
Andrews, in what was then esteemed the too lib- 
eral philosophy of John Mair, the master of Knox 
and Bnchanan.^' It was no small honour to have 
infused into the minds of these three men, the fore- 
most, in their respective provinces, of their age, 
ideas and principles far in advance of the narrow 
and bigoted tenets of the churchmen. lie was 
thus, perhaps unconsciously to himself, a notnn- 
important instrument in helping forward the great 
work of the Reformation in Scotland, and in pro- 
moting the sacred cause of civil and religious lib- 

He is said to have died about 1549, at *^a great 
nge, for,'' says Dr. ^lackenzic, in his * Lives of 
Kminent Scots Writers,' "in the year 1547, at 
the national council of the Church of Scotland at 
Linlithgow, he subscribed by proxy, in qnality of 
dean of theology of St. Andrews, not being able to 
come himself by reason of his age, which was then 
seventy-eight, and shortly after he died." 

His works were all written in I^itin. His Ix><- 
gicnl Treatises form one immense folio. His 
Commentary on the Physics of Aristotle makes 
anr.ihcr. His Theological works, among which is 




an Expoeition of St. Mattlicw^s Gospel, nmonnt 
to scTcrnl volnmcs of the same size. IIo is best 
known, however, by his htstor}', *• Dc Gestis Sco- 
tornm,' in which he gives an account of the Scots 
nation from tlio earliest autiquity, and rejects 
manj of the fables and fictions of previons liisto- 
rians, such as Wjntonn and Fordoun. 
Tlie titles of his works arc ns follows : 


IiitrodiictoriQin in ArUtotclicnm DlHlccticen, totimque T^- 
^cxau Par. apiitl Joauneni Lnmbert. — Qnicstio de Com- 
plexo Signifiaibili. — Primus Liber Tcrminomm, citm fij^ni. 
— Secundoa fiber Tertninorum. — Siiminulae, cnm figiim qun- 
twMr PmpomtionQm et c»mm Conrersionnin. — PraDdicnbilin, 
cnm Arbore Porplirriana. — Pncdicimentn, &ili, cum fi;;iim. 
— SvlIogismL — Poetcrioni, cum ti*xta Aristuteliii primi et 
Bectinibi Capitis, libri primi. — ^Tractnttu de Jjocis. — ^IVnctntus 
Kkfiichonim. — ^Tmctntos Conseqneiitinrum. — Abbrenationcs 
Parrwuin fjo^^caliam. —^'a I/>;;ienliH. — Exponibilia. — In- 
•olabilim. — Obligntioiies. — A ry^menta Sopbistica. — Proposi- 
tum de fnfinitoi. — Ana1o;;iu iiitfr duos Tx>gicos et Mngistnim. 
The abore were nil printed in one voluiiie nt Lyons, 1514, 

In qnarfnm Sontentinrnm. Commentnriits. Par. npnd 
Joannein Granjonium, 1509. Par. 1516. Agnin, npnd 
Jvdocaia fiaditun ABoensium. 

In Primnm et Secnndnm Scntcntiaruni totidem Coinmcn- 
tariu Par. apad Jod. Bad. Asc<>nsium, 1510. 
Commentarios in Tertiam. Parity 1517. 
CommentarioB in Secanduni. Paris, npud Joanncm Gnin- 
jnniain, 1519. 

Uteralis in Mattlia*nm Kxpositin, una cum Trcccntis et 
Octo Dabib et Difficultatibus nd pja^ KInddationem admo- 
dora Condncentlbus passim insertis ; quibi.t Prelectis, pervia 
erit qnntnor Krangelistarum Scries. Paris, apud Joan. 
Graujonium, 1518. 

De Auctoritate Concilii supra Puntificcm Maximum liber, 
Excerptns ex ejus Commentariis in S. Mattba;)un. Paris, 
1518, folio. 

I)e IlintoriA Gentis Scotornm, libri sox, seu ITistorin ]Ma- 
joris Britannia?, tarn Anglia; qnam 5>cotia3, u Vetcrum Moui- 
iientis Concinnnt:!. Paris, npud Jud. nadiuui, 1521. Edin. 
»pnd Rob, Frcebalrn, 1740, 4to. 
Commentnrins in Physica Aristotelis. Paris, 152C. 
Loculentas in quatuor Kvangelia, Kxpotiitiones, Disqulsi- 
tioneii, et Di$putationes, contra Ilxretico:; ; ad Calccm lin- 
jave Operis. Par. 1529, fol. 

CiiUlngns Kpiwoporum Luciuncnsium. Apud Antonlum 

MAm-AND, a surname of Norman origin, in eariy times 
^'tten Matulant, lilantalent^ or lilatal.-m. Nisbet, in men- 
tionin); the name, (//em/lc/ry, vol. i. p. 292,) adds, quasi mu- 
: tHaiut M BeUOt as if it bad been first given to one maimed 
, or mntibted in war. Tliere can be no doubt that among the 
f"lInwerB of William the Conqueror when he came into Eng- 
Imid, was one bearing this name, whatever may bare been its 

TliC fintt on record in Scotland was Thomas de ^latulant, 

of Anf;;to-Xor.nan lineage, the ancestor of the noble family of 

Livderdale. He flonrinlivd in the reign of William the Lion, 

nd died in 1228. The eariy history of the family, like that 

> of most of the .\iigIo-Nonnan incomers, relates chiefly to the 

acquirement of lands and donations to some particular abbey 
or religious bonse, for they were all groat benefactors to the 
chnreh, and the ^Matulants' farmed no exception. Like 
many Anglo-Norman and Anglo-Saxon families, tltey settled 
In nerwii'kshire. Hiomas* son, William de Matnlant, was 
witness to several of the charters of King Alexander XL, 
which proves that ho must have been mudi abtmt the court 
of that monarch. Ho died about 1250, leaving a son. Sir 
Richard Matuhmt, who, in the reign of Alexander III., was one 
of the most oonsldemblc barons in Scotland, being the owner 
of the lands and baronies of Thirlestane, BIrthe, Tollns, Hed' 
denviok and other pmpniies, all in tl:e shirs of Berwick. 
To r)r}'burgh abbey, which had been founded little more than 
a ccntuiy before, lie gifted seveml lands, " for the welfare of 
his soul, and the souls of Avicia his wife, his predecessors 
and successors.** His son, William de Mautlant of Tliirl« 
stanc, confirmed these gills. He was one of tlie patriots who 
joined King Robert the Bruce as soon as he bogsm to assert 
his right to the crown, and died about 1315. 

Tlio son of this baron. Sir Robert Maitland, possessed the 
lands of Thiriestane in his fathers lifetime. Among other 
charters he had one of the lands of I^thington from Sir John 
Giffunl of Tester, confirmed by King David II., 17lh Octo- 
ber, in the 17lli year of his reign (1345). Jtt»t a year after- 
wards, on the same day of the month, he fell at the battle of 
Durham, with a brother of his, whose OliriHian name is not 
given. By his wife, a sister of Sir Robert Keith, grpat mar- 
ischal of Scotland, who was killed in the same battle, he had 
three sons, John, William, and Robert. The latter married 
the heiress of Gighf, Aberdeenshire, and was ancestor of the 
Mait lands of Pitrichie. 

Tbe eldest son, John, got a 8:ife-condnct to go to England 
in 13G3. He obtained from William, earl of Douglas, upon 
his own resignation, a charter of the lands of Thiriestane and 
Tollus, to hintsclf and his son, Robert, by his wife, the I^dj 
Agnes Dunbar, daughter of Patrirk, earl of Marcli, and died 
about 1395. His said son. Sir Robert Mait land, got the 
charge of the castle of Dunbar, from his uncle, George, eatl 
of Marcli, when that rebellious nobleman withdrew into 
England, in 1998, in consequence of the contnict of marriage 
between his d.-mglitcr, I.«idy Elizabeth Dunbar and David, 
duke of Rothesay, being cancelled, thnatgh the intrigues of 
Archibald, earl of Douglas, sumanied the Grim. In conjunc- 
tion with Hotspur and lA)rd Tall>uf, the earl soon after re- 
turned across the boixlcr, and laid waste the lands which, 
having been forfeited, he could no longer call his own. Wis 
ncplit'W, Sir Robert Maitland, having surrendered the castle 
of Dunbar to the earl of Douglas, escaped being involved in 
his niin. He and his family were afterwards designed of 
Lethington. He died about 1434, leaving three sons. Robert, 
the eldest, was one of the hostages for James I., on his 
liberation from England in 1-124, when his annual revenue 
was estimated at 400 merks. As he predeceased his father, 
without issue, William, the second son, succeeded to the 
family estates. Janie^, the third son, married Egidia, daugh- 
ter of James Scrymgeonr of Dudhope, constable of Dundee, 
and from his grandson, John, descended the Maitlands of 
Eccles and other families of the n.-ime. 

The second but elder surviving son, William Maitlsnd of 
I<ethington and Thiriestane, was the first to change the spell- 
ing of his name to its present form. He had a charter from 
Archibald, duke of Turenne and earl of Douglas, to himself 
and Margaret Wardlaw, his wife, of the lands of BIytho, 
Heddcrwick, Tollus, and Bumclcngh, dated at Linlithgow, 
23d March, 1432, his father being then alive. His only son, 
John, died bcfoa> 1 171. His succcsror, William Maitland of 









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1 1 
1 1 

' I 




r^tliIn«^oii, was fntlimr of Willinin Mnitlnnd of Ijrtbington, 
dncribcd .is a insin uf great brnvenr niiil rmilation, wbo wm 
killed at llodden, with Iiu soviTei^^n, James IV., with whom 
he was in high fnrour. Hj his wife, Martha, dan^^hter of 
Goori^ I^rd Seton, he had a M>n, Sir Hicliard MaithuiJ, the 
celebrated collector of the early Scottibh p^^etrr, after whom 
the ^laitlfliid Club has been Ciilled, and n memoir of whom is 
given afterwards in larger type. Sir Richard manned Mary, 
daughter of Sir Tliomas Cnmstonn of Crobbie, and with fuur 
daughters, had three sons, the eldest being William, the per- 
sonage so well known in the history of the reig^ of the unfor- 
tunate Mary, as "Secretary I^thington." Sir John, the 
second son, was lord high chancellor of Scotland and first 
lord Mailland of ThirIcAt;tne. Of iKith these brothers me- 
moirs are given subsequently in largi'r type. Thomas, 
Sir Richard's third 5<)n, was prohfcntorwith George Buchanan, 
in his treatise De Jure Hegni a/wd Scotos. The daughters, 
named Helen. Ixnl^eUa, Mary, and Hliz^ibeth, all married 
Berwickshire barons. 

Secretary ]<ethington was tuice niarrii-d. By his fir^t 
wife, Janet Monteith, he had no is^ne. By his second witV, 
Mary, a daughter of Malcolm I^>rd Fleming, he had, with a 
daughter, Mary, the wire of the f:n<t carl of Roxburgh, a son, 
James, wlm, l)cing a Roman Cntliolio, went to the continent, 
and died there, without i^sue. lie sold hi.s estate of I^th- 
ington, which had been rcktured to him by a rehabilitation 
under the great seal, 19th February 1583-4, to his umle, Sir 
John Maitland, who carried on the lino of the family. A 
Utter from this James Maitland to the learned Camden, is 
dr.ted from Bnisscls in 1G20. 

Sir John, first I^rd Maitland of Tiiir'estar.e, married Jean, 
only daughter and heiress oi Jamc5, lord Fieniing, lord higli 
chaml)crlain of Scotland in tbe reign of Queen Mar)', and by 
her had a sun, John, aec-M'.d I^rd Maitland and tirst earl uf 
L-iudcrdalc (see Lai i>ei:iiAI.i-:u earl of) and a daugl-.ti-r, 
Anne, marricJ to Robert, Lord Seton, bon of t]:e lir.»t earl of" 

Connected thn*, by frequent intennnrriagi!*. wiili tl:c Sit-ui 
and Fleming families, who were the most di>tin;;ni>l:ed among 
the nobles of Scotland for their unswerving a'iachmcnt to the 
liciutirul and ill-fated Mary, it was no wonder that the Mait- 
lands also Aignalised themselves by tiieir fjiitlifnl adhea>i:ce to 
her interefrtu, even when her fortmies were at the lowest, and 
when at last they did transfer their allegiance to her son, 
they served him with equal truth and loyalty. 

Scottish bar, died in September 1828, leanng, by hit wUsi 
Susan, eldest diiughter of Geot^ R«msay, Esq. of Bamton, 
four sons and two daoghters. 

On the death of the second baronet, 7th Febnimy 1848^ 
his grandson, Sir Alexander Charles Maitland Gibson Mait- 
land, bom in 182<), succeeded as third baronet He marriro 
in 1841, Thom-nsina Agnes, daughter of James Hani, Esq 
of I*ittencrieir, Fifcshire, with ivue. 

The Maitlands of Dundrennan Abbey and Compstone, in 
the Stewart ry of Kirkcudbright, and llennnnd, in Mid L»- 
thii.n, are descended from an early branch of the lAoderdald 
family. Their imnudiate ancestor was William Maitland, a 
distingnislicd Scots rcclcbiastic during the hitler part of the 
17ih century, who acquired cnnsiderable estatoa in the stew- 
aitry of Kirkmubright. 

I'homas M.iitbmd, a lord uf seMii>n by the jadicial title of 
Lird Dundreiman, bom 9lh October 1792, passed advocate 
ill 1813, and was solicitor-general for Scotland, under tlie 
\^hig adiiiinibtratiun in 1840 and 1841, and again from 184C 
till the beginning of 18u0, when he was sppointed a hvtl of ses- 
sion. In 1845 he was chosen M.P. fur Kirkcndbngiitshirr, 
Aiid died 10:h June, 1851. He married, in 1815. Isaliella 
Graham, -itii iLiughter of Jiuiies Macdnwall, Kmj. of Gnrt bland, 
with i.'-suc. I lift bri>ther, K.dwurd ForliCN Maitland, Ki<q., ad- 
vocate, wa5 appointed in 1855. and ag.-iin in 1859, Si»iicitor- 
gener;! ior Scotland. He had j>reviously been depute advocate 

The faniilv of Gibson Maitland of Clifton Hall, Mid Lothi- 
an, pos-<e:ise8 a bsironetcy, first conferred, SOth November, 
1818, on the Hun. General Alexander Maitland, fiiVn son of 
the sixth earl of I«iuderdale. Sir Alexander died 14th Fvb- 
mary 1820. He had, with two dangliters, four sons, viz., 
Alexander Charles, second baronet , William, a midshipman 
on board the Purtsmouth EasI Indiaman, drowned in the 
Bay of Bcngiil in 1781 ; Angustu!«, an oflieer in the army, 
mortally wounded at Egmont op-Zee, Cth October, 1797; 
and Frederick, of Hullywich, Snysex, a general in the army, 
a member of the board of general officers, a commis^^ioner of 
the Royal military college, and colonel of the 58th regiment. 
General Frederick Maitland was married and left a family. 

Sir Alexander Cli.irles Maitland, second b.aronet, bom 2 1st 
November 1755, married Helen, daughter .and heiress of Al- 
exander Gibson Wright, Esq. of Clifton Hall, a scion of the 
Gibsons of Dune in Fifi'shire, and with her obtained that 
estate, at:d a.ssumcd in consequence the name of Giltson. He 
had, by her, six sons and live daughters. Alexander Mait- 
land Gibson Maithmd, tlte elile>t sun, an advocate at the 

Of the name of Maitland there have hern many di»lin- 
giii.ohed naval and nsilitarv officers. Rcar-ndniirnl John 
Maitland, second son of Colonrl the Hon. Sir Rich.nrd Mait- 
land, third bun of the sixth earl of L-mderdalo and uncle of 
Rear-ndtnind Sir Fretlerick Lewis Maitland, lirst saw active 
^er^'iee in the West Indies, when he was midshipman on 
b-ard the Boyne of 98 guiis, the flagship of Sir John Jervi^ 
and distinpn>hed hiniM'lf by hi:* gaihmtry at Martinique, 
Gnadahmp, &c. He was afterwards lientennnt of the Win- 
chi-lsea frigate ; fi"om which he removed into the Lively, and 
was in that >hip i\ in 1795 it captured, al'Scr an action of 
three hours, tijc Fiench bhip I.i Tonrterclle. In 1797 he 
was ap{Mnntcd to the Kingfisher, and on the 1st July suc- 
ceeded in quelling a mutiny on board his ship, by, with bis 
officers, attacking the mutineers sword in hand, and killing 
and woumiing several of them. This spirited conduct was 
called " l)»»ctor Maitland*;; recipe," by the earl of St. Vincent, 
who recommended its niioptinn to the fleet on similar emcr- 
g'-ncics. In command uf the Roadicea, he caw mndi Kn'ice 
in the Channel, and on board the Barfleur of 08 gims he 
served with the MeiiitciTanean fleet until the concliudun uf 
the war with Fnincc in 1S15. In 1821 he attained the rank 
of rear-adniind, nikd dietl in 1836. 

For a memoir of his cousin, Rear-admiral Sir Frederick 
Lewis Maitland, to i^hom the emperor Napoleon tairrendcrod 
on hoard the Beilerophon after the battle of Waterloo in 
1815, see p.'ige 637 of volume 2d of this work, under the 
head'i>Kni>Ai.i^ Earl of. 

M.AITLANI), Sir KiciiAitDf a ditttiugublicd 
poet, lawyer, and stntosmnn, the collector of tlio 
cnrly poctr}* of Scotland, was tlic son of William 
Maitlnud of J^thlngton, and ^lartlia, daughter of 
George, second I^ord Seton, as alrendy mentioned. 
He wns bom in 149G, nnd having finished the 
u>iial course of academical education at the unl- 




. I, 





versity of St. Andrews, he weut to Frauco to 
study the law. After hU return to Scotland, he 
recommended himself to the favonr of James Y., 
and was employed in varions public commissions 
by that monarch, and afterwards by the regent 
Arran and Mary of Guise. In March 1551 we 
find him taking his seat on the bench as an extra- 
ordinaiy lord of session, and soon after he was 
knighted. He was frequently sent as commis- 
sioner to settle matters on the borders, and in 
1559 concluded the treaty of Upset tlington, after- 
wards confirmed by Francis and Mary. 

Aa early as October 1560, Sir Richard had the 
misfortune to lose his sight, but liis blindness did 
not incapacitate him for business. In November 
1561 be was admitted an ordinaiy lord of ses- 
sion, when ho took the title of Lord I^thington. 
Sliortly af^cr he was sworn a member of the pri\y 
council, and on 20th December 1562 he was no- 
minated lord privy seal, lie continued a lord of 
session during tiic troublous times of Queen 
Mary and the regents, in the minority of James 
VI. His advice to Queen Maiy was that of a 
judicious and faithfiU counsellor, that she must see 
her laws kept, or else she would get no obedience. 
{Douglas' Peerage, vol. ii. p. 67). 

In 1503 he was appointed one of the commis* 
biouers to whom the rights of individuals to the 
act of oblivion were to be refeiTcd, and on 28tli 
December of that year he was one of the com- 
mittee chosen to frame regulations for the com- 
uiii«aries then about to be established for the dis- 
' cnssion of consistorial causes. In 1567 lie resigned 
■ the office of loi*d privy seal, in favour of his second 
' ^0D, John, prior of CoUlingham, afterwards created 
I liord Maitland of Tliirlestane. On the 1st July 
i 1584, his great age compelled him to resign his 
scat on the bench, in favour of Sir Lewis Bellen- 
<len of Auchnoull, being allowed the privilege of 
anmiug his successor. He had been more than 
seventy years employed in the public service, and 
the letter from the king to the court of session on 
occasion of his retirement from the bench, recorded 
in the Books of Sederunt, states that he ** hcs dew- 
lie and faithfully sen-it our grandshir, gud sir, gud 
dam, muder, and ourself, being oftentymes em- 
plojrit in public charges, quhereof he dewtifuUie 
>ud honestlie acquit himself, and being anc of yon 

ordinar number thir mony yeiris, hes diligentlie 
with all sincerity and integi*ity servit therein, and 
now being of wcrry greit ago, and altho' in S])reit 
and jugement able anew to serve as appei'tenis ; 
be the great age, and being unwell, is sa dibilitat 
that he is not able to mak sic continual residens 
as he wald give, and being movit in conscience 
that be his absence for hiik of number, justice may 
be retardit and paities frustrat, hes wiliinglie de- 
mittit,'' <S:c. Sir Richard died March 20, 1586, at 
the advanced age of 90. For his maniage and 
children see previous page. 

With the single exception of a passnge in 
Knox's History, which Imputes to him the having 
taken bribes to assist Cardinal Bethune to escai>e 
fix>m his imprisonment at Scton, but for which it 
would appear there was no good ground. Sir 
Richard Maitland is uniformly mentioned by con- 
temporary writers with respect. He collected the 
** Decisions of the Court of Se^*sion from Decem- 
ber 15, 1550, to the penult July, 1565," the 
manuscript of which is preserved in the Advo- 
cates' Library. His Collections of Kiirly Scottish 
Poetry, in two volumes, a folio and a quarto, 
were, with other MSS., presented by the duke of 
Lauderdale to Samuel Pepys, Esq., secretaiy of 
the admiralty to Charles II. and James II., and 
the founder of the Pepysinu Library at Magdalene 
College, Cambridge, in ^hich they now remain. 
A selection from these will be found in Pinkerton*s 
valuable collection of * Ancient Scottith Poems,' 
published in 178G. Sir Richard's own Poems 
were for the fii*st time printed in 1830, in a quai*to 
volume, for the Maitland Club, which takes its 
name from him. The best of his poetical pieces 
arc his ' Satyres,' 'The Blind Baron's Comfort,' 
and a ' Ballat of the Crcatioun of the World,' the 
latter of which was inserted in Allan Ramsay's 
*Kvergrecu.' Sir Richard's *Cronicle and His- 
toric of the House and Surname of Seaton unto 
the moneth of November ane thousand five him- 
dred and fifty aught yeires,' with a continuation 
by Alexander, Viscount Kingston, was printed for 
the Maitland Club in 1829. 

MAITLAND, William, accounted the ablest 
statesman of his age, historically known as ** Se- 
cretaiy Ix5thington," eldest son of the preceding, 
-was one of tlie principal characters of his time in 

1 1 


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I . . 
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» : 

Scotland. lie wns bom about 1525, niid nftcr 
being cducatcil at the college of St. Andrews, he 
travelled on the Continent, where he stndied civil 
law. In his ^outh, instead of following the usual 
pnr!i>nits and amusements of young men of his 
rank, ho applied himself to politico, and became 
early initiated into all the craft and niyster}' of 
statesmanship. Though his political career was 
vacillating and unsteady, his enterprising spirit, 
great penetration, and subtle genius are mentioned 
with admiration by contennwrary writers of every 

He was one of the first to attend the private 
preaching of John Knox at Kdinburgh, about the 
end of 1555, when he became a convert to the re- 
fonned doctrines. When Knox began to i*e.ision 
against the mass, Krskinc of Dun invited the j 
Ileformer to snp|ier, to resolve some doubts on the : 
subject, " where were assembled," says Cjildor- • 
wood, (v. i. p. 805) •' David Forresse, ^Fr. Robert [ 


I^khart, John Willocke, and Wiiliam Malhinc of 
I^thington, younger/' All their objections against 
giving up the mass wore so fully answered by 
Knox that ^faitland said, ^^I see perfytoly that 
thir shifts will serve for nothing before God, soiiig 
they stand us in so small stead lx»foix^ men/' So 
the mass, which had been attended bv ninnv from 
custom, and "' the eschewing of slander/' was dis- 
owned by the Reformed party from that tiuie. 

On 4th December 1558, during the regency of 
Mary of Guise, Maitland was, by that ju-inccss, 
appointed secretary of state. The violent pro- 
ceedings of the queen regent against the Reform- 
ers, and fenrs for his life, from his being known to 
favour the reformed doctrines, induced him, in 
October of the following year, to join the lords of 
the congregation, who lia<l taken ]X)ssession of 
Edinburgh. The queen regent and the Romish 
party withdrew to I^ith, but within a month the 
lords ied to Stirling, and the regent ro-entered 
the capital in triumph. Calderwood says, " Wil- 
liam Matlane of I^thington, younger, secretarie to 
the qnecD, perccaving himself to bo suspected as 
one that favoured the congregatioun, and to stand 
in danger of his life if he sould remaine at I^ith, 
bccaus he spnlred not to utter his mindc in con- 
troversies of religionn, conveyed himself out of 
Lciih, a little before Alllmllow Eve, and randered 

himself to Mr. Kirkaldie, I^nird of Grange. IIo 
assured the lords there was nothing bnt craft and 
falsliood in the qiicene.*' (//(ff. of the Kirk of 
Scotltmri^ vol. i. p. 558). lie was gladly received 
by the lords, who marked their sense of this bis open 
adhesion to their canse, by sending him to England 
to lay their position and prospects bc.'bro Queen 
Elisabeth, and to crave her aid. Slio at-oiiC6 
sent a fleet to the frith of Forth, to prevent farther 
assistance being sent from France to the regent, 
and gave secret instructions to the dnke of Xorfulk 
to meet with the Scots commissioners nt Benrick, 
to arrange the conditions on which her assistance 
was to be given. 11ic commissions appointed by 
the lorils of the congregation to represent them at 
Ik^rwick on this occasion were, lord James Stewart, 
nfterwanis the Regent Jiloray, I/jrd Ruthven, the 
mastci's of Maxwell and Lindsay, the laird of 
Pitarrow, Henry Ralnaves of Ilallhill, and the 
si»crotniy Maitland. After a great deal of nego- 
tiation, a treaty was conclnded between Elisabeth 
and the loaders of the congregation, called tho 
treaty of Rerwiek, in consequeuco of which, on 
the 23ih March, an English force under Lord 
Grey marched into Scotland, and joined the army 
of the iou. 

^laitland acted as speaker of the parliament in 
August 1560 which abolished the power and sn- 
premacy of the Pope in Scotlsnd, Iluntly the 
chancellor having declined to attend. It is well 
known that when Queen Mary in the following year 
was about to sail direct from Franco to Scotland, 
Elizabeth despatched a fleet into the Channel, 
with tho avowed pui7)ose of clearing the sea from 
pirates, but really with the view of intercepting 
Maiy and cariying her prisoner to England. Se- 
cretary Maitland and the queen s brother. Lord 
James Stewart, arc charged Mith recommending 
this measure to the English minister. On Mar}''8 
arrival, however, they were chosen her principal 
adviser.*, and on 12th November of the same year 
(1561) Maitland was made an extraordinary lord 
of session. Acconling to Calden>ood (vol. ii. p. 
IGO), the ratification of the Rook of Discipline by 
tho queen met with strong objections from Mait* 
land, Avho, when it was pioposed, sneered, and 
asked *' how many of those who had snbscribed it 
would bo subject to it/* It was answered, "All 



I I 

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the gOilly." "Will the diikc?" (Clirtteleranlt), 
nkl MaiiUnd. " 1 f lie will not/* snid Ocbiltty, " I 
xrUk lie were Bcnii>cd ont, not only ont of that 
book, bitt fllso out of onr number and company ; 
for to wbat (Purpose shall trftvail be taken to set 
the 6fanrch !u order, if it be not kept, or to wbat 
end shall men subscribe, if tbey never mean to 
perform ?•* ^laitlaud answcn^d, " ^fany subscribed 
them, inftdeparentum^ as tlic bairns are baptized," 
"Ye think that stuff proper,** said Knox, "but it 
Is as untrue as unpropcr.' lliat book was read in 
public audience i aiid the heads thereof reasoned 
upon diverse days, as all that sit here know rery 
well, and yourself cannot deny. No man, there- 
fore, was desired to subscribe that whidi be un- 
derstood not.** Tlio ratification, however, was 

Soon affer Maitland was sent as Mary*:) ambas- 
sador to the court of Elizabeth, to salute the lat- 
ter in his mistress* name, and to make known her 
good will towards her. After his retnru to Scot- 
land, he accompanied the queen, in Ancrust 15C2, 
in her expedition to the north against the earl of 
Ifnntiv and the Gordons. On their amval at 
Old Abcnleen, we arc told there was such a scar- 
city of accommodation that he and Randolph, the 
English ambassador, were obliged to sleep toge- 
ther in the same bed. lie was present at the l>at- 
tlo of Corricbio where lluutly was defeated. On 
this occ*.sion he exhorted evcrj' man to caU upon 
God, to remember bis duty, and not to fear tlic 
ninhitnde, and made t!ie following prayer: "O 
I/>rd, thou that ruletli the heaven and the earth, 
look upon thy ser^'ants w hose blood this day is 
songht, and to man's judgment is sold and be- 
tRiye<l. Our refuge is now nnto thee, and our 
hope is in thee. Judge then, O Lord, this day 
betwixt ns and the enrl of Unntly. If ever we 
Iiave sought unjustly his or their destruction and 
blood, let ns fall on the edge of the sword. If we 
be innocent, maintain and preser\*e ns, for thy 
great mercy's sake.'* 

A short time after this Maitland was again sent 
imbassador to England, and In his absence the 
Qobility blamed him for serving the queen to the 
iwcjadice of tho commonwealth. On bis retuni 
therefore he deemed it necessary to strengthen 
bis hands by making friends to himself, and by 

endeavouring to shake the credit of tho earl of 
Moray at court. In lfi63, when Knox appesircd 
before the queen and council to answer a charge 
of treason, for wdtlng a circular letter to tho prin- 
cipal protestant gentlemen, requesting them to 
meet at Edinburgh, to bo present at the trLil of 
two men for a riot at the ]M>plsh chapel at Holy* 
rood, Mr. Secretary ^laitland conducted the pro- 
secution against him. On this occasion bo showeil 
himself bitterly hostile to the reformer. When 
Knox was acquitted by the council, Mnitbind, 
who bad assured tlie queen of bis condemnation, 
was enraged at the decision. He brought her 
majesty, who had retired before the vote, again 
into the room, and pi-oceeded to call the votes n 
second time in her presence. This attempt to 
overawe them incensed the nobilitv. "What!** 
said they, "shall the laird of Letliington havo 
power to command ns? Shall the presence of a 
woman cause ns offend God ? Shall we condemn 
an innocent man against onr conscience, for tho 
pleasnrc of any creature?** And greatly to the 
mortificatiun of the queen and the discomfiture of 
the secretary, they indigiiautly repeated their for- 
mer votes, absolving Knox from the chai*ge. 

fie seems after this to have thought that the re- 
formed clergy assumed too much hi their public 
rebukes, and after a sermon of Knox's colle.igue, 
Mr. Craig, against the comiptious of the times, 
Lcthiugtou, says Caldcrwood, " in the presence of 
many, gave himself to the devil, if after that day 
he should regard what should become of ministers, 
but should do what be might that his companions 
have a skaire with him, let them bark and blow as 
mncb as they list.** Knox declaimed against liim 
from the pulpit, on which Maitland mockingly 
said, " We must recant, and burn our bill, for the 
preachers are angry.*' 

At a conference with the leading members of 
the General Assembly, held in June 1564, a long 
debate ensued between Maitland and Knox, on 
those points of the refonned doctrines which gave 
offence to the court, but chiefly as regards the 
Reformer*s mode of prayer for the Queen, and on 
obedience to her authority. In this memorable 
disspntation, allhough Maitland bad the worst of 
the argument, he is acknowledged to have acquit- 
ted himself with all the acuteness and ingenuity of 

I . 

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a practised disputant. An account of this confer- 
enco will be found at length in Caldcrivood*8 lli:«- 
toiy of the Kirk of Scotland, vol ii. pp. 252—280. 

In January 1565, Maitlnnd was appointed nn 
ordinary lord of session, and in April the same 
year he was despatched to England, to intimate 
to Elizabeth the intention of Mary to marry the 
I^i-d Damley. In 1566 ho joined the conspiracy 
i!<;:ilnst Rizzio, ** partly finding himself projudgod 
bv this SavoA'anl in the affiurs of his office as secre- 
tary, and pai*tly for the favonr he then carried to 
the carl of Moray, then in escile.*' After Ilizzio's 
nmrder, he was, for his participation in it, de- 
prived of his office of secretary, and obliged to 
retire into concealment in Lauderdale, while the 
other conspirators fled to England, but, before the 
end of the year, he was restored to favonr and 
allowed to retuni to court. 

On the night of Sunday, Fubruary 9, ir)C7, 
occurred the murder of Darnley, by the blowing 
up of the house of the Kirk of Field, which had 
been procured by ^laifland for the King*s accom- 
modation, he having been won over by the earl of 
Both well to liis design.^. With the earl of Morton 
he solicited and obtained from several lords of 
Moray^s faction, and from eight bishops a declara- 
tion in writing, avowing their belief of Bothwell's 
innocence of the murder, and recommending him 
as a proper husband for the queen. It is alleged 
that the qnoen had previously consented to this 
marriage ; but her defenders deny this, and aver 
that the writings which she was said to have 
signed was a forgery of the secretary ^laitland. 
lie joined the confederacy of the nobles for the 
removal of Bothwell, and after the surrender of 
the queen at Carberry Hill, and her imprisonment 
in tlie caslle of Lochleven, he wrote to her, oflcr- 
ing his service, and using as an argument the apo- 
logue of the mouse delivering the lion taken in tite 
not. He also proposed that, after providing for 
the safety of the young prince and the security of 
the protestant religion, the queen should be re- 
established in her authority, lie, however, at- 
tended the coronation of King James VI., on 2Uth 
July 15G7, .ind although he was one of the secret 
advisers of the escape of the qnoen from Ix)clileven 
castle. Ire yet fonght against her on the field of 

In September 1568, when (he regent Monj 
was called to the conferences at York, Maitland 
was one of the nine commissioners choBen to ac- 
company him. The regent, says Spottiswood, 
(Ilisi, p. 218,) was unwilling to take him, but 
mora afraid to leave him in Scotland. On the 
other hand, Caldcnvood says, (vol. il. p. 429,) 
Secretary Lethington was very reluctant to go, 
but he was induced by fair promises of lands and 
mone}', *' for it was not expedient to leave behind 
them a factious man, that inclined secretly to the 
queen." AVhilc in England so great was his du- 
plicity that, we are told, almost every night he 
had secret communication with Afary> chief com- 
missionei's, and forewarned them of the regent's 
intentions. He went out to the fields with the 
duke of Norfolk, under the pretence of hunting, 
but in reality to consult with him as to the best 
means of forwarding the queen's interests, and he 
it was who first conceived the fatal project of a 
marriage between Mar}' and the duke, as a pro- 
bable means of restoring her to liberty, if not of 
replacing her on the throne. 

He was one of the two commissioners selected 
by Moray, about the end of October, to proceed 
to London to Queen Elizabeth, Mr. James Mack- 
gill of Kankeillour being the other, and he was 
sent with him not so much to assist him as to 
watch his proceedings. After his return to Scot- 
land, by his secret intrigues he prevailed u|ton 
I^rd Home, Kirkaldy of Grange, and several of 
his former associates, to join the queen's faction, 
and retired to Terth for a time with his friend the 
earl of Athol. The regent, suspecting him to be 
the contriver of all the plots and conspiracies, in 
favour of ^fary, in England and Scotland, sent to 
him to attend a council at Stirling, and while sit- 
ting in council he was arrested, on 3d September 
15C9, by Captain Thomas Cra^^ford, a retainer of 
t!ie earl of I^nnox, on the charge of being acces- 
sory to the murder of the king's father, Lonl 
Darnley. Security to answer the charge having 
been ofiered and refused, he was committed a pri- 
soner to the castle of Stirling, whence he M'as re- 
moved to Edinburgh, and given into the custody 
of Alexander Hume of North Berwick. Kirkaldy 
of Grange, governor of the castle, went to Hume^a 
house at night, and by pretending a warrant from 

t; ... 






the regent, iuduced liiiu to deliver Mnitland to 
bim, wben he was carried to the castle. 

On the 21st NoTcmber, the day appointed for 
Maltlaud*8 trial, n great number of his friends 
came to Edinburgh, and he not being forthcoming, 
the regent found himself compelled to postpone 
bis trial. Kirkiddy offered to produce him, if 
there were any one present to accuse liim, and, as 
none appeared, the secretary's brother, John, af- 
tonrards Lord Maitland of Thirlestaue, protested 
that as there was no prosecutor he was entitled to 
his liberty. 

After the murder of the regent Moray In Janu- 
ary 1570, the lords assembled to consult upon the 
affairs of the country, when Mnitland had the ad- 
dress to obtain from them a declaration acquitting 
him of all the charges against him. Tlio I^rd 
Ochiltree desired him to give his oath for their 
greater satisfaction, which he did. He and Kirk- 
aldy now exerted themselves to effect a compro- 
mise between the rival factious, but nil their en- 
deavours were unavailing. lie was the author of 
the letter sent by the queen's lords to Elizabeth, 
towards the end of Marcli, in behnlf of Mnry, and 
among the signatures appeni-s his ns *^ William 
Matlane, Comptroller." At this time he was the 
life and sonl of the queen's party, and there was 
great resort to him of all who ftivoured her cause. 
His house was, tliercforc, called the school, and 
Ijmself the schoolmaster, and such as repaired to 
him his disciples. 

lletiring into Athol, he attended the council 
of the queen's friends held there, which was called 
the council of Baliach. He and two of his bro- 
thers i^ere summoned to take their trial at Edin- 
burgh, but as they did not appear, they were de- 
nounced rebels, lie was deprived of his office of 
secretar}' by the regent Lennox, who sent troops 
to ravage his lauds as well as those of liis father, 
Sir Richard Maitland. At this time he himself 
iras corresponding with Mary, sending her letters 
to be subscribed by her and forwarded to the 
kings of France and Spain, the emperor of Ger- 
many and the Guises, that they might exert 
themselves on her behalf. He now resolved to 
join Kirkaldy in Edinburgh castle. He therefore 
arrived at Leith, the 10th April 1571, and was 
carried up to the castle by six workmen, says 

Bannatyne in bis Journal, (p. ISO,) *'with sting 
and ling, (that is, by poles like a litter,) and Mr. 
Robert Maitland (dean of Aberdeen and a lord of 
session) holding up his head ; and wben they bad 
put him in at the castell yeat, ilk ane of the work- 
men gat ill sbil : which they recevit grndginglie, 
hoping to have gottin mair for their labouris." 

In a pai'liament held at the head of the Canon- 
gate, May 1-i, 1571, Maitland was proclaimed 
a traitor to his country, and attainted, with his 
two brothel's, John and Thomas, Ho was the 
principal speaker on the queen's side in the dis- 
cussion which, soon after, took place with certain 
of the king's party, who bad gone to the castle 
with the view, if possible, of bringuig the two 
factions to an agreement, but which came to no- 
thing. It was by his fatal counsels that Kirkaldy 
of Grange resolutely held out that fortress for 
Queen Mar}', in the hope of receiving succours 
from France, even after the Hamiltons, with 
Huntiy, and the other nobles friendly to her cause, 
had submitted to the regent. He, also, like the 
deluded but chivalrous knight of Grange, brought 
*^a railing accusation^* againstt Knox, as a short 
time before the Reformer's death, he sent to the kirk 
session of Edinburgh, a complaint against him, for 
having publicly in his sermons and otherwise, 
slandered him as an atheist and enemy to all i*eli- 
gion ; in that he had charged him with saying in 
the castle that there was neither heaven nor hell, 
which were only devised to frighten children, 
" with other such language, tending to the like 
effect.'* His letter thus continues : 

*' Which words, before Goii, never at onie time proceeded 
from my month; nor yitt aiile other Bounding to the like 
purpose, nor wliereof aiiie suche sentence might be gathered. 
For, praised be God, I have beene brought up from my voutli, 
and instnicted in the fearc of God ; and to know that he Imth 
appointed lieaven f«>r the habitntiun of the elect, and hell f»r 
tlie everlasting dwelling place of the n'probat. Scing lie hath 
thus ungentlic used uic, and neglected liis duetie, vocatioun, 
the rule of Christian diarilie, and all good order, malicionslie 
and untruelie leing on me, 1 crave redresse therof at your 
liands : and that yee will take suche order therewith, that be 
may be compelled to nominut his authors, and prove his 
alledgance (or allegation); to the end that, if it be found 
true, as I am weiil asisurcd he sail not be able to vcrifie it in 
anie sort, I may woiihiiie be reputed the man he painteth 
me out to be. And if (whereof I have no doubt) the contra- 
rie fall out, yce may U5e him acwnlingly : at least, th:it 
hcercafter ye reccavc not cverio word proco«^ing from his 
moutli as oracles ; and know that he is but a man subject to 
vanitie, and maniu ti:ne« docth utter his o^^ne pnssionns and 


! I 

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t : 
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Sill JOHN. 

otiier iii«r» iiiardiiiatc aifvctioiifl, in phice of true doi-triiic. 
It is convenient tiiut, uccordiii^ to the Scriptures, yce beleeve 
i:iit everie tspirit, but that yoe trie the iipiritii whether they 
arc of God or not. (Si^ied) William Matlaxk." 

Ill Ills itiply, given literally from his dcntlibcd, 
mid vcrbnllv, Knox declared that the works of 
Maitlnnd aud those who acted with him testified 
that they denied tliorc was any God, or heaven or 
hell, wherein virtue should be rcwai*ded or vice 
punished. He declined to nninc his authors, m 
required by Maitland, and rererring to that pai-t 
of his complaint which affirmed that he was *^ a 
man subject to vanity," and that the words from 
his mouth should not l)C I'cceived as oracles, &c.., 
he said that the words which he had spoken would 
be found as true as the oracles which had been 
uttered bv anv of the servants of God l)oroi*e ; for 
he had said nothing but that whereof he had a 
warrant out of the word, namely, thnt the justice 
of Go<l should never be satisfied till the blood of 
the shedders of innocent blood were shed agnin, or 
God moved them to unfeigned i-epentance. IJc 
added thnt Maitland was the chief author of all 
the troubles raised Itoth in Kngland and Scotlnnd. 
When ^Fr. David Lindsnv went to the castle, l»v 
Knox's i-equest, to conimunicntc the Ucformer's 
memorable dying prediction to Kirknidy, Maitlnnd 
sent out the sneering messngc to him, *^ Go, tell 
Mr. Knox he is but a dirty prophet." Lindsay 
reported this to Knox, who said, " I have been 
eirnest with my God anent the two men. For 
the one (meaning Kirkaldy) I am sorry that so 
shall befall him, yet God assni-etii me that there is 
mercy for his soul. For the other (meaning Mait- 
land) I have no warrant that ever he ifhall be 
woill.*' Just a week thereafter, Knox died. 

At length, the castle being closely besieged by 
the regent Morton, and an English force under Sir 
William Drnry, mai*shal of Berwick, surrendered 
to the latter, after a month's obstinate resistance, 
May 29th, 1573. Kirkaldy and his brother were 
hanged at the cross of Edinburgh, but Maitland 
escaped this ignominious fate by dying in prison 
in Ix-ith, June 9th, 1573. Calderwood (vol. iii. 
p. 285) pavs he "poisoned himself, as was re- 
])orted," and I^Ielvillc (p. 250) " that he died nt 
I^itli befor that the rest wer delynerit to the 
shamles; some supposing he took a drink, and 
die<l as the anid Romans wer wont to do.** He is 

said to have lain so long unburied that the veruiin 
came from his corpse, creeping out under the door 
of the lioiuso where ho wa3 lying. 

Calderwood (vol. iii. page 285) thus sums np 
his character: "This man was of a rare witt, bnt 
sett upon wrong courses, which were contrived 
and followed out with falsehood. He could con- 
fonnc himself to the times, and therefore was 
compared by one, who was not ignoraut of his 
coni*scs, to the chanieleou. A discourse went 
from hand to hand, before the siege of the castell, 
intituled. The Chameleon, wherein all his wyles 
and tricks were described.'* lie thus concludes, 
at^er showing that he had trafficked with nil par- 
lies: "At the parliament holdin after the taking 
of the queene, he, with some others, partakers of 
the murther (of Darnley), would have had her 
putt to death. When that purpose wrought not, 
he solicited some private men to hang her In 
her owne bed, with her belt, that he, and his 
partners in the murther, might be out of fcare 
of suchc a witnesse. When this counsel! was 
not heard, then he turned himself to flatter the 
queene, and sent to I^chleviii the apologue of 
tiie lyoiin delivered by the mouse out of the 

Rnchanan it was who portr.\ved the character of 
Secret a ry Lethington in his tract called ' Tlie 
riiameleon.* Bannatvne calls him " the father of 
traitors," and designates him "Mitchell Wylie," a 
corruption doubtless of Macchiavclli. 

MAITL.\NI), Sir John, a distinguished states- 
man, the fli*st Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, sec- 
ond son of Sir Richard Maitland, the poet, and 
younger brother of the preceding, was bom in 
1587. After being educated at home by his fa- 
ther, he was sent, as was the custom in those 
days, to France, wherc he studied the law. On 
his retuni, through the influence of his brother, 
the secretary, he obtained the abbacy of Kelso in 
commendam^ which he soon exchanged with Fran- 
cis Stewart, afterwards carl of Bothwell, the 
queen's nephew, for the prioi-y of Coldingham. 
The queen's ratiff cation of this transaction took 
place in February 1507. On the 20th April of 
the same year, he was appointed lord privy seal, 
on his father's resignation of that ofllce in his fa- 
vour, and he was couflnned in It by the regent 






I ■ 

I . 

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Sill JOHN. 

Moray on the 2GtIi of Ihc following Angiist. On 
the 2d Jane 1568, he was constitntcd one of the 
spiritual lords of session. 

Like his brother, Secretaiy Letliington, the 
prior of Coldinghnm ranged himself on the regent's 
side, on the dethronement of Queen Mar}% but 
after Moray's assassination he joined the lords 
who met on the queen's behalf at Liidithgow, and 
thereafter remained steady in his attachment to 
her cause. He was denounced i*ebel by the king's 
faction in the end of 1570, and forfeited, with his 
two brothers, in the parliament which met in the 
Canongatc in the following ^lay. He was de- 
prived of the ofHcc of lord privy seal, which was 
given to George Buchanan, while the priory of 
Coldingham was bestowed on George Home of 
Manderston. He then retired to the castle of Ed- 
inlmrgh, then held by Kirkaldy of Grange for the 
queen, and continued with him till its surrender 
on 29th May 1573. The regent Morton sent him 
prisoner to Tantallan cnstlc, on the sea-const of 
Haddingtonshire, where he wns confined for nine 
months. His ward was then enlarged, and he 
was allowed to raulc at Lonl Somerville's house 
of Cowthally, with the libci-ty of two miles around 
it, under a penalty of £10,000, if he went beyond 
these bounds. He was subsequently permitted 
the range of the counties of Ayr and Renfrew. 

On the fall of Morton, he wns set at fidl liberty 
by an act of council in 1578. He then went to 
court, and soon obtained the favour of the king. 
On 26th April, 1581, he was restored to his scat 
on the bench. He was shortly afterwards kniglit- 
ed and sworn a privy councillor, and 18th May 
1584 made secretary of state. His forfeiture was 
rescinded in the parliament which met on the 22d 
of that month, and in the following year, he suc- 
cce^leil, greatly to the satisfaction of the king, in 
effecting a reconciliation with the exiled nobles, 
on their retuni to Scotland. On 31st May 1586 
he was appointed vice-chancellor of the kingdom. 

In 1587, Sir John ^laitland was accused by 
Captain Stewart, some time earl of Arrnn, and 
then chancellor, to whom he had at one time ad- 
hered, but had latterly deserted, of being accessoiy 
to the execution of Queen Mary and of intending 
to betray the king into the hands of EliKabeth. 

Stewart was ordered to enter within the palace of 

Linlithgow, there to abide the issue of his accusa- 
tion, but disobeyed the command. He was, in 
consequence, dci)rived of the office of lord high 
chancellor, which was immediately conferred upon 

Two years aftei^wards, the earls of Huntly, 
Crawford, and Bothwell, pei^sonal enemies of the 
chancellor, formed a design to march, with their 
followers, to Ilolyrood-housc, make themselves 
masters of the king's person, and put the chancel- 
lor to death. On the night in which it was to be 
carried into effect, however, the king remained in 
the same house with the chancellor, and thus 
frustrated their intentions. All their subsequent 
plots against him were likewise defeated. On the 
22d October of the same year (1589) Sir John 
^laiiland, as chancellor, embarked with tlie king 
at Leitli on his voyage to Norway, to bring home 
his bride, the princess Anne of Denmark, who had 
been driven in there by contraiy winds. The 
royal party spent the ensuing winter at Copenha- 
gen, where Maitland became intimately acquaint- 
ed with Tycho lirahc, the celebrated Danish 
astronomer, to whom he addressed several com- 
plimentary verses. While in Denmark, he wrote 
some letters on state affairs to Mr. Kobert Bruce 
at home, to whom had been intrusted the care of 
the country in the king's absence. These letters, 
as well as those of James to the same faithful and 
energetic niinister, were dated from the castle of 
Cronenburgh, and the last of Maitland's frorn El- 
si nore. 

He retunied with the king and queen on the 
1st of May 1590, and on the 17th of the same 
month, the coronation day of the latter, he was 
created a peer, by the title of Jjord Maitland of 
Thiriestane. In the procession to the abbey kirk, 
where the ceremony took place, he carried the 
queen's matrimonial crown, llie title was gi*ant- 
ed to him and the heirs m.ilc of his body, by let- 
ters patent, dated 18tli May 1590. The following 
year he resigned his office of secretary of state, 
which was conferred on his nephew, Sir Richard 
Cockburn of Clcrkington. In February 1592 oc- 
cuiTcd the murder at Donibristlc in Fife of the 
"bonny earl of ^loray" by the earl of Huntly, 
The king and the chancellor were susi>ected of 
having been previously aware of Huntly's inten- 


1 1 





lion, and Mnitland Is nald to have " liountlcd on " 
that noblcinnn to Iho cruel deed. " Cnniden in 
his aimnU," s<i}-3 Cnldprwood, (vol. iv. p. 145.) 
"Injctii Iho wliolc bni'dcn npon tlic clianccllor to 
clear the liiiig ; but it is known that tlicsc Ma nn- 
nals were coin|>03cd at tlie king's direction and 
pleasure." So gi'eat was the murmnring of tlie 
citizens of Kdinbuigli oii tlie occasion tliitt the 
king niid the chfinccllor found Ihemsclves obliged 
to go, for a lime, to I^ird HaniiUon's house of 
Kinncil in T.lnlltligowHhirc, and it with great 
difflcnlty that tlic provost anil inngistiiiles re- 
stmincd tiio crnfta of tiio city from tiiking anns to 
prevent Iliciv deparluj'c. ITio i>ay of tUc soldiiTs 
of llio king's guard being iii nri'cnr, tlrey seized 
tlic cliauccllor'a trunks and cofll-i'^, which liail 
been phiced on hovscbnck, niiil did not restore 
tbcni till 11 solemn promise imh ninitc lliat tUty 
slioiitd 1)C duly paid nil Hint na.* due to Iheui. 

Tlie turbnleut carl of liothwell, who kqit the 
king and conrt in constant fear and tunnoil, j 
and whose billci- hostility bail frcfpiently been ] 
directed agiunst the chancellor, lia<l favoniors even ; 
in the jialiice, and the qnpen he^^elf was bronglit 
to lend her powerful inllncnee ag^iinsl Maitinml. 
On the ponnlt day of March 1532, lie was coni- I 
nianded to remove from conrt, on whleh lie rctiitd ' 
to I>?thiiigton, but was soon i-Cr^lored to favoui'. | 
It was principally by lils advice that the king was 
indnced to consent to the ai't of pailianicnt, passed 
in June of tho same year, fur tlic raiilientlon of 
the liberty of the pii'sbyterian clinrch, in other 
words, fur its legid establislunent. Jli.' object in 
persuading the king 1o this measure is said to liavo 
been to ingratiate himself n itli the ministers and 
people, and lo i>treiigthen himself against his ene- 
my Both well. Willi the queen he had a di.-ipniu 
relative to tlie lauds of Mns^clbui'gh, wbicli caused 
Ills retirement from court for a whole year. On 
her coming to Scotland, tbc abbey of Dunfeniiline, 
with its lands and privileges, bad been conferred 
npon lier by the king. Among these was the manor 
of Mussel bui^li, a grant of nhieli bad been made to 
the abbey of Dunfennline by David I., that "sair 
sannt to tlio ci-oon." The regality of Mussel burgh 
and tbc property connected with it had, some 
years before tiie queen's marriage, come into the 
possession of Chancellor Maitlnnd, and as he re- 

fused to resign tliem to the qnccn, lier tmimoalty 
was but the more increiucd against bim. Dy the 

king's advice he pnsscd tlio following year In ' 

the conntn-, bnt in May 1593, he returned to contt ,; 

and was restored lo the exercise of hTs oflBcc. \ 

Tlie vast estate, it may bo stated, of the lordtliip j. 

of Klussclburgli, or of tbo wliolc of Iho ancient i 

Great Invcresk and Little Invcrcsk, continued in ' 

the family till 1TU9, wlicii it was purch.ised by | 

Anne, daclicss of Ducclcncli, the iridoir of the I 

duke of Monmoiitb, from John, fifth earl of Lan- | 

dcrdale, who died the folloniiig year. Subjoined ij 

is the chancellor's portrait, from an engraving lu | 

Smith's leouographta Scolica: , 

nic keeping of ibe young prince Henry had ■ 
been inlnisled by the king to the earl of Mar, bnt ' 
as tbc queen iii-^bed to remove him from Mar's 
charge, the ch.iucellor, willing lo make a friend of 
her niajeslr, entered into her plans, 'i'hls roused 
the niigcr of James, who reproved hint Terj- 
shanily for bis iuteiference in a matter with whicii 
lie bad nothing to do. Deeply mortifled, he re- 
tired to Lamler, where, after two mouths' illness, 
he died, October .Id, 1 505. He was visited on bis 
ileatlibed by Andi'cw Melvillo and his nephew, 
Robert Bruce, and had he lived it is Ihonght that 




tlio eviU with wliicb, soon af^er, tlio imtionni 
churcli tras assailed, Avonld have been Averted. 
The king regretted him much, and composed nu 
epitaph to his memory. 

Lord Thirlestane, like liis fatlier, Ims obtained 
a high character from his contempornries, for his 
eminent abilities and amiable disposition. Spots- 
vrood Bays: *^ lie was a man of rare parts and of 
a deep wit, learned, full of corn-age, and most 
' faithful to liis king and master. No man did ever 
carry himself in his place moi-e wisely, nor sustain 
it more conrageonsly against his enemies." 

Iksides a satire ^Against Slauderis Tongnes/ 
and ^An Admonition to the Earl of Mar,^ pub- 
lished by Pinkerton, and described by him as the 
best state poem which he had ever read, he iVrotc 
several Latin epigrams, inserted in the second 
volume of the ' Delitiae Poctarum Scotorum.' The 
poems attribnted to him have been printed with 
those of his father. Sir llichard ^laitland, by the 
Maitland Club, in a volume issued in 1829. 

MAITLAND, John, second earl and only duke 
of Lftoderdalc, see vol. ii. page 634. 

MAITLAND, William, an historical and an- 
liqnarian writer, was born at Brechin about 1G93. 
His original occupation was that of a hair mer- 
chant, in which character he travelled in Sweden, 
Denmark, and Germany, and by his business he 
appears to have acquired some wealth. At length, 
settling in London, he turned his attention to the 
study of antiquities, and produced several compi- 
lations, which were well received at the time, but 
are now of small repute. In 1733, he was elected 
a member of the Royal Society, and in 1735 a 
fellow of the Antiquarian Society, but resigned the 
latter honour in 1740, on his return to Scotland. 
He died at Montrose, July IC, 1757. His works 

The History of Ix>ndon, from its fuundntion by tlie Ko- 
Dums, to the rear 1730. Also Westminster, Middlesex, 
Soothwark, and other pnrts within the Bills of Mortality, 
niiistnted irith numerous pl.ntes. London, 1739, fol. The 
ume, contlntietl to tljc year 1760. I^nd. 1760, 2 vols. fol. 
An edition oonsidcmbly enlarged and improved, was publish- 
ed in 1765, 2 vols. fol. by Mr. Entick. 

The History of Edinbnrgb, from its foundation to tlic prc- 
■ent time} cont;iining a fuitliful rulatiun of tho public trans- 
actions of the citisens; acconnts of the seveml Pjirishes; its 
Gomiunent, Cirll, Ecclesiastical, and Military; Incorpora- 
tioos of Trades and Mannfactures ; Courts of Justice; stntc 
of Learning; Cbaritablo Foundations, &c; witli the several 

Accounts of the Parishes of the Canongate, St. Cuthbert, 
&c. ; and the ancient and present state of Leitb. In nine 
books, with plates. Edin. 1753, fol. 

The History and Antiquities of Scotland. I,oud. 1757, 2 
vols. fol. 

Of the Number of Inhabitants in I/)ndon. Phil. Tranfc 
Abr. vii 257. 1738. 

^lATXJOLir, a surname originally Gillecolane or Gillechal- 
lum, derived from two Gaelic words signifying the seirant of 
St, Columba. Somerled, thane of Argyle, had a son of thii 
name, who was slain with him near Kcnfrewin 1164. 

'llie chief of the clan Challum or the MacCallums, an Ar- 
gyleshii-e sept, originally styled the clnn Challum of Ariskeod- 
nish, is Malcolm of Poltalloch, wboMS family has been settled 
from a very eariy period in that county. One of this house, 
called Zachary Uad Donald Mor of Poltalloch, was killed 
Blay 25, 16*17, at Ederline, in South Argyle, in single combat 
with Sir Alexander Macdonald, called Ailaster Mac CoUkit* 
tocli, or left-handed. He was in the force of the marquis of 
Argyle when General David I^ie advanced into Kintyre to 
drive out the rnynliiits, and was renowned in his day for his 
great strength. It is alleged that he slew seven of his as- 
s;iilHnts before he was himself slain. He was getting the 
better of Colkitto, when a Maclean &ime behind him with a 
sc\the and lianistmng him; he was then easily overpowered. 

In 1414, Sir Duncan Campbell of Locbow granted to 
Reginald Malcolm of Corbarron, certain lands of Craignish, 
and on the banks of I.och Avich, in Nether I«om; with the 
office of hei'editary constable of his castles of Jx^chaftj and 
Craignijih. Tliis bmnch became extinct towards the end of 
the 17tli century, as Corbarron or Corran is said to have been 
bequeathed by the last of the family to Zachary MacCallum 
of Poltalloch, who succeeded his father in 1686. 

Dugald MacCallum of Poltalloch, who inherited the estate 
in 1779, appears to have been the first to adopt permanently 
the name of Malcolm as tho family patronymic. Besides 
roltalloch, the family possesses Kihnartin house and Dun- 
troon castle, in the same county. 

John Malcolm, Esq., of Poltalloch, bom in 1805, a mngis> 
trate and deputy-lieutenant for Argyleshire and Kent, suc- 
ceeded his brother, Neill, in 1857. Educated at Harrow 
and Oxford, he became H.A. in 1827 and M.A. in 1830. He 
married 2d daughter of the Hon. John ^Yingfield, Strat- 
ford, son of 3d Viscount Powcrscourt, with issue. Heir, his 
son, John Wingfield. 

The Malcolms of Balbeadie and Grange, Fifeshire, possess a 
baronetcy of Nova Scotia, conferred in 1665. In the reign of 
Charles I., Sir .lohn Malcolm, eldest son of John Malcolm of 
Balbeadie, acquired the lands of Ix>chore in the same county. 
A branch of tlic Malcolms of I.ochore and Innertiel settled in 

In 1746. Sir Michael Malcolm, baronet, being related to the 
last Lord Bal merino, was sent for to be present at his execu- 
tion on Tower-liiil. A daughter of Lord Chancellor Bathnrst 
saw him on the scaffold, and fell in love with him. He sub- 
sequently manied her. 

Sir Michael sold the estate of Lochore, which Fubsrqncntly 
came into the possession of Mr. Jobson, whose daughter mar- 
ried the 2d Sir Walter Scott, baronet. 

On Sir MichaeKs death, the title devolved npon James 
Malcolm of Grange, and at the de.ith of tho latter in 1705, 
upon John Malcolm of Balbeadie, descended from the youngest 
brother of the first baroi:ct. Sir Johns son. Sir Michael 



! li 




: I 



. r 

1 1 


Midouhn, inarrittl in 1824, Marv, yonngcst d.-iuglitcr of J<'Iin 
Forbe«, Esq., of Bridgend, Perth, nnd with three danghlcre, 
h:id one son, Sir John Malcohn, born April 1, 1828, who mic- 
oceded to the baronetcr, on the death of hw father in 3838. 

^lALCOL^I I., King of Scots, was Ihc son of 
Donal IV., who rcigiicd fi-om 893 to 904. On 
the abdication of Constantino III., Malcolm suc- 
ceeded to the throne in 944. In 945, Kdinund, 
the Saxon king of England, ceded Cumberland 
and part of Westmoreland to him, on condition 
that he wonld defend that northern tcrritor\', and 
become the ally of Knglaiid. Edrcd, the brother 
and successor of Edmund, accordingly applied for, 
and obtained the aid of l^lalcolm again:ft Anlnf, 
king of Northumberland, which latter country he 
wasted, and carried cff the inhabitants with their 

Ju the time of Malcolm I., the people of the 
province of ^loray, in the north- east of S<oiIaiid, 
were a mixed race, formed of Scandinavian set- 
tlers, with Scottish and Pictish Celts. Turbulent 
and rebellious, they were continually at war with 
the sovereign, and an insurrection having occur- 
red under CelIach,maormorof Garmoran, Malcolm 
marched north to reduce them to obedience. lie 
slew Cellach, but was, some time thereafter, as- 
sassinated in 953 at Ulnrn, supposed by Shaw to 
be Auldearn, after a reign of nine years. Other 
accounts state his death to have taken place at 
Fodresach or Eoitcs. He was succeeded by In- 
dulpli, the son of Constantino If., and Indulph 
had for his successor. Duff, the son of Malcolm, 
uho mounted the throne in 9G1. Another son of 
Malcolm L, Kenneth III., succeeded in 971, after 
an intermediate possessor of the throne named 
Culen, the son of Indulph. 

MALCOLM II., King of Scot5, the son of 
Kenneth III., succeeded to the throne in 1003, 
and had a troublous rcign of about thirty years. 
He defeated and slew Kenneth IV. at Monievaird 
in Strathearn, and in consequence became king. 
His first annoyance came from the Danes who, in 
previous reigns, had made several attempts to ef- 
fect a settlement in Scotland, but had been de- 
feated in them all. They had secured a firm 
footing in England, and the year after ^lalcolm^s 
accession to the throne, they commenced the most 
formidable preparations, under their celebrated 

king, Sweyn, for a new expedition to the Scottish 
coasts. I Ic onlered Olans, his viceroy in Norway, 
and Enet in Denmark, to raise a powerful army, 
and to fit ont a suitable fleet for the cntcrpiiBC. 

Tlie coast of Moray was chosen as tlie scene of 
the menaced invasion. Effecting a descent near 
Speymouth, the Danes carried firo and sword 
through that province, and laid siege to the fortress 
of Nairn, then one of the strongest castles hi the 
north of Scotland. Iliey were forced to raii«e Ihc 
siege for a time by Malcolm, who hastening against 
them with an ami}-, encamped in a plain near 
Kilflos or Kinlos. In this position he was at- 
tacked by the Danes, and forced to retreat, afkcr 
being seriously wounded. The fortress of Nairn 
then capitulated to the invadci*s, but in violation 
of an express condition that their lives should 
be saved, the whole garrison were immediately 

To cxikI the Danes from Moray, Malcolm mus- 
tered all his forces, and in the spring of 1010, with 
a powerful anny he encamped at Mortlacli. The 
Danes advanced to give him battle, and a fierce 
and sanguinary conflict ensued, the resnlt of 
which was long doubtful. Three of the Scottish 
commandei-s fell at the very commencement of the 
engagement, when a panic seized their followers, 
and the king was borne along with them in their 
retreat till he was opposite the church of Mort- 
lacli, then a chapel dedicated to St. Mobch. 
There, while his army were partially pent up in 
their flight by the contraction of the vale and the 
naiTOwness of the pass, he made a vow to endow 
a religious house on the field of battle shonld he 
obtain the victory. Tlien, rallying and rousing 
his troops by an animated appeal to their patriot- 
ism, and placing himself at their head, he wheeled 
round upon the Danes, threw Enotus, one of the 
Danish generals, from his horse, and killed him 
with his own hand. The Scots, catching his spi- 
rit, made an impctuons onset on the enemy, whom 
they drove from the field, thickly strewing the 
ground with their coiT^ses. In gratitude to God 
for this signal victory, Malcolm got the church of 
^fortlach converted into a cathedral, and the vil- 
lage into the seat of a diocese, said to have been 
the earliest bishopric in Scotland. His endowment 
of it was confirmed by Pope Benedict, but in 11S9 

M.\F.COLM ir. 




the bishopric was removed to Aberdeen. In the 
order of precedence, while this see lasted, it rank- 
ed next to that of St. Andrews. It was long 
thought that, during tlicir occupation of Moray, 
the Danes had fortified Burgh Head, but tlic re- 
mains there found arc now believed to be cither 
of Roman or Fictish constructiun. 

To revenge this defeat and other disastera which, 
at this time, the invadei*s experienced on the coasts 
of Angus and Buchau, Swejn, the Danish king, 
despatched Camus, one of the ablest of his gene- 
rals, to the Scottish shores. He had scarcely, 
however, cflfected a landing on the coast of Angus, 
in the neighbourhood of Carnoustie, than ho was 
attacked in the plains of Barric by Malcolm, at 
the head of a considerable anny, and, after a 
blo^Mly contest, defeated with great loss. He 
sought safety in flight, but was closely pur.<ued, 
aud killed. The place of his overthrow is indi- 
cted by a monumental stone, called the Cross of 
Camus, which stands on a small tumulus at Cu- 
muitown, a village which has been named after 
him, in the parish of Monikic. Tlic tumulus, 
according to tradition, contains the rem.iins of 
Camus, and the story of the old chroniclers is 
that, after his defeat, he fled northwards, with a 
view to escape to Moray, wliorc were some of his 
sliifks, but WAS pursued aud overtaken here by 
Hubert, the remote ancestor of the earls Marischal, 
ulto killed him by cleaving his skull \yitli his bat- 
tle-axe. About the year 1(320, the tumulus was 
o|)ened by order of Sir Patrick Maulc, afterwards 
first earl of Panmure, when a skeleton of large 
dimensions in good preservation was discovered, 
niih part of the skull wanting. 

The Danes, however, were not to bo deterred 
even by the i*epeated defeats which they had sus- 
tained, fix)m their long cherished but often bnfllcd 
scheme of the conquest of Noith Britain. And as 
for the Scots, the spirit which animated tlieni has 
l»eeu well expressed in the lines of Home: 

*' The Dnnos have laniU'd, wc must U*:it tlicm back, 
Or live the blares of Dcninark. 

In 1014, another Danish force landed on the 
coast of Buchan, about a mile west from Slailies 
castle, in the parish of Cruden. The Danes on 
this occasion were led by Sweyifs celebrated son, 

Canute, afterwards king of England and Denmark, 
and again they experienced a signal overthrow. 
The site of the fleld of battle has been ascertained 
by the discovery of human bones left exposed b}' 
the shifting or blowing of the sand. Some writers 
assei-t that a treaty was entered into with the 
Danes, by which it was stipulated that the field of 
battle should bo consecrated by a bishop as a 
bin*ying-placc for those of their countrymen who 
had fallen, and that a church should be there built 
and priests appointed in all time coming, to sa}' 
masses for the souls of the slain. It is certain 
that a chapel was erected in this neighbourhood, 
dedicated to St. Olaus, the site of which has be- 
come invisible by being covcixhI with sand. An- 
other and far more important stipulation, it is said, 
was made by which the Danes agreed to quit 
every part of the Scottish coasts, and this was fol- 
lowed by the final departure, the same year, of 
these ruthless invaders from Scotland. 

Malcolm was next engaged in war wiih the 
Northumbrians, and having, in 1018, letl his army 
to Carhnm, near Werk, on the southern bank of 
the Tweed, he was met there by Uchtred earl of 
Northumberland, when a desperate battle took 
place. The victory was claimed by Uchtred, who 
was, soon after, assassinated, when on his way to 
pay his obeisance to the great Canute. To prevent 
an invasion of his territories, Eadulph, his brother 
and successor, In the year 1020, ceded to Malcolm 
the fertile region of I-rOdonia, or Lothian. That 
extensive and beautiful district had fonnerlv been 
a part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Xorthum- 
bria, which in the time of Kdwin, from whom 
Kdinburgh derives its name, and who began his 
reign in G17, had extended from the Ilumber to 
the Avon ; but ever after it had thus been ac- 
quired by Malcolm XL, it formed an integral por- 
tion of the Scottish dominions. On this occasion, 
Malcolm gave oblations to the churches and gifts 
to the clergy, who, in return, bestowed on him the 
proud designation of vir victoriosissimus. 

In 1031, Canute, the Danish king of England, 
the most powerful monarch of his time, invaded 
Scotland, to compel Malcolm to do homage for 
Cumbria, which he had refused, on tho ground 
that Canute was a usurper ; but, after some nego- 
tiations, Duncan, Malcolm's grandson, afterwards 

• I 

1 1 
1 1 

■ I 

1 i 


. I 

I ; 




bjT Fordan, Abthanus de DuU ac Seneschalhu In- 
tukarum, Tiio title of abtlmne appears to have 
belonged to an abbot who possessed a thaiiedom. 
It waj peculLir to Scotland, and only three ab- 
tlianeries are named in ancient recoi*ds, nnmclj', 
tliose of Dall in Athol, Kirkmichael in Strathardle, 
and Madderty in Strnthcaru. The title of thnnc, 
previously Icuown in England, was not used in 
Scotland till the introduction of the Saxon policy 
hito the latter kingdom by Edgar, who began his 
reign in 1097. The three thanedoms mentioned 
under the name of abthanerics appear to have 
been vested in the croA\ii, and were confcii'ed by 
E<lg]ir on his younger brother, Ethclred, who was 
abl>ot of Dnnkcld. On Ethclrcd^s death they re- 
verted to the crown. 

In tlie time of Crinan, " there was certainly," 
says Mr. Skene, ^* no such title in Scotland, but it 
y oqnally certain that there were no charters, and 
although Crinan had not the nnmc, he mny have 
been in fact the same thing. He was certainly 
abbot of Dnnkeld, and he may have likewise pos- 
sessed that extensive territory which, from tlic 
same circnmstance, was afterwards called the ab- 
tlianedom of Dull. Fordun cei*tainly inspected 
the reconls of Dnnkcld, and the circumstance can 
only be explained by supposing that Fordun may 
have there seen the deed gi*nnting the abthancdom 
of Dull to Ethelred, abbot of Dnnkeld, which 
would natnrally state that it had been possessed 
by his proavus Crinnn, and from which Fordun 
would conclude that as Criunu possessed the 
thing, he was also known by the name of Abtha- 
nus de Dull, From this, therefore, we learn the 
very singular fact that the race which gave a long 
line of kings to Scotland, were originally lords of 
that district in Athol lying between Strathtay 
and lUnnoch, which was afterwards tenned the 
Abthania de Dully (^Skene's Highlands of Scot- 
land, vol. ii. pp. 137, 138.) 

I>eparting from the generally received history 
of Scotland at this remote and confused period of 
our annals, Mr. Skene is of opinion, fi*om the re- 
markable coincidence which he found between the 
Irish annals and the Noi-se Sagas, that two Mal- 
colms of different families reigned in Scotland 
during the thirty years allotted to one, the second 
of these Malcolms being in possession of the 

throne the last four yeara of that time. From his 
account of the second Norwegian kingdom in the 
north of Scotland, which lasted only seven years, 
that is, from 986 to 993, (vol. i. p. 108,) we learn 
that Sigurd, the 14th iarl of Orkney, after having 
defeated a Celtic ai-my under Kenneth and Mels- 
nechtan, maormora of Dala (Arg}'le) and Ross, in 
an attempt on their part to recover Caithness, in 
which Melsnechtan was slain, was obliged to re- 
tire to the Orkneys, by the approach of Malcolm, 
maormor of Moray, with a large Scottish force, and 
he was never afterwards able to regain a footing 
on the mainland of Scotland. lie had previously 
made himself master of the disti'icts of Ross, Mo- 
ray, Sutherland, and Argyle, bnt had been driven 
out of them by a sndden rising of their maormors. 
These districts were left in possession of Malcolm, 
who was enabled, by his increased power and in- 
fluence, and great personal talenti>, even to seat 
himself on the throne itself. In what his title to 
the crown consisted is not known, but whatever it 
was, he was supported in it by the Celtic inhabi- 
tants of the whole of the north of Scotland. His 
descendants, for many generations afterwards, 
constantly asserted their right to the throne, and 
as invariably received the assistance of the Celtic 
portion of its inhabitants. ^^ In all probability,** 
says Mr. Skene, ^^ the Highlanders were attempt- 
ing to oppose the hereditary succession in the 
family of Kenneth M^Alpin, and to introduce the 
more ancient Pictish law." Kenneth IIL is said to 
have got a law passed by his chiefs, on the moot- 
hill of Scone, that the son, or nearest male heir of 
the king, should always succeed to the throne, 
and when not of age, that a regent should be ap- 
pointed to rule the kingdom in his name until he 
attained his fourteenth year, when he should as- 
sume the reins of goveinment. As the sovereign- 
ty was not transmitted by the strict line of here- 
ditary descent, brothers, by the law of tanistry, 
being preferred to sons in the succession, rival 
contests and civil wars for the crown were fre- 
quent. Kenneth^s law, if passed at all, of which 
there is no evidence, seems not to have been acted 
upon, as two princes, Constantino IV., the son of 
Culen, (mentioned on page 84,) and Kenneth IV. 
the son of Duff, succeeded to the crown before 
Malcolm ; that is, on the hiiherto received suppo- 

: t 

MALCOLM 1[. ( 

sitioii Uiut Makoliii I[. was tiic son of Kenneth 
IIL, antt gi-fliKldonorMnlcolnil. irsiii:!! wns llio 
cnsc, Kcuuctb IV., tlie Mn of Duff, wns Va cou- 
sin, and, during liU I'ui^'ii, TtUU-olin stood in tlic 
position of licir prcsiuniitive to tlic crotvn, nnil 
vea» Tti/ulus or {irinco ofCiinibertonil. 

According to Skene, lioivcvcr, bo ivna inaornior 
of Moray, nnd so hv m npgicni's, not allied to tlie 
roral fiiniily nt all. lie aecnis to liavo made »'nr 
oil Kcnnclli IV., but by the interposition of Fo- 
tliail, one of tlie Scottish bUliops, a treaty was 
ngrccit to iKitween tlicm, by nliiuli it wns stipu- 
Intuil tbnt Kcnnclli Blioiild reninUi king for life, 
and tliflt Miilcolin nnd liis bcirs should succeed 
aftri' lilni. Iinpatlciit to possess the crown, liow- 
nvpr, KInlcolin again took, tlic field, and iu n 
bloody battle at Kloiiivniril in StratUenm, Ken- 
neth, nftcr a biiivc rcsistuncc, wns killed. Ac- 
cofdiiii; to Ibc i-egister of St. Andrews, Kenneth 
wasBiain "at Moicglivard," in 1001. Other nc- 
coiinld make It 1003. 

Soon nflcr becoming king of Scotland, to conci- 
liate Stgtird, carl of Orkney, cnlled the Stunt, and 
described as " a grcnt cbwitnin and wide-lauded," 
Alalcolin i;avc liini Ids dnnghter for liis second 
wifi*. The isiiuo of this nini'ringo wns fonr sons. 
The eldest, Tliorlinn, is Siiid in tiic Orkncyiiiga 
Saga, to have been " a great chicOain, one of tlic 
largest nieii in paint of stature, ugly of ni:g>ccl, 
bliiek haired, slinrp fcalnrcd, and smnctvhat taw- 
ny, nnd the ino«t inarlial looking man ; lie was n 
ei.ntcntioiis man, and covetous both of money and 
iii;,'iiily; victiiriotii nnd clever hi bnltlc, and n 
held nit.ii'kei-. He \t:\f llien live winlu-:< old 
wlicii Maleolm, king of the ScoIji, IiI.h moibcr'H 
father, gnvc liini nu inrl's title, nnd (-aithne^s to 
rule over, bnt he wns fonrleen winlei's when he 
prepared niarltiuie expeditions from liis country, 
and made war on llic domnins ofotiter prlnec." 
lie thus enrly began Ids career as a A'ikingr. It 
was on the death of iiis fallicr Sigunl, who wns 
slniii in lOU, nt the bnltic of Clontnrf iu Ii-claml, 
I I1;;1iting against the renowned llrinn Doruliiinc, 

tlint King Malcolm bestowed on him tlic district 
of Caitlnic*!, Ill) eldest half-brotlicr, Kinnr, hav- 
ing succeeded to the iarldoni of tlio Orkneys. 

In tlio Irish aiinnln, under the year 1029, it is 
recorded that " Malcolm, sou of Maolbrigdc, son 



of Kory, King of Alban, died." His reign voold 
Ihns appear lo have lasted only twenty-ilx, In- 
stead of tliirly years. On his death, the Scottish 
portion of the nation succeeded In placlDg upon 
the tlirono tlio son of Kenneth IV., also named 
]kIalcolm, for whom, nccording to Mr. Skene's 
view, lio lins been inistnkeii. In the Orkneyingn 
Snga ho is known by tlio name of Kali IlnndaaDii, 
and In tlio history of Scotland, of Itlalcoitii IL 

This tlilrd hlalcotin commenced bis rclga by 
attempts to reduce the power of the XonrcgliM 
in Scotland, bnt found them too strong for lum. 
Tlioi'fiiin having refused to pay liim tribute for tin 
tenilories on the Scottish mainland, whicli lie 
had received from his gmndfather, ftlnlcotm gave 
(Caithness to Moddaii, liU nepliow, vitb tlio title 
of Inri. To enable 1dm to lake possesion of liis {[ 
new territory, tlo<ldnn miscii an srmy En Solhcr- 
land, but 'Jliorllnn collected Ids followers, nnd j' 
having been joined by Tlioikclt Fostrl, with a |l 
largo force fi-om the Oikncys, pi-cfienied sncb a ' 
strong front, that Moddnu fomid himself obliged !| 
to retire wiihmit linKnnling a battle. On this i' 
Thoi'linn subjected to hiinsrtr Sutherland and ! 
Rons, nnd cnmcd his nmis far nnd wide In Scot- | 
land. lie then returned to Cnitlinnui. |; 

M.ilcolui, nn his pnit, with a fleet of eleven I. 
ship^, snik'il ti>wnrds the north, bnt wns attacked 
nnd dcfcaii'd in the Pcntland Frith by Tliorflnn, |. 
aud his licet coinpletely di.-^per^cd. Tliis sea-figlit |i 
tonk place a little nay cast of Dnraess. Mai* 
colm flwl to the Rloniy Frith, followed by Tlior- 
linn nnd Thorkeil. 'I1ic latter, however, wns soou 
dt'>:pnli'licd lo Tliur^o, to nttnek Moddnn, who 
had nriived tlicre wltli a Inrpc army, lie rcnclicd 
'niumo at ni^'lit, and hnving set firo to tlic house 
in which Moddait slept, tlint chicnnin tcnpt down 
from tlio beams of nn upper story, nnd wns slain 
l>y Thorkcll, who cut off his head. After a brief 
tlgbl, dining wldcli a great number were killed, 
bis anny surrendered to Tlioikcll, wlio, with nd- 
ditionnl forces, then rejoined TlmiUnn in Moray, 

In the inoaiitiine, Malcobn had levied forces 
both in the cast nnd west of Scotland, and hnving 
been joined by a iininber of Irish nnxillaries, lie 
marched to ^vc battle to Tlioriinn. Tlic opposbig 
nruiies met in 1033, on the soutlicm shoro of the 
Beniily Frith, when Malcolm wns totully defeated, 




iind, according to soinc acconnts, slain. Others 
state that be escaped by flight, and died the fol- 
lowing jear. Tliorfinn thereafter conquered the 
n hole of Scotland, all the way south to Fife. lie 
then returned to hid ships. 

Tlie only portion of tlie territory of tlic uorthem 
Picta that had not been snbjected to his power 
was the diijttrict of Athole and the greater pni*t of 
Arg}ie, and here the Scots, on the deatli of Mal- 
coiin, songlit for a king; Duncan, (see vol. ii., 
page 82,) the son of Ci-innn, abbot of Dunkeld, 
and grandson of Malcolm 11., being raised to tlio 
vncant throne. 

MALCOLM III., better known in history by 
tlio name of Malcolm Ctcm Mor^ or great head, 
wns the elder of the two sons of Duncan, king of 
Scots, by his queen, a sister of Siward, earl of 
Xorthnm1)cr1and. He wns bom about 1024, be- 
fore his father was called to the throne, and, 
when the latter in 1039, after a reign of six year?*, 
was assassinated by Macbeth, Malcolm, then only 
fifteen years of a;jo, fled to Cumberland, whilst 
hU brother, Donald Bane, took refuge in the lie- 

On the ncce.«sion of the Confessor to 
the throne of England in 1013, Malcolm was 
pl:tced by his father-in-law Siward, under liii* 
protection, when he became a resident at the 
Kn};lish coui-t. In his absence various attempts 
were made bv his adherents in Scotland to dis"- 
|iOs-io*s Macbeth of the throne, in one of which 
Malcolm'.s grandfather, the aged Criuan, abbot of 
DiinkcUl, was slain in 10-15. Nine years there- 
after, namely in 1051, Malcolm obtained from Ed- 
wanl the a.<si<taucc of an Anglo-Saxon army, 
under the command of Earl Siward, to support his 
claims to the crown. This force he accompanied 
into Scotland, and a furious battle is said to have 
ensued, in which ^lacbeth lost 3,000 men, and 
llic Anglo-Saxiuis 1,500, including Oijibcrt, the 
son of Siwanl. Macbeth fled northwanls, leaving 
Ix;tl«ian in posse.s.<ion of Siward, who placed Mal- 
colm as king over thnt district, where the Saxon 
iuouenee prevailed. Supported, however, by the 
(\ltic inhaliitants of the north of Scotland, and 
hv the Xorwedaus of the districts under the swav 
of riuirfinn, the |)owerful earl of Orkney, Macbeth 
was still enabled to retain possession of the throne. 

In 1056, another English army was sent to the 
assistance of Malcolm. At this time Tliorfinn, 
and the son of the king of Norway, had gone to 
the south, with the strength of the Norwegian 
power in Scotland, to attempt the subjugation of 
England, but, according to the Irish annals, " God 
was against them in that affair,** and their fleet 
was dis|iersed in a storm. Macbeth, deprived of 
Thorfinn*s aid, was not able to withstand this new 
an*ay against him. lie was driven north to 
Lnmphanan in Aberdeenshire, where he was over- 
taken and slain, December 5tli, 1056. The at- 
tempt of his stepson, Lnlach, to succeed him on 
the throne, was, after a struggle of fonr months, 
put an end to by his defeat and deatli at Essie in 
Strathbogie, on the 25th of the following April. 

Malcolm was soon af^er crowned at Scone. 
Except the territories jiossessed by Tliorfinn, con- 
sisting, besides Orkney and the Hebrides, of the 
nine districts or earldoms of Caithness, Nes.^, 
Sutherland, Koss, Moray, Carmoran, Buchaii, 
Mar, and Angus, he was master of all the rest of 
Scotland. His first cai-c was to recompense those 
who had supported him in his struggle for the 
crown. His next, to recover those northern dis- 
tricts which still remained under Norwegian rule. 
The most remarkable reward which he bestowe<l 
was on Macduft', maormor of Fife (sec art. Fifk, 
page 2011, vol. ii. of this work.) The titles of 
earl and tlinnc which ^lalcolm is said to have in- 
troduced, were not known in Scotland till after 
the Saxon colonization in Edgar's time, the Nor- 
wegian title iarl being confined to the Orkneys 
and to Caithness. 

Sliakspere's immortal tragedy of Macbeth, 
founded on the fables of Boecc and the traditions 
of the times, has thrown an interest round the 
character of the principal personages concerned in 
it, which could never have been created bv the 
facts of sober histoiT ; but there is sufilcieiit in 
the events of Malcolm's reign to render it one of 
the most important \\\ our annals. Gratitude to 
the king of England, as well as the unsettled state 
of his own kingdom, led Malcolm to cultivate the 
alliance of Edward the Confessor, and he paid 
that monarch a vi^it in 1059. lie had contracted 
an intimate friendship with To&tig, who h.ijl been 
crer.led earl of Northumberland. He wr.s the sen 


1 1 

: I 






of tlio cclcbmtcd Karl GckIwiu and brother of Ha- 
rold, tbo last king of Saxon England. Tliey 
wcrc for a time esteemed ^^ sworn brothers,** but n 
quarrel having taken place between tliem in lOCl, 
Malcolm made a liostilo incursion into Xortlinni- 
berlaud, and after laying that country waste, he 
even violated the peace of St. Cnthl>ert, in Holy 

On the death of Thorfiun in 10G4, his Norwe- 
gian kingdom in Scotland, which had lasted thirty 
years, fell to pieces, and the difTerent di.stricts he 
had conquered reverted to their native chiefs, 
" who were territorially born to nile over them," 
{Orhneyinga Saga). Malcolm married Thorfinn's 
widow, Ingioborge, and by her he had a son, Dun- 
can 11. (sec vol. ii. p. 83.) This marriage, how- 
ever, does not seem in the slightest to ha\e ad- 
vanced his intei'ests in the north. Tlic chiefs of 
tlie districts fonncrly in subjection to the Norwe- 
gians refused to acknowledge liis sovereignty, and 
chose a king for themselves, Donald, the son of 
Malcolm, niaormor of Moray, and king of Scot- 
land (see page 87 of this volume). It took Mal- 
colm twenty-one yeai-s to reduce the northern 
districts under his dominion. In 1070, he is 
said to have obtained a victory over his op- 
ponents, but it was not decisive. In 1077, 
as the Saxon Chronicle informs us, he over- 
threw ^laolsneciitan, maormor of Moray, the 
son of Luhich, and in 1085 he got rid of both 
his rivals bv death. Tlic Irish annals sav 
that in that year, ^^ Malsnectai, son of Ln- 
lach, king of Moray, died peacefully. Donald, 
son of Malcolm, king of Albnn, died a \iuK>nt 

Long previous to this, however, events in 
connexion with England had occurred which exer- 
cised an important influence on his reign, and 
which may now be briefly detailed. Edward the 
Confessor died 5th January lOGO, and was suc- 
ceeded by Harold. Tostig, the brother of the 
latter, had, from his extortions and his vio- 
lence, so irritated the people of Northumberland, 
that they rose against him and drove him from 
his earldom. This happened a few years previous 
to the death of Edward the English king. Har- 
old fonnd it prudent to abandon his brother's 
caiue, on which Tostig; became \m bitterest ene- 

my. He fii-st took refuge in Flanden, with Bald- 
win, his father-in-law, and Aftcnvarda Tisited 

William, duke of Normandy. On Harold's 
sion, he collected about sixty vcsseU iu tlie porti 
of Flanders, and committed some depredations on 
the south and cast coasts of England. He next 
sailed to North imiberland, and was there Joined 
by Harold Halfager, by some called Iladradd, 
king of Norway, with uUO sail. Entering the 
Hnniber, they disembarked the trooiM, but were 
defeated and put to flight, when Tostig proceeded 
into Scotland. It is not known wliether Malcolm 
received him at his court, or aided, or counte- 
nanced in any way, his projects against liis bro- 
ther, the new king of England. Lord Ilailcs 
thinks it probable that he was not received by 
I .Malcolm, but only remained at anchor iu some 
Scottish bay, with the remains of his fleet, till 
joined by reinforcements from Norway. On re- 
ceiving these he and Hadrada again invaded Eng- 
land, and were both slain at the battle of Stam- 
ford Bridge. 25th September lOGC. The battle of 
Hastings took place on the 14tli of the following 
October, when Harold was killed and AYlUiam the 
Conqueror became king of England. 

Two years thei*eafter, Edgar .\thcling, grand- 
son of Edmund Ironside, and the heir of the Sax- 
on line, with his mother, the princess Agatha, 
and his two sisters, Margai-et and Christina, ar- 
rived in Scotland. In their train came many 
An^lo-Siixon:<, and among them Gospatrick iiud 
other nobles of Northumberland. Some anthors 
say that it was their intention to proceed to Hun- 
gary, the native country of Edgar and his two 
sister?*, w hen they were driven by a storm into 
the Erith of Forth. ]Malcolni then resided at the 
tower which still bears his name, on the small 
peninsular mount, in the glen of Pittcncricfl^, near 
Dunferndine, in Fifeshire. On hearing of the 
arrival of the illustrions strangers, he hastened tg 
iuvite them to his royal tower. There they were 
hospitably entertained, and as ho was at this time 
a widower, there his nuptials with the pnnccss 
Margaret were, soon after, celebi-ated with un- 
wonted splendour. 

Margaret was one of the most pious and accom- 
plished princesses of her day, and her diaractcr 
and influence tended much to improve and rcfiue 


• I 


! i 




tiie rude manuers of her hnsband^s subjects. On 
her hosUaiid himself her vhrtaes and gentleness 
exereiaed a most sahitafy power. We learn from 
Tnrgoty her confessor and biographer, that ^falcolm 
liked aad disliked whatever she did, and tliat sncli 
was his veneration for her worth and piety, that 
bdng mnable to read, he was in the habit of kiss- 
ing her mlssala and prayer-books, which, in token 
of ilia devotion, he caused to be splendidly bound 
and adorned witli gold and precious stones. She 
persuaded him to pass the night in fervent pmycr, 
moch to the astonishment of his courtiers. *^I 
must acknowledge," adds Tnrgot, ^^ that I often 
admired the works of the divine mercy, when I 
saw a king so religious, and such signs of deep 
compnnction in a laic.** 

Into the court of Malcolm she introduced nn- 
nsnal splendour. She eucoumgcd the importation 
of rich dresses of various colours for himself and 
bis nobles, which led to the commencement of a 
trading Intercourse with foreign countries, and to 
this reign may be assigned the introduction of the 
wearing of tartan, wliich came afterwards to dis- 
tinguish the clans. In Iier own attire slic was 
magnificent, and slic increased tlic number of at- 
tendants on the person of the king. Under her 
gnidance the public appearances of the sovereign 
were attended with more parade and ceremony 
than had ever previously been the case. Slie also 
caused the king to bo siMvcd at table in gold and 
silver plate ; *' at least," says Tnrgot, afraid of 
going beyond the truth, '• the diishcs and ve>:seli? 
were gilt or silvered over." 

^lalcolm seems to have intrusted the care of 
matters respecting religion and the internal polity 
of the kingdom, entirely to her. Anxious for the 
reformation of the chnrch, she held frequent con- 
ferences with the clergy. On one of these occa- 
sions the pro])er season for celebrating J^ent was 
the subject of discussion between them. The 
clergy knew no language but the Gaelic, and the 
king, who had s]>ent fifteen years in England, and 
nuderstood the Saxon as well as his own native 
language, acted as interpreter. **Tlu*ec days," 
says Tnrgot, " did she employ the sword of the 
Spirit in combating their errors. She seemed an- 
other St. Helena out of the Scriptures convincing 
the Jews." At last the clergy yielded to her 

views. She was also the means of inducing them 
to restore the celebration of the I/>rd*8 supper^ 
which had fallen Into disnse, and of keeping sacred 
the Sabbath, which was scarcely distingidahablo 
from any other day of the week. 

Malcolm espoused the cause of his brother-in- 
law with great ardour. In September 1069, with 
the assistance of the Danes, and acoompauied by 
Edgar Atheling, the Anglo-Saxon and Northum- 
brian nobles, led by Gospatrick, invaded England, 
and having taken the castle of York by storm, 
they put the Noiman garrison to the sword. In- 
stead, however, of following up their soccesa, the 
Northumbrians departed to their own tenitor}-, 
while the Danes retired to their ships. The secret 
of this change in their pi*oceedings was that Wil- 
liam had gained over Gospatrick, by conferring on 
him the earldom of Northumberland, and had 
bribed Osbenie the Danish commander, to qnlt 
the English shores. Edgar Atheling and his few 
remaining adherents wei'C, in consequence, obliged 
to retreat to Scotland. 

The following year, Malcolm led a numerons 
army into England, by the western borders, 
through Cuml>crland. If it had been intended 
that he was to support the movements of Edgar, 
and his Danish and Northumbrian allies, he came 
too late. Nevertheless, his operations were ener- 
getic enough. After wasting Teesdale, he defeat- 
ed an Anglo-Norman anny that attempted to op- 
pose his progress, at a place called Hinderskell, 
penetrated into Cleveland, and thence advanced 
into the eastern parts of the diocese of Durham, 
spreading desolation and dismay wherever he ap- 
peared, lie spared neither age nor sex, and even 
the churches, with those who had taken refuge in 
them, were bunit to the ground. While thus en- 
gaged, ho received intelligence that his own terri- 
tory of Cumberland was laid waste by Gospa- 
trick, who, as alread}" stated, had gone over to 
King William's interest. 

On his retuni, Malcolm led captive into Scot- 
land such a multitude of young men and women, 
that, 8a3's the English historian, Simeon of Dm*- 
ham, " for many years they were to be found in 
every Scottish village, nay, even in every Scot- 
tish hovel.'' In 1072, William retaliated by in- 
vading Scotland both by land and sea. He pene- 





I ! 

I ' 

tratcd AS far as the Frith of Forth, bat fiiuliut; the 
conquest of Scotldiid not so easy a task as had 
been that of Knj^land, a peace was concloded at 
Abeniethy, the old PictMi capital, wlicn Malcolm 
consciitcd, in accordance witli the feudal custom 
of the Normans, to do homage for the lands whicli 
he licld In England. Among the hostages which 
he gave on this occasion was his eldest sou, Dun- 
can, who thus had the benefit of living many 
years under the Norman monarchs of England. 
hy this i>cace, Malcolm, in a manner, abandoned 
the cause of his weak-minded brother-in-law, Ed- 
gar Atheling, and that personage, after making 
his i^eaco with the English monarch, received 
from him a handsome pension, and went to rcsido 
at Kouen in Nurmandy. 

AVith Edgar Atheling, Malcolm had ivfnsed to 
give up to the English king, the exiled nobles and 
others who had taken refuge in Scotland. Willi 
the double view of strengthening his power b}* the 
influx of so nnny brave and skilful strangers, and 
of bcnofiling his subjects by the introduction 
among them (»f those who possessed a higher civ- 
ilization than, in their rude and unsettled state, 
thoy had ever known, he even encouraged them to 
come into his kingdom. Annmg them were iH*r- 
sons of Norman as well as of Anglo-Saxon line- 
age, who had lied from the exactions and tyrainiy 
of the CoiKpieror, or had been refused pi-oniised 
rewards for their services. Malcolm received and 
welcomed them all, and to these Norman kni;;hts 
and advent [irere who thus came flocking across 
the border, he gave lands and heritages, to induce 
them to remain. 'Ihey thus became tlie progeni- 
tors . f many of our n;>ble families. Thousands of 
the poorer English, ton, to escape the grinding 
oppressions of tlieir Nurniaii rulers, souglit a re- 
fuge in Scotland, some even selling Ihenioelves for 
slaves, to obtain a subsistence. 

Go.-^patrick, having incurred the suspicions of 
William, was deprived of the earldom of North- 
umberland, and returning into Scotland, succeeded 
in being reconciled to Alalcolm, from whom he 
obtained the manor of Dnnbar, and other lands in 
the ^lerse and Lothian, lie was the ancestor of 
the earls of Dunbar and March. In 1070, in the 
absence of William in Nuraiandy, Malcolm again 
invaded Northumberland, and wasted the con .trv 

as far as tho river Tyno. Tlio following year, 
llobert, the eldest son of William, entered Soot- 
land, but was obliged to retreat To check tho 
incursions of the Scots into England, he erected a 
fortress near the T^nie, at a place called Moncas- 
ter or Monkchester, from its being the residence 
of monks, but the name of which was thereafter 
in consequence changed to Newcastle. 

At the recpicst of his queen, who has been can- 
onized in the Romish Calendar as St. Marigarct, 
and of her confessor, Turgot, Malcolm founded 
and endowed a monastery, in the vicinity of his 
n*sidence, for thirteen Culdees, which, with its 
church or cha])el, was dedicated to the Tloly 
Trinity. This was the origin of the abbey of 

The latter portion of MaIcolm*s raign was occu- 
pied in a struggle with William Uufus, the son 
and snccessor of the Conqueror on the throne of 
England. Cumberland and his other English 
possessions having Ix'cn withheld from him by 
the English king, Malcolm, assembling his forces, 
bi*oko across the borders, in May 1091, when 
he penetrated as fin- as Chester, on the Wear; 
but on the a])pi*oach of the English, with a 
superior force, he prudently Retreated without 
hazaiiling a battle, and thus secured his booty 
and his captives. In the autumn of the same year, 
Itufiis led a numerous anny into Scotland. Mal- 
colm advanced to meet him. l\y the intercession, 
however, of Edgar Atheling, who accompanied the 
Scottisli army, anil of lUfbert, duke of Normandy, 
the eldest brother of the English king, a [leacc was 
concluded, without the risk of a battle. Unfits con- 
senting to restore to Malcolm twelve manors in 
England which he had held under the Conqueror, 
and to make an annual payment to him of twelve 
marks of gold, and Malcolm, on his part, agreeing 
to do homage for the same, under the same tennrc 
of feudal service as before. 

In 1092, William Ilnfus began to fortify the 
citv of Carlisle and to build a castle there. As 


this was an encroachment on Malcolm^s territory 
of Cumberland he remonstrated against it, when 
the English king proi)osed a personal interview on 
the subject. Malcolm, in consequence, proceeded 
to Gloucester, 24th August 1093. As a prelinu- 
nary measure Kiifns required him again to do 






Itomago to hiin there, in presence of the Engli^th 
iMrons. Tills Malcohn abiiohitely refused, but al- 
though he had done homage to Rnfus for his Eng- 
li;»1i lands not much above a year before at Abcr- 
nethy, Le now offcixd to do it, as formerly had 
oeen the custom, on the frontiers of the two king- 
doms, and in presence of the chief men of both. 
Some of his conncillora advised Rufus to detain 
the Scottish king, now that lie had. him in his 
power, till lie had complied with his request ; but ' 
alUiongli he hnd the grace to reject tliis base pro- 
lK)8al, it was with the most unkingly contumely 
that he dismissed him fi*om his court. Malcolm 
returned home, burning with ludigiintion nnd 
vowing revenge, and hastily assembling a tumul- 
tuous and undisciplined army, he burst into Nortli- 
umbcrland, which he wasted, then, sweeping on- 
wards to Alnwick, he laid siege to the ensile, lie 
bad not been many days there, however, before 
he was suqwed by Robert de Moiibray, at the 
head of a strong Noimnn nnd English force. A 
fierce engngement ensued, when ^lalcolm was 
slain, with his eldest .«on. This fatal fight took 
jilacc tSth Xovembcr 1003. Malcolm's fourth 
son, Edgar, who was nbo in the battle, escaped, and 
three d.iys aAer reached the castle of Ediuburgli, 
wiierc his mother lay dying. On his appearance, 
she in a fmnt voice eagerly enquired, ** How fares 
it with your father, and your brotiier, Edward?" 
The youth was silent, **I know all,** she cried; 
'• I adjure von b}* this liolv cross, and bv vonr filial 
afTection, tliat you tell me the truth." lie an- 
swcreil, *'your husband and your son are both 
slain." Raising her eyes and hands to heaven, 
the dying queen said, '* Praise and blessing be to 
thee, Almighty (lod, that thou hast been pleased 
to ni-jke me endure so bitter anguish in the hour 
of my departure, thereby, as I trust, to purify me, 
ill some measure, from the corruption of my sins. 
And thou, I^rd Jesus Christ, who, through the 
will of the Father, hast enlivened the world by 
thy death, O deliver me!" and straightway ex- 
]»ircd. So great was t!ie benevolence of this truly 
excellent princess that she secretly paid the ran- 
som of many of her Saxon countrymen in bondage 
ill Scotland, when she found their condition too 
grievous to be bonic. 
'ilic character of Malcolm Canntorc is that of 

an able, wise, and energetic monarch, who, after 
subjecting to his sovereignty the various rude and 
discordant tribes that inhabited his kingdom, was 
successful in maintaining its independence nnini- 
paired during a long reign of 37 years, nnd that 
against two such formidable opponents as Williuiu 
the Conqueror and his son, William Rufiis. As 
an instance of his personal intrepidity the follow- 
ing incident is related : Having received int(>Hi- 
gence that one of his nobles had formed a design 
against his life, he took an opportunit}*, when out 
hunting, of leading him into a solitaiy place, 
then, unsheathing his sword, he said, ^' Here we 
are alone, and nrmed alike. You seek my life. 
Take it." The astonished noble, overcome bv 
this address, threw himself at the feet of the king, 
and implored his clemency, which was readily 

The removal of his court from Abernethv to 
Dunfermline, about the year 10C3, and the en- 
couragement which, after the Norman onqnest of 
England and his marriage with Queen Margaret, 
he gave to the immigration of Anglo-Saxons and 
Norman adventurers into the kingdom, had the 
effect of causing the Gaelic population to retire 
inland from the plains, and to divide themselves 
into clans and tribes, with the institution of sepa- 
rate chiefs, nnd the preservation of all those feelings 
and usages which long kept them a peculiar and 
distinct race from the other inhabitants of Scot- 
land. In the reign of Malcolm Canmore, the 
whole of the country south of the Forth was pos- 
sessed by the Scots, and those who spoke the 
Saxon language, while the Celtic portion of the 
nation occupied the remaining districts. Tena- 
cious of their native language and ancient customs, 
the l-.itter viewed with equal scorn nnd disgust the 
introduction of foreign manners nnd races into the 
kingdom, and hence began that long struggle be- 
tween the Scottish nnd Celtic communities w!iich 
lasted for nearly seven hundred years, and was 
only terminated on the field of Culloden in 1746. 
"The people," says General Stewart of Garth, 
refomng to the Giielic inhabitants {Sketches, vol. 
i. p. 20), " now beyond the reach of the laws, 
became turbulent and fierce, revenging in person 
those wrongs for which the administrators of the 
laws were too distant and too feeble to alTurd re- 






I i 


I ; 
I ■ 




I I 

l^IALCOL:i[ IV. 




dress. Tliencc arose the iiistitntioii of cliicfi*, who 
nntnrally bccnnie the judges and arbiters in the 
quarrels of their clansmen and followci-s, and who 
wcro snrronnded by men devoted to the defence of 
their rights, their property, and their power ; and 
accordingly the chiefs established within their own 
territories a jurisdiction almost wholly indepen- 
dent of their liege lord." 

Malcolm had by his queen, Margaret, six soui* 
and two daughters. The sons were, IMward, 
who was slain with his father nenr Alnwick ; 
Eihelred, who was bred a chuix'hmau and became 
Culdee abbot of Dunkeld; Edmund ; Edgar, Alex- 
ander, and David. 'J'lie three last were succes- 
sively kings of Scotland. The elder daughter, 
^faud, man'ied Henry T. of England, a maninge 
which united the Snxon and the Norman dvnas- 
ties, and ^Liry, the younger, became the wife of 
Eustace, count of Ht)uK»;:ne. 

MALCOLM IV., King of Scots, born in 1111, 
was the son of Prince Ilcnrv, son of David L, and 
succeeded his grnndfather, ^Fay 24, ll.'iG, a year 
after his father's death, being then only twelve 
vears old. Tlie same wnr he was crowned at 
Scone. He acquired the name of Malcolm the 
^Liiden, either from the effeminato expression ot 
his features, or from the softness of hisdispossiiion. 
In the following November Somerled, thane of 
Argyle, invaded the Scottish coasts, at the head of 
all the fierce tribes of the isles. The accession of 
a new king, and he a mere boy, appears to have 
been deemed by this formidable chief a favourable 
time to endeavour to advance the cause of his 
grandsons, the sons of ihe monk Wimond (.-ee 
vol. ii. p. 24) otherwise Malcolm ISIaclleth, who 
claimed the earldom of Moray, and who had been 
imprisoned in Iloxburgh castle by David L as an 
Impostor. In 1150, Donald, a son of Wimond, 
was discovered skulking atAVhithorn in Gallowny, 
and sent to share the captivity of his fa i her. 
After harassing the country for some years, So- 
merled was at last forced back to his own territo- 
ries, by Gilchrist, earl of Angus, and a treaty of 
peace was concluded with him in 1157, which was 
considered of so much importance at the time as 
to form an epoch in the dating of Scottish charters. 

Malcolm had no sooner accommodated matters 
with Somerled, than a demand was made upon 

him by Ilcnry L of England, for those pflrts of 
the English territory which tho Scottish kings 
held in that kingdom. On this account Malcolm 
had an interview with Henry at Chester, when he 
did homage to him for the same, as h!s prede- 
cessors had done, '^resen-ing all his dignities." 
Malcolm was then only sixteen years of ago, and 
Henry, taking advantage of his Inexperioncc, 
easily prevailed upon the youthful monarch, to 
surrender to him Cumberland and Nortlmmber- 
land, at the same time bestowing npon him the 
earldom of Huntington. Fonlnn says that the 
English king had, on this occasion, comipted his 

In 1158, desirous of obtaining the lionoar of 
knighthood from tho king of England, Malcolm 
repaired to Henry's court at Carlisle, for the pur- 
pose, but Henry refused to bestow npon him an 
honour, probably on account of his youth, which 
was highly j)nzed in that age, and Malcolm re- 
turned home greatly disappointed. In the follow- 
ing year, ]Sr«lco!m passed over to France, where 
the English monarch then was, and after serx'ing 
under his biunur he was at length knighted by 
him. The Sc«»ts, indignant at his subserviency to 
Henry, and apprehensive that he would become 
the mere vassal of England, sent a deputation to 
remonstrate with Malcolm on his conduct. ""We 
will not,*' said they, *' have Hcniy to rule over 
us." ^lalcfilm, ill consequence, hastened back to 
Scotland, and on his arrival assembled n parlia- 
ment at Pertli. 

The tierce nobles who, as governors of their re- 
spective provinces, were bound to maintain tho 
independence of the kingdom, availed themselves 
of this opportunity to attempt to seize the king*8 
IK-rson. Accordingly, Ferquhard, earl of Strath- 
ern, and five other earls assaulted the tower in 
which Malcolm had taken refuge, but were re- 
l>ulsed. On the interference of the clergy, a re- 
conciliation took place between the young king 
and his offended nobles. 

Fortunately for ^Falcolm an occasion almost 
immediately occurred to give employment to them 
and their followers. Fergus, lord of Gallowny, 
the most potent feudatory of the Scottish crown, 
and the son-in-law of Ilcnry L, threw off his al- 
legiance, and stirred np an insnrrection against 






Malcolm. At the head of a powerful ami}', the 
king entered Galloway, and though twice driven 
back, he at length succeeded, in 1160, in over- 
powering its rebellious lord. He then compelled 
Fergus to resign his lonlship, and to give his son, 
Uchtrcd, as an hostnge for the peace concluded 
between them ; after which Fergus retired to the 
abbey of Holyrood, where he died of a broken 

In 1161, a still more formidable insurrection 
broke out among the inhabitants of the province 
of ^lorny, which comprehended all what is now 
Elginshire, all Nairnshire, a considerable i)nrt of 
Banffshire, and the half of continental Invcrncss- 
shire. The pretext was the attempt on Malcolm's 
part to intrude the Anglo-Norman jurisdiction 
ii|)on their Celtic customs, and the settling of 
Flemish colonists among them. The men of Mo- 
r^y were never wanting in an excuse for rising in 
arms. Tliey were the most nnndy and rebellions 
of all the subjects of the sovereigns of Scotland. 
Acconliug to Fordun, ** no solatiums or largesses 
could allure, or treaties or oaths bind them to 
their duty." On this occasion the insurgents laid 
waste the neighbouring counties, and so regard- 
less were thev of the roval authority that thev 
actnally hanged the heralds who wei*e sent to 
snmmon them to lay down their arms, ^falcolni 
despatche<l against them a strong force under that 
Earl Gilchrist who had been sent against Somer- 
Icd, but he was routed, and forced to recross the 

Tliis defeat roused nil the energy of ^lalcolnrs 
character, and witli tlie whole array of the king- 
dom ho marched against tiiem. He found them 
assembled on the muirof Urqnhart, near the Spey, 
ready to give him battle. A Her crossing that 
river, Malcolm's nobles, seeing their strength, ad- 
vised him to negotiate with the rebels, and to pro- 
mise them that if they submitted, their lives would 
be spared. The Moraymen accepted the offer, 
the king kept his word, and now occurred the ex- 
traordinary circumstance of different parts of the 
country exchanging their populations. To put an 
end, at once and for ever, to the frequent insur- 
rections which occurred in the province, Malcolm 
onlained that all who had been engaged in the 
rebcUioa should remove out of Moray, and that 

their plac4»s should be supplied with people from 
other parts of the kingdom. In consequence, 
some transplanted themselves into the northern, 
but the greater number into the southern districts, 
as far as Galloway. The older historians say that 
the Moraymen wei*o almost totally cut off in an 
obstinate battle, and strangers put in their place, 
but this statement is at variance with the register 
of Paisley. Among the new families brought in 
to replace those who were removed, the principal 
were the powerfid earls of Fife and Stratheni, 
with the Comyns and Bissets, and among those 
who remained were the Inneses, the Calders and 
others. After thus removing the rebels, and colo- 
nizing the province with a quieter race, Malcolm, 
as well as his successor, "William the Lion, appear 
to have frequently resided in Moray, for from In- 
verness, Elgin, and various other of its localities, of their charters are dated. 

In July lies, Malcolm did homage to the king 
of England and his infant son at "Woodstock. 
The following year he founded and richly endow- 
ed an abbey for Cistertian monks at Conpar- 
Angus. lie had previously, in 1156, founded the 
priory of Emanuel near Linlithgow, for nuns of 
the same order. 

In 1161, Somerled, the ambitious and powerful 
lord of the Isles, made another and a last attempt 
to overthrow the king's authority. Assembling a 
numerous anny from Argyle, Ireland, and the 
Isles, he sailed up the Clyde with 160 galleys, and 
landed his forces near Kenfrew, threatening, as 
some of the old clironiders inform us, to make a 
conquest of the whole of Scotland. Here, accord- 
ing to the usual accounts, he was slain, with his 
son, Gillecolane, after a battle, in which he was 
defeated by an inferior force of the Scots. Tradi- 
tion, however, states that he was assassinated in 
his tent by an individual in whom he placed con- 
fidence, and that his followers, deprived of their 
leader, hastened back to the Isles, without haz- 
arding an engagement. 

Malcolm died at Jedburgh, of a lingering dis- 
ease, December 9, 1165, at the early age of 24, 
and was succeeded by his brother William, styled 
William the Lion. 

^lALCOL^r, Sin Pcltexey,' a distinguished 
navarofficer, an elder brother of Sir John Mai- 


. I 

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■ I 

colni, tlie subject of the following notice, was bom 
at Douglan, near Lnngliolin, Dumfries-shire, Feb- 
ruary 20, 17C8. His father, George Malcohn, 
farmer, Burufoot, had, by liLs wife, the daiiglitcr of 
Jaincs Pasley, Kstq.of Craig hikI Burn, 17 children. 
Bobert, the eldest sou, at Iiis deatli was high in the 
civil service of tlic East India Company ; Jainos, 
Pulteney, and John, tlic next three sons, were 
honoui*ed with the insignia of l^niglits commandci's 
of tlic Batli at the same time, the former for his 
distlngui.ihcd services in Spain and Nortli America, 
wlicn commanding a battalion of royal marines, 
and Sir John, for his military and diplomatic ser- 
vices in India. The younger sons werc Gilbert, 
rector of Todenham ; David, in a commercial 
house in India ; and Admiral Sir Charles Mal- 
colm, of whom a memoir is given at page 99. 

Pnltoncy enlcred the navy, October 20, 1778, 
as .1 midsihipnian on board the Sybillc frigate, com- 
manded by his maternal uncle, Captain Pasley, 
with whom he sjiiled to the Capo of Good Hope ; 
and on his return thence, removed with him into 
the Jupiter, of which he was appointed lieutenant 
in March 1783. At the commencement of the 
French revolutionary war, he was first lieiitcnant 
of the Penelope at Jamaica ; in which ship he as- 
.*<isted at the capture of the Inconstante frigate, 
and (jaelon corvette, both of which he conducted 
to Port Boyal in safety. He also commanded the 
lioats of the Penelo|>e in several severe conflicts, 
and succeeded in cutting out many vessels from 
the i>orts of St. Domingo. In April 1791 he was 
made a commander, when he joined the Jack Tar; 
and upon Cape Nichola Mole being taken jvosscs- 
sion of by the British, he had the direction of the 
seamen and marines landed to garrison that place. 
In October 179-1 he was promoted to the rank of 
post captain, and the following month was ap- 
pointed to the Fox frigate, with which he subse- 
quently served in the North Sea. Having pro- 
ceeded with a convoy to the East Indies, he cap- 
tured on that station La Modeste, of 20 guns. In 
1797 the duke of Wellington, then Colonel Wel- 
leslc}', of the 3i5d regiment, took a passage with 
Captain Malcolm, in the Fox, from the Cape of 
Good Hope to Bengal. He afterwards served in 
the Suffolk, the Victorious, and the Royal Sover- 
eign; and in March 1805 was apjiointed to the 

Donegal, in \>hich he nccompnnicd Ijord Xclaou 
in the memorable pnrsuit of tlio combiucd squa- 
drons of Franco and Spain to the West ludlesl 

On his return to the Channel, Captain Mal- 
colm was sent to reinforce Admiral CoHiiigwood 
off Cadiz. Four days previous to the battle of 
Trafalgar, the Donegal, being short of water, and 
gi'catly in need of a refit, was onlered to Glbrnl- 
tar. On the 20ih Octol»er Captain Malcohn re- 
ceived information that the enemy's fleets were 
quitting Cadiz. His ship was then iu the Mole 
nearly dismantled, but by the greatest exertions 
he succeeded in getting her ont before night, ami 
on the 2dd joined Admiral Collingwood In time to 
C'ipture El It'iyo, a Spanish three-decker. To- 
wards the close of 1805 the Donegal accompanied 
Sir John Duckworth to the West Indies, In quest 
of a Fi-ench squadron that had sailetl for that 
quarter; and in the battle fought off St. Domingo, 
Fcbrnnry 6, 180G, Captain Malcolm greatlj* dis- 
tinguished himself. On his i-etuni to England, 
he was honoured with a gold medal for his con- 
duct in the action, and, in common with the other 
oflicei*s of the squadron, received the thanks of 
both houses of pnrliameut. 

In the summer of 1808 he escorted the army 
under CJcneral Welicslcy from Cork to Portngnl, 
and for his exertions in disembarking the troops, 
ho iTceivcd the thanks of Sir John Moore and ^r 
Arthur Wcllcsley. The Donegal was snbsequent- 
Iv attaclicd to the Channel fleet under the orders 


of Sir John Gambler ; and after the discomfiture 
of the French ships in Aix Roads in April 1809, 
Captain Malcolm was sent with a squadron on a 
cruise. He next commanded the blockade of 
Cherbourg, on which station the ships under his 
oiilers captuiTd a number of privateers, and on 
one occasion drove two frigates on shore near 
Cape La llogue. In 1811 the Donegal was paid 
off, when Cai)tain Malcolm was appointed to the 
Royal Oak, a new 74, in which he continued off 
Cherbourg until March 1812, when he removed 
into the San Josef, 110 guns, as captain of the 
Channel fleet under I^rd Keith. In the subse- 
quent August he was promoted to the rank of col- 
onel of marines, and December 4, 1813, was ap- 
lK)inted i-ear-admiral. In June 1814 he hoisted 
his flag in the Royal Oak, ond proceeded to North 










I ■ 


Dr. Gilbert Faslcy, and assiduously applied him- 
self to the stady of the manners and lanj^ages of 
tlio East. The abilities which he displayed at the 
siege of Seringapatam, in 1792, attracted the notice 
of Lord Comwallis, who appointed him Pci-sian 
interpreter to a body of British troops in the ser- 
vice of one of the native princes. In 1794, in 
consequence of liad healtli, he revisited his native 
country; but the following year ho roturncd to 
India on the staff of Field-mni-shal Sir Alured 
Clarke ; and for his conduct at the taking of the 
Cape of Good Hope, he received the public thanks 

view of endeavonring to oouutenict the designs of 
Napoleon, who then threatened an invasion of 
India from that quarter. In this difficnlt embassy, 
however, he did not wholly succeed. lie retnmed 
in the following Angnst, and soon after proceeded 
to his residency at Mysore. Eariy in 1810, owing 
to a change in the policy of tlie Persian coort, he 
was again api>ointi>d ambassador to Persia, where 
lie remained till the nomination of Sir Grore Onse- 
loy as minister p1eni|)otentiary. On his dcpartore 
the shall conferred upon him the order of the Sun 
and Lion, presented liiin with a valnablo sword. 

of that officer. In 1797 he obtained a captain's and made him a khan and sepahdar of the 

commission. In 1799 he was ordered to join tlic empire. 

In 1812 Colonel ^lalcolm again visited England, 
and soon after his arrival I'cceived the hononr of 
knijj^litliood. The same year lie published, in one 
voliiino, * A Sketch of the Sikhs, a singular Na- 

Nizam's contingent force in the war against Tip- 
poo Saib, with the chief command of the infantry, 
in which post he continued till the sniToudcr of 
Seringapatam, where he highly distingiiishod him- 
self, lie was then appointodjuint seciotary, with ' tion in the province of the Punjanb, in India.* 
Captain, afterwards Sir Tlioinas I^Iunn>, to the | In li^Ui appeared his *Iliston' of Persia,' in 2 
commissionors for settlin;? tlio now govrninicnt of ; voL«. 4to, which is valuable from the infonnatiou 
Mvijoiv. In the same yoar ln^ was soiit by Lord it contains, taken from oriental sonrces, reganling 

Wellesley on a diplomatic mission to Persia, a 
conntrv which no British ambassador had visited 
since the reign of Queen Klizabcth. 

Captain Malcolm returned to Bombay in 1801, 
when he was appointed i>rivate secretary to the 
govemor-genoral', who .stated to the secret com- 
mittee that ^^he had succeeded in establishing a 
connection with the actual government of the Per- 
sian empire^ which promised to British natives in 
India political 'and commereial advantages of the 
most important description." In January 1802 
he was promoted to the rank of major ; and on 
the death of the Persian ambassador, who was 
accidentally shot at Bombay, he was again sent 
to Persia to make the necessary arrangements for 
the renewal of the embassy. In February 1803 
he was appointed Resident with the rajah of My- 
sore ; and in December 1804 he attained the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel. In June 1805 he was no- 
minated chief agent of the governor-general, in 
which capacity he continued to act till March 
1806, during which period he concluded several 
important treaties with native princes. 

On the arrival in India, in April 1808, of the 
new governor-general, lA>rd Minto, he dispatched 
Colonel ^lalcolm on a mission to Persia, with the 

the religion, goveniment, mannei-s, and customs of 
the inhabitants of that country, in ancient as well 
as ill modern times. He returned to India in 
1817, and on his anival was attaclied, as politicid 
agent of the governor-general, to the force nudcr 
Sir Thomas liislop in the Deccau. With the 
rank of brigadier-general, he was appointed to the 
command of the third division of the army, and 
greatly distinguished himself in the decisive battle 
of Mehidpoor, when the army under Mulhar Rao 
Ilolkar was completely routed. For his skill and 
valour on this occasion he received the thanks of 
the house of commons, on the motion of Mr. 
Canning, who declared that " the name of this 
gallant officer will be remembered in India as long 
as the British flag is hoisted in that country.** 
1 1 is conduct was also noticed by the prince regent, 
who expressed his regret that the circumstance of 
his not Iiaving attained the rank of major-general 
prevented his being tlien created a knight grand 
cross, which honour, however, was conferred on 
him in 1821. 

After the termination of the war with the Mah- 
rattas and Pindairies, he received the military and 
political command of Malwa, and succeeded In 
establishing the Company's authority, both in 





olHccr, tho tenth son of Ooor^^c Malcolm of Bum- 
foot, and yonngcst brother of the pi*cce{rui;j, was 
born at Banifoot, Dnnifrins-sliirc, in 178:?, and 
entered the navy in 1791, when only nine years 
old. In 1798, he uas master's mate of the Fox, 
of 32 guns, commanded by his brother, Pnltenoy, 
when, ivith the Sybillo, of 38 gnns, that ship en- 
tered the Spanish harbour of Manilla, the capital 
of the Philh|)pined, under French coloui-s, and in 
the face of thi*ec ships of the line and three frig- 
ates, succeeded in capturin;; seven boats, taking 
prisoner 200 men, and earning off a large quan- 
tity of ammunition and materials of war. In 
1807, he got the command of the Xarcissu?, 32. 
On boanl tliis ship he attacked a convoy of 30 
sail in the Couquet Koad:(, on which occasion he 
was slightly wounded. In 1809, he ns.^iistcd in the 
capture of I^s Sainte?, i;?lands in the West Indies. 
In June of the same year ho was np<)uinted to 
the Rhine, 38, in which he actively co-operated 
with the patriots on the north coast of Spain. 

Subsequently he served in the AVcst Indies, and 
on the coast of Brazil. On July 18, 1815, he 
landed and stormed a fort at Currigion near Aber- 
vack, which was the last exploit of the kind 
achieved during the war. In July 1822, he was 
nominated to the command of the William and 
Mary, royal yacht, lying at Dublin, in attendance 
on the lord-lieutenant ; and in 182G, to the Koyal 
Charlotte, yacht, on the same service. In 1827 
he was knighted by the Manpiis Wellcsloy, tlien 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. Soon after he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Bombay marine. 

During the ten years that he held that office, he 
effected a complete reform in the administration 
of the service, and converted its previous system 
into that of the Indian navy. He also instituted 
many extensive and important surveys, and was 
prominently concenied in the establishment of 
steam navigation in the lied Sea. In 1837 he 
was promoted to the rank of rear-admii-al, and 
in 1847 to that of vice-admiral. He died at 
Brighton, Juno 14, 1851, aged G9. lie married 
first in 1808, his cousin, Magdalene, daughter of 
Charles Paslcy, Esq., issue, one daughter; and, 
2dly, in 1829, Elmira Riddell, youngest daughter 
of Major-general Shaw, and by her had three sons, 
two of whom entered tho uavj. 

^r.VLF<.E'r, David, a i)oet and mlsHrullnneoiu 
writer, was born at Crieff, In Perthshire, about 
1700. His father, said to have been a descendant 
of the proscribed clan Gregor, was named James 
^lulloch, and kept a small public-hoiisc in that 
town. It is uncertain where he got his early edu- 
cation, but he appears to have 8tudie«l for some 
time under a professor Ker in Aberdeen, and dur- 
ing his resilience in that city, he wrote a pastoral 
and a few other short pieces, which attracted 
some notice. He afterwards removed to Ediu- 
burgli, and in 1720 was employed as a tutor in 
the family of a Mr. Home of that city. At the 
same time ho attended the university, and iu 1723 
he was recommended by the professors as tutor 
to the two sons of the duke of Montrose, with 
whom he made the tour of Euroj^e. 

On their return to I^ondon, he continueil to re- 
.siiKi in the family of the duke, through whom lie 
got iutroiluced to the best society of the day. He 
now began to cultivate his poetical talents with 
gi'cat assiduity. In July 1724 he publbhed Iu 
Aaron HilPs ' Plain Dealer,' No. 3G, his beautiful 
ballad of ^ William and ^largaret,' which at once 
procr.rod liiin a !.i^';! i^octical reputation. On sct- 
tliii;; in I^>ndon he had Anglicised his name to 
Mallet. Having, says Dr. Johnson, "by degrees 
cii-ared his tongue from hi:; native pronunciation, 
so as to be no longer distinguislicd as a Scot, he 
si'oinod inclined to diNencumber himself fn>ni all 
adiiorences of his original, and took upon him 
to change his name fi*om Scotch Mattoch to Eng* 
lish Mallet^ without any imaginable reason of pre- 
ference which the eye or ear can discover." Den- 
ni.-i, the Critic, used in doris^ion to CJill him Moloch, 
which was possibly one reason for the change. 
In 1728 he published a poem, entitled ^Tlie Ex- 
cursion,* being a series of landscape descriptions 
in blank verse, in the style of Thomson's Seasou-s 
but greatly inferior to that noble poem. In 1731 
he pitMluced a tragedy, entitled ' Eurj'dice,' which 
was acted at Drury I^nc theatre, but without 

Ills employment as tutor in the family of the 
duke of Montrose having come to an end, he went 
to reside with a ^Ir. Knight at Gosfield, it Is snp- 
posed, as a teacher. About this time he fonned au 
acquaintance with Pojk?, and to court the favour 


1 1 



i ■ 





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of that eminent poet, he published Iiis poem on 
' Verbal Criticism.* Pope introduced liim to Lord 
Bolingbroke, and ho was soon after appointcil un- 
der secretary to Frederick, prince of Wales, at 
that time at variance with his father, with a sal- 
ary of £200 a-year. In 1739, his tragedy of 
* Mnstapha* was produced, and owed its tempo- 
rary snccess to some political allusions in it to the 
king and Sir Robert Walpole. To serve and gra- 
tify his patron, the prince, he exhibited Sir Robert 
nnder the character of Ilustan tlie vizier, and the 
Ling as Solyman the Magnificent. On the first 
night of its representation the heads of the oppo- 
sition attended, and by then* plaudits sustained 
the performance throughout. In the following year, 
in conjunction with Thomson, he wrote, by com- 
mand of the prince, the masque of * Alfred,* in 
honour of the birthday of his royal highness* eldest 
daughter. Tlic same year (1740) he wrote a life 
of Bacon, prefixed to an edition of his works, 
which was of very little merit, and is now forgotten. 
In 1747 he published his * Ilennit, or Amyntor 
and Ttieodora,* a poem which has been praised by 
Johnson for copiousness of language and vigour 
of sentiment, and censui*cd by Warton for nause- 
ous affectation. 

On the death of Pope in 1744, Mallet, who was 
indebted to him for his introduction to I^ord 
Bolingbroke, was by the latter employed to de- 
fame the character of his foimcr friend, who, in a 
letter to Mr. Knight had once thus kindly spoken of 
liim: "To prove to you how little essentia! to 
friendship I hold letter-writing, I have not yet 
written to Mr. Mallet, whom I love and esteem 
greatly, nay, whom I know to have as tender a 
heart, and that feels a friendly remembrance as 
long as any man.** Mallet pcrfonned his ungra- 
cious task with the utmost malignity, in his pre- 
face to the revised edition of Bolingbroke*s ^ Pa- 
triot King,* Pope*s offence being that he had 
allowed tlie first version of that work to be sur- 
reptitiously printed. Bolingbroke rewarded him 
with a bequest of all his writings, published and 
nupnblished, and Mallet immediately began to 
prepare them for the press. " Hb conduct,** 
Fays Chalmers, " at the very outset of this busi- 
ness affords another illustration of his character. 
Fraucklin, the printer, to whom many of the poli- 

tical pieces written during the opposition to Wal- 
pole, had been given, as he supposed, in perpe- 
tuity, laid claim to some compensation for those. 
Mallet allowed his claim, and the question was 
referred to arbitrators, who were empowered Ut 
decide upon it, by an instrument signed by the 
parties; but when they decided unfavourable to 
Mr. Mallet, he refused to yield to the decision, 
and the printer was thus deprived of the benefit 
of the award, by not having insisted upon bonds 
of arbitration, to which Mallet had objection as 
degrading to a man of honour. He then pro- 
ceeded, with the help of Millar, the bookseller, to 
publish all he could find ; and so sanguine was he 
in his expectations that he i*ejected the offer of 
£3,000 which Millar offered him for the copyright, 
although he was, at this time, so distressed for 
money thai he was forced to borrow some of Mil- 
lar to pay the stationer and printer. The work at 
last appeared in 5 vols. 4to, and Mallet had soon 
reason to repent his refusal of the bookseller*8 
offer, as this edition was not sold off in twenty 
years. As these volumes contained many bold 
attacks on revealed religion, they brought much 
obloquy on the editor, and even a presentment 
was made of them by the grand jury of West- 

In the beginning of 1757 Mallet was hired by 
the Newcastle administration to assist in directing 
the public indignation, for the disgrace brought on 
the British arms in the affair of Minorca, towai-ds 
the unfortunate Admiral Byng ; and, accoi-dingly, 
while that oflicer was on his trial, he wrote a let- 
ter of accusation, under the character of " A Plain 
Man,** which, printed on a large sheet, was circu- 
lated with great industry. "The price of blood,*' 
sa3's Dr. Johnson, " was a pension which he re- 
tained till his death.'* Mallet was unprincipled 
enough to accept of a legacy of £1,000, left by 
Sarah duchess of Marlborough at her death in 
1744, as the price of a Life of her illustrious hus- 
band, of which he never wrote a line. Besides 
this bequest, he received also an annual sum from 
the second duke, to encourage him to proceed with 
it, but he never «vcn commenced the work. 

On I^rd Ba^/O becoming premier. Mallet ^vrote 
his * Truth in Rhyme.* lie also wrote* Edwin 
and Emma,' a ballad. His tragedy of * Elvira,' 

. I 

I ! 





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prodnccd at Drury I>auc in 1763, was written 
with the design of promoting the political views of 
the new administrntion. As ii recompense, he 
was appointed keeper of the Book of Entries for 
ships in the port of London. lie died April 21, 
1765. A collected edition of his poems was pub- 
lished by himself In three vols, in 1759 ; but most 
of his writings are now only known by name. He 
was an avowed infidel, and a venal writer of the 
very worst description. He was twice married. 
Of his first wife, by whom he had several children, 
nothing is known. One dauglitcr, named Cilesia, 
who married an Italian of rank, and died at Ge- 
noa in 1790, wrote a tragedy called ^Almida,' 
which was acted at Drury Lane. His second wife 
was a Lucy Elstob, a freethinker like himself, the 
daughter of Loixl Carlisle's steward, with whom 
ne received a considerable fortune. 

MAX. James, an antagonist of Kuddiman, was 
born at Whitewreath, in Elginshirc, about 1700. 
He studied at King-s College, Abenleen, where he 
obtained the degi*ee of M.A. in 1721. Soon after 
leaving college he became schoolmaster of the 
parish of Tough in Aberdeenshire, but though 
licensed to preach, it never was Iiis fortune to ob- 
tain a church. In 1742 he was appointed Master 
of the Poor's Hospital in Aberdeen. In 1751 he 
published at Aberdeen an octavo work, entitled 
*A Censure and Examination of Mr. Thomas 
Iluddiman's Philological Notes on the Works of 
the Great Buchanan, more particularly on the 
Ilistor)' of Scotland; in which al90 most of the 
Chronological and Geogiaphical, and many of the 
Historical and Political Notes are taken into con- 
sideration. In a lA^tter to a Friend. Necessary for 
restoring the tnie readings, the graces, and beauties, 
and for understanding the true meaning of a vast 
number of passages of Buchanan'^s writings, which 
have been so foully comiptedy so miserably de- 
faced, so grossly perverted sud misunderstood. 
Containing many curious particnlars of his life, 
and a Vindication of his Character from many 
gross calumnies.' This work was answered by 
Rnddiman the following year, in a publication en- 
titled ^ Anticrisis, or a Discussion of the Scurrilous 
and Malicious Libel, published by one James Man 
of AbcKlecn.' Among other literarv projects, Mr. 
Man made collections for an edition of Dr. Arthur 

Johnston's Poems, and contemplated a ' History 
of the Church of Scotland,* which he was pre- 
vented from accomplishing by hui death In Octo- 
ber 1761. Ho had some time previous sent his 
edition of Buchanan's History to tho press, the 
Inst sheets of which were corrected by ProfesMr 
Gerard, and it was published in 1762. By fruga- 
lity he had saved about £155, of which he be- 
queathed £60 to his relations, and settled the it- 
mainder on the Poor's Hospital for apprentice fees 
to the boys educated in that useful institution. 

BlAJCBFUELD, farl of, a titio in the peerage of the United 
Kingdom possessed by the viscount Stonnont, (aeeSroB- 
MONT, Mscount.) and first conferred, in 1776, on the cele- 
bmted lawyer and st.itesnian, William Mamy (see MintBAT, 
Wi I.T.I .VM, first e:irl of Mansfield). 

Maormok, the hi);:)icst title of honour amongst the High- 
landers of Scothind, in the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries, 
the persons bearing it liaving been the patriarchal ebiefii of 
tho great tribes into which the Celtic population was thea 
divided. They had jurisdiction and authority over cxtenaTS 
districts, as Athole, Blornr. Ross, Garmoran, Mar, and Bncb- 
.10. The word seems to h:ive been derived from tlie Gae&e 
maorf steward, and fflA<>r,* great, and its office and dignity 
appc:ir to have been next to that of the king. So great in- 
deed was the power of the maromors and so eztensire tlie 
territories whidi they ruled over, that they sometimes were 
enabled to wage independent war even against the sorerdjTi 
hiniseir. The succession to the maordom was strictly heredi- 
tary in the male line. In proof of this, BIr. Skene (^Hn^ 
landers^ vol. i. p. 79) instances the succession of the maor- 
mors of Moray. In 1032, the Annals of Ulster mention the 
death of Gilcomgain Mac Blaolbride, maonnor of Murere. 
In 1058, they record the death of Lulach Mac Gilcomgaini 
king of Scotland, and in 1085, that of Maolsnecbtan Blao- 
I.ulach, king or maormor of Mureve. Thus showing, that 
althongh Lulach had been driven from the throne, his son 
succeeded to the maordom of Moray in liis place. 

The title of maonnor was peculiar to the Scottish Gael, 
and w.Hs altogether unknown among the Irish, althongh thef 
too were a Celtic race. It was excluuvely confined to the 
north of Scotland, and was never held by any of those Saxon 
or Konnan barons who obtained extensive territories by grant, 
or rnccecded, as they sometimes did, by marriage to the pes- 
si'SKioos and power of the maormors. When the line of the 
ancient maormors gradually sank under tho ascendant influ- 
cnc-c of the feudal system, the dans forming the great tribes 
became independent, and their leaders or chiefs were held to 
represent each the conunon ancestor or founder of his dan, 
and derived all thdr dignity and power from the belief in 
such representation. The chief possessed his office by right 
of blood alone, as that right was understood in tho High- 
lands ; neither dection nor marriage could constitute any title 
to this distinction ; it was purely hereditary, nor conld descend 
to any person, except to him who, according to the Highhmd 
rule of succession, was the nearest male heir to the dignity. 

Mau, Earl of. Sec Mark. 

M.\Rcii, Karl of, a title w1iicb| with that of eari of Dan- 




btf, was long enjojed bjr the descendants of Cospatrick, earl 
of NorUinmberUnd, who came into Scotland in the reign of 
Maicoini Canmore (see art DuxBAitf vol. ii. p. 73). On the 
forfeitiin of Geoiige, 11th earl of Dunbar and March, in 1434, 
it wag rested in the crown. In 1478, the earldom of March 
was confinrred bjr King James III. on his brother, Alexander, 
duke of Albanj, on whose forfeiture it wns again annexed 
to the crown bjr act of the estates, 1st October, 1487. It 
continued in the crown till 158^, when, with the lordship of 
Dunbar, it was confeiTed on Robert Stuart, granduncle of 
James VI., on his relinquishing the earldom of Lennox to 
his nephew, Esme Stuart of Atrtiigny (see vol. ii. p. 651). 
On his death, without legitimate issue, in 1586, the title 
Mice more rercrted to the crown. 

Jjord William Douglas, second son of the first duke of 
Queensbeny, was crented earl of March, 20th April 1G97. 
He succeeded as second duke, and on the death, without is- 
sue, of his grandson, William, fourth duke of Queensberrj 
and third earl of Blarch, in December 1810 (see Queens- 
BKSKT, doke of), the hitter title, with the great est.itcs of 
the Qucensbeny family in the county of Peebles, devolved on 
the MXth earl of Wemyss, whose great-grandfather married, 
for h» first wife, I^dy Ann Douglas, eldest daugliter of the 
first duke of Queensberry, and sister of the first earl of March 
(«ee WsuTSS, earl of). 

The word March or 3Ierse, signifying boundary or limit, 
anaentlj more particularly appUed to the eastern part of 
the Scottish border, is now confined to Berwickshire. Chal- 
mers, however, thinks it more probable that the frontier 
proviooe got its name from the Anglo-Saxon inerse^ a marsh, 
or fipom aioriifcia, a naked plain. 

Marchmoxt, earl of, a title (dormant since 1794) in the 
peerage of Scotland, conferred by William III. on Sir Patrick 
Hume of Polwarth (a memoir of whom is given at p.ige 502 
of voL ii.) He was descended from Sir Patrick Home of 
Polwarth, comptroller of Scotland from 1499, when he was 
knighted, to 1502, second son of David Home, younger of 
Wedderbum. The comptroller's great-grandson, Patrick 
Home of Polwarth, was a chief promoter of the Ucformation 
in Scotland, and one of those who in 1500 entei-ed into an 
asfodation to protect the prcichers of tlie gospel. Tlie eld- 
est ion of this gentleman. Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth, 
was, in 1591, appointed muster of the household to King 
James VI., one of the gentlemen of his bedchamber, and 
warden of the marches. He died 10th June 1609. Sir Pa- 
trick Home, his son, had a pension of £100 sterling fi-oin 
James VI., from whom he received several other marks of 
farour. By Cliarles I. ho was created a baronet in 162'), 
soon after his accession to the throne. Ho died in April 
1648. His eldst son was the first earl of Marchmont, so 
created 23d April 1697. He had previously, 26th December 
1690, been raised to the peerage by the title of Lord Pol- 
warth. The patent of the earldom was to him and his heii-s 
male whatsoever, and tlie secondary titles were viscount of 
BlaMobenifl and I/>rd Polwarth of Polwarth, Redbraes and 
Graenlaw. This nobleman, it is well known, when Sir Pa • 
trick Home, sufiered much for his patriotism, during the per- 
Mcation in Scotland in the reigns of Charles II. and James 
VII., and had many narrow escapes of being taken. When 
be had decided upon leaving his place of concealment (see 
vdL iL pi. 503) for the continent, he set out during night ac- 
eooipanied by a trustworthy servant named John Allan, who 
Vis to ooodnct him part of his way to London. In travcl- 
lisg tofwards tlie Tweed, they unconsciously separated. Sir 

Patrick having somehow quitted the proper road without be- 
ing aware of it till he reached the banks of the river. This 
mistake proved his safety ; for his servant Allan was over- 
taken by those very soldiers who were in pursuit of him. In 
tho assumed capacity of a surgeon Sir Patrick got safely to 
London. Thence he proceeded to Holland, and retunied to 
Scotland at the Revolution. He had four sons and five 
daughters. His eldest daughter, Grizel, aflerwards Lady 
Grizel Baillie (see vol. ii. p. 486) was the heroine who, when 
only twelve years of age, supplied her father with food and 
other necessaries, at the time he was under concealment in 
the family burial-vault, beneath the parish church of Pol- 
warth. His eldest son, Lord Polwarth, predeceased him in 
1710. His second son, the Hon. Captain Robert Home, also 
died young, without issue. 

Tho tliu*d son, Alexander, was the second earl of March- 
mont. Bom in 1675, he was admitted advocate 25th July 
1696. He married in July 1697, Margaret, daughter and 
heiress of Su: George Campbell of Cessnock, Ayrshire, and 
having been knighted, he assumed the name of Sir Alexander 
Campbell. He was elected member in the Scots parliament 
for Berwickshire, and on 16th October 1704, appointed a 
lord of session, taking his scat as I^rd Cessnock. He was at 
the same time made a commissioner of the court of exchequer, 
and sworn a privy councillor. He supported the Union in 
parliament, and in November 1714 he resigned his seat m 
the court of session in favour of his younger brother, the 
Hon. Sir Andrew Home of Kimmerghame, Berwickshire. On 
the breaking out of the rebellion of 1715, he raised 400 of the 
Berwickshire militia, on the side of the government, and 
marched with three battilions to join the duke of Argyle at 
Stirling. The same year he appointed envoy extraordi- 
nary to the courts of Denmark and Prussia. In December 
1716, he became lord-clerk-register. In 1721 he was ap- 
pointed first ambassador to the congress at Cambray, and in 
March of that year made his public entry into that city in a style 
of splendour and magnificence becoming the representative of 
the British nation. He succeeded his father as earl of March- 
mont, August 1, 1724, and the following was invested 
with the order of the Tliistle. In 1726 he was sworn a privy 
councillor, and in 1727 chosen one of the sixteen representa- 
tive Scots peers. In 1733 he joined the opposition against 
Sir Robert Walpole, and in consequence he was, in May 
of that yeai', dismissed from, his office of lord-clerk-regis- 
ter. He died at London Febniary 27, 1740, in liis 65th 
year, and was buried in Canongate churchyard, Edinburgh. 
In the Scots Magazine for March 1740, is a high character of 
this nobleman. He had four sons and four daughters. The 
two eldest sons died young. The two youngest, Hugh, tliird 
eari, and the Hon. Alexander Home, were twins, bom at 
Kdinburgh loth Febmaiy 1708. At the general election of 
1734 the latter was chosen M.P. for Benvickshire, and con- 
stantly rechosen till his death 19th July 1760. He took an 
active part in parliamentary business, and was an eminent 
barrister in I^ondon. In 1741 he was appointed solicitor to 
the prince of Wales, and 27th January 1756, lord-clerk- re- 
gister of Scotland. 

Hugh, third earl of Marchmont, became eminent for his 
learning and brilliant genius. At the general election of 
1734, he was chosen ^I.P. for Berwick, and in the House of 
Commons he made himself so fomiidablc to the government 
as one of the leaders of the opposition, that Sir Robert Wal- 
pole, then prime minister, declared that there were few 
things he more ardently desired than to see that young man 
at the head of his family ; which would have had the effect 
of removing him from parUament altogether. On the death 





I . 

■ I 

, I 

of hU father in Februaiy 1740, he Waine third earl of 

By his contein}H)rarie8 hU lordithip vrns held in high coti- 
mation. Ho fonncd nn intimate friendship with liord Cob- 
ham, who gave his bust a place in the Temple uf Worthies at 
Stow, and with ]*t>pe, who introduced hiii name into the 
well-known inscription in his grotto at Twickenham : 

" There the bright flame was shot through lil.'irchmonfs soul.** 

Ho was one of the executors of I'opo, .niid also of Snrah, 
duchess of Marlborough, both of whom difd in 17H. The 
bttcr left hi'.n a legncv of £2,500. In 17.)0 he w:is olirctcd 
one of the sixteen representative peers of Sootlan'l, an<l re- 
ch^en at every election till 178 J. l>unn,«:j the ,'J4 
years that he bat in the house of I^mls, he took an mtivc 
part in the business of the hou;!ie, few of tiicir lonljihips \ws' 
sessing a greater amount of parliamentary infonnation and 
experience. In 17-17 he had been npjiointed lii>>t lord of 
police, a department Ion«: since :il)oli>ho<], :i:id on 28th Janu- 
ary 1764, keeper of the pt'.'it seal of Si'otl.and. He died i:t 
Hemel-Hempstead, Hortfurd.shirc, 10th January 1791, in lii.s 
86th year, when the e.irld«>m of ^laroliniont bcoau.e dor- 
mant. Ho built Marchmont IIouso, in tlie )):ii:sh of Pol- 
warth, Uerwickshire, and on his do;ith Sir Hn;;li Turves, 
sixth b.aronet of Purves Hall, of Lidy Anne 
Pnrves, eldeiit sifter of the third enrl of Marchninijt, assumed 
the names of Hu:nc and Ca-itpbell on sucvcfding to the 

His lordship married, first, in May 1731, Miss Anne Wes- 
tern, Ix)ndon, by whom l:c had a son. Patrick, I^rd Pol- 
warth, who died young, and three dant;htors. The youn^jest 
daughter, Lady Diana Home, marrii^d, l«tli April, 17r)4, 
Walter Scott of Harden, Berwiokshin*, M.P., who dii-d at 
Tonbridge, 25th .Tanunry, 17ii.1, and had one son, Hugh Scott 
"f Harden, who, in 1835, made gixnl his claim to the title of 
Lord Polwarth in the Scottish peerage (sqq Polwauth, 
lord). I«ndy Diana was the «»nly c-v.c of tlie enrl's datiHitoi-s 
who left sun'iving issue, and the PolwnrtJi jR-era^i', wlion 
conferred on the first earl of Marchniont, was with remain- 
der to the heirs male of his bo<ly, and failing those to tlio 
heirs general of such heirs male. His lountcs.s havin" dii-d 
9th May 1747, the eari married, secondly, at I^ndon, 30th 
January 1748, Miss Elizabeth Crompton, daughter of a linen- 
draper in Cheapside. By tliis lady ho had one son, Alexan- 
der, Lord Polwarth, born in 175(\ n)anioil IGth July 1772, 
I-'idy Annabella Yorke, eldest daughter of Philip, .spioml eari 
of Hardwicke. He was created a jK^er of the United Kin*;- 
dom by the title of Baron Hume of Berwick, 1 Ith May, 
1776. He died, without, 9th March 1781, in his 31st 
year, when his British title bocan-.e extinct. 

fiOrd Marclnnont bequeathed his library, consisting of one 
of tiie most curious and valuable collections of books and 
maimscripts in Great Britain, to his sole executor, the Ki^'ht 
Hon. George Rose, whose son. Sir George Henry Kose, pub- 
lished in 1831, * A Selection from the papors of the Karis of 
Marclnnont, illustrative of Events from 1685 to 175U,* in 3 
vols. 8vo. 

1 1^ Eari, a title (attainted in 171(5) in the Scot- 
tish peerjige, conferred bv James IL, before 4th Julv 1458. 
on Sir William Keith, great marischal of Scotland (see vol. 
ii. p. 587). The first eari died before 1476. His son, Wil- 
liam, second earl, joined the confederacy against King James 
HL, in 1488, and Kit in the first pariiament of King J.imes 
IV., the nine year. He had fonr eons. From John, the 

youngest son, descended tlie Keiths of Gnug, to whidi familj 
belonged Sir Robert Murray Keith, K.B., British ambmadoi 
to Vienna, St. Petersburgh, and Copenhagen ; his bntbcr, 
Sir Basil Keith, governor of Jamaica; and their ciiter, Mn. 
Murray Keith, the well-known Bfrs. Bcthnne Balid of fir 
Walter Scott, notices of whom are gireo at page 587 oTtoL 
ii. of this work. 

Willijun, the eldest son, succeeded as thin! earl HarisduL 
In 1515, when the castle of Stirling was surFcndcrcd by the 
queen-mother to the regent Albany, the young king, Jaines 
v., and his infant brother, tlie duke of Ross, were oommitted 
to the keeping of the earl Mnrischal, with the lords Fleming 
and Borthwick, whose fidelity to the crown wasnnsospccted; 
.ind in 1517, when Albany went to France, the yonng king 
was conveyed to the castle of Edinburgh, and intrusted to tlio 
charge of I.ord Marischal and Lord Erskine. The eari died 
about 1530. With fonr daughters he had four sons. Robert, 
I.nrd Keith, and his brother, William, the two eldest bohk. 
fell at tl:e battle of Flndden, 13th September 1513. Tbe 
pennon of the larl .MariM-!ial borne in that fatal battle, hav- 
ing on it three stags* heads, and the motto, "Veritas Vin- 
tir,*' is pi-esci-ved in the Adt'ocates' IJbrary, Edinbnigh. 
1.0! d Keith had, with three daughters, two sons; William, 
fourth eari Marischal, and Robert, commendator of Deer, 
whose son, Andrew Keith, was created Ix>rd Dingwall, in 
15^i7, but died without i&sr.e (i=ee vol. ii. p. 38). From the 
earl's youngest son, Alexander Keith, descended Bishop Ro* 
bert Keith, author of the Catalogue of Scotti»h Bishops, a 
memoir of whom is given at page 591 of vol. ii. 

William, fourth eail, the elder of the two sons of I»nl 
Keith, succeeded his gr.nulfsither in 1530. Ho accompanied 
King James V., on his matrimonial expedition to France in 
153<), and was nppidnted an extnionlinary lord of session, Sd 
July 1511. At the meeting of the Estates, 12th Mareh 1543, 
he was selected, with the eari of Montrose, and the lords 
Kr^kinc, Buthvcn, Lindsay, Livingston, and Scton, to be 
keepn-s of the young Queen Man-*8 )>erson, and nominated 
one of the secret council to the regent Arrnn. Sir R.-tlph 
Sadler, the Kngli&h nmbassador in Scotland, describes him at 
this lime, in a letter to his sovereign, as " a goodly young,'* and as well ii:clincd to the project of the mar- 
riage of Queen Man- with Prince Edward. He :dao mentions 
him as one "who hath ever home a singular good affection** 
t) Henry. In the list of the English king's pcnswners in 
Scotland, we find the eari Marischal, John Chartesis and the 
Lord Gmv*s friends in the North, set down .it 300 marks. 
On the 18th Decenjber of the .same year (1543), his place in 
the council, with that of the earis of Angi:^ I.ennoz, and 
Giencairn, was filled up, on the ground that they were ab- 
sent and would not attend. He was one of the principal 
nobles w ho signed the agreement in the following June, to 
BupiK)rt the authority of the queen-mother as regent of Scot- 
land, against the eari of Arran, declared by that instrument 
to be deprived of his eff.ce. {Tt/tlcrs Hist of Scotland^ vol. 
V. p. 3<JD, Note.) 

The eari seems early to have been well inclined towanis 
the doctrines of tho Reformation, and he was doabtlvss in- 
duced, with the other nobles favourable to the proposed ma- 
trimonial alliance with Engl.nnd, to give it his support^ in the 
belief that it would tend to the introduction into Scotland of 
a purer faith and a more simple form of worship, than the 
Ronum Catholic. In 1544, when George Wishart, the mar- 
tyr, preached in Dundee, and denounced from the pnlpit the 
judgments of heaven against that town for having been in- 
terdicted by the civic authorities from preaching there any 
more, lord Marischal and other noblemen were present, 






' i; 


ad endadnronred to induce him to remain, or go with them, 
but he preferred proceeding to Edinburgh. Tjtler mentions 
liie earl Manachal as one of the persons associated with the 
mi of Caanllis in his conspimcj to assxissinnte Cardinal 
Bcthime, bj the hands of one Forstcr, nn Englisliman, com- 
BMiioned thereto bj Henry VIII. The plot, he says, he 
( b corered during his researches in the secret correspondence 
of the State Paper office, and was previously unknown to 
my Scottish or Engluh historian. (JIut. ofScoilandf vol. 
r. p. 887). His lordship fought at Pinkie in 1547, when 
Borenl of hui followen were slain. In September 1550 ho 
aoeompanied the queen dowager to France. 

la May 155^ when Knox was simimoncd to appear before 
the bishops in the church of the Bl.nckfriars at Edinbur;;h. 
** the earl of Glencaim,** says Caldcrn-ood, " allured the earl 
Mariiclial, with his counscller. Harie Drummond, to hear IiIh 
exhortatioii in the night;" when they were so well pleased 
with what they heard that they induced the Hefonner to 
mite a letter to the queen regent, in tlie liope that she mi'^lit 
be persuaded to listen to his preaching. He accordingly sent 
bj Glencaim a long epistle to her majesty, which is printed 
is Cahkrwood's History, (vol. L pages SOS— 31G) and is the 
nme whidi called from her the sneering remark, on delivering 
it to Bethune. bisliop of Glasgow, " Please you, inv lord, to 
read a pasqnil ! " Lord Marischal was one of the noblemen 
in the suite of the qneen regent when she made her entry into 
Perth, 29tb May 1559; and with the earls of Argylc and 
Glcneaim, and the lord James Stuart, afterwards the regent 
Moray, he was called to the deathbed of that princess in June 
ladO, wlten she expressed her sorrow for the calamities under 
vhidi Scotland was at that time sufiering, and earnestly ex- 
horted them to send both tlic French and English armies out 
of the eonntry, and to continue their allegiance to their lawful 

When the Confesaon of F.iith was ratified by the three 
estates of the kingdom at Edinburgh, 17th July 1560, the 
earl Marischal made the following remarkable speech : " It is 
long since I had some favour hito the truth, and was some- 
what jealous d* tho Boman religion ; but, praised be God, I 
am tliis day fully resolved ; for seeing my lords the bislmps 
who by their learning can, and for the zcnl they owe to the 
troth, would, as I suppose, gainsay anything repugnant to 
the same, yet speak nothing ag:iinst the doctrine proponed, I 
cannot but hold it the very truth of God, and the contrary of 
it false and deceavable doctrine. Therefore, so far as in me 
iyeth, I approve the one, and condemn the other, and do 
fiutlicr ask of God, that not only I, but also my posterity, 
may enjoy the comfort of the doctrine that this day our cars 
have heard. Farther, I protest if any persons ecclesiasticiil 
shall Iwrenfter oppose themselves to this our confession, that 
they have no place nor credit, considering that time of ad- 
naement being granted to them, and they having full know- 
ledge of this our confesnon, none is now found in lawful, free, 
and quiet parliament to oppose themselves to that which wo 
profess. And, therefore, if any of this generation pretend to 
do after this, I protest he be reputeth rather one that loveth 
his own commodity and the glory of the world, than the 
glory of God, and salration of men's souls.*' (Calderwood'i 
BuL, ToL ii. p. 87). He was one of the twenty- four lords 
selected by the estates, ^m among whom the crown was to 
choose eight and the estates six, for the government of the 
eoontiy. He also subscribed the Book of Discipline. 

On the return of Queen Mary from France in August^ 
1561, be was sworn one of the lords of her privy council. 
He took m actire part in all questions respecting religion, 
aifl in tlie General Assembly which met at Edinburgh in 

December 1563, he was one of the committee appointed to 
revi&o the Book of Discipline. He did not, however, interfere 
much in political matters, and when the nation came to be 
divided against itself, on the death of Damley and the im- 
prisonment of the queen, he retired to his castle of Dunnottar, 
on the scacoast of Kincardineshire, whence he so seldom 
stirred that he acquired tho name of William of the Tower. 
So extensive was his landed property at that time that his 
yearly rental amounted to 270,000 marks. It was situated 
in so many diflfcrent countira that it is said he could travel 
from Berwick to the northern extremity of Scotland, eating 
his meals and sleeping every night on his own estates. 
(^Douglag" Peeroffej vol. ii. p. 192.) He died 7th October 
1581. By liis countess, Margiirot, daughter and co-hciress 
of Sir William Keith of Invenigic, Banffshire, he had, with 
seven daughters, two sons, William, Lord Keith, and Bobcrt, 
Lord Altrie. (See vol. i. p. 122.) 

William, Ixird Keith, the elder son, was taken prisoner, in 
an inroad into England in 1558, and placed in the custody of 
the earl of Northumberland, but allowed to go home in De- 
cember 1559 on bond. The exorbitant sum of £2,000 was 
demanded for his ransom. He died 10th August 1580, leav- 
ing four sons and four daughters. 

His eldest son, George, iiflh earl Marischal, the founder of 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, succeeded his grandfather in 
October 1581. Of this nobleman a memoir is given at page 
588 of vol. ii. His eldest son, Willi.-im, succeeded as sixth 
earl on his death, April 2, 1623. Tho latter was a member 
of the Scottish privy council, under Charles I., and in 1634, 
he fitted out a fleet which he sent to UIadi»!ans VII., king of 
Poland. He died 28th October 1G35, leaving four sons and 
three daughters. The two eldest sons, William and George, 
succeeded as seventh and eighth earls. John, the fourth son, 
was the fii*st earl of Kintore. (See Kintore, earl of, vol. u. 
page 611.) 

William, seventh carl, was a staunch Covenanter. When 
the earl of Montrose, in March 1639, went to Aberdeen to 
force the covenant on the inhabitants of that city, the earl 
l^larischal, according to Spalding, had one of the five colours 
carried by his well appointed army on that occasion. Some* 
tinie after its departure to the south, the Covenanters of the 
north appointed a connnittce meeting to be held at Turrifi*, a 
sm.nll town in Aberdeenshire, on the 24th April, connsting of 
the earls Marischal and Seaforth, the I/>rd Eraser, the Mas- 
ter of Forbes, and some others. The meeting was afterwards 
postponed till the 26th of April, and subsequently adjourned 
to Aberdeen, to be held on the 20th of &Iay. A body of 
about 2,000 Covenanters having assembled at Turriff as early 
as the 13th, tho Gordons resolved to attadc Uiem before they 
should be joined by more, and having surprised them on the 
morning of the 14th, they were soon dispersed, and a few 
taken prisoners. Tiie loss on either side in killed and 
wounded was very trifling. This skirmish is called by the 
writers of the period, " the Trot of Turray," and is distin - 
guished as the place where blood was first shed in the dnl 

Marching to Aberdeen, the Gordons expelled the Cove- 
nanters from the town, and being joined there by a larger 
force, they sent John I^ith of Harthill and WMlIiam Lums- 
den, advocate in Aberdeen, to Dunnottar, for the purpose ot 
ascertaining the sentiments of the earl Marischal, in relation 
to their proceeding!*, and whether they might reckon on his 
friendship. The earl intimated that he would require eight 
days to advise with his friends. This answer was considered 
quite unsatisfactory, and the chiefs of the army were at a loss 
how to act. Bobert Gordon of Stmloch and James Burnet of 

; I 

I I 






I . 

! I 

CnigTiiile, a brother of tlie laird of hr^ proposed to enter 
into a negotintion xrith the earl, bat Sir Geor^ge 0g;ih7 of 
Banff would not listen to such a proceeding, and, addressing 
Stralochf he said, ** Go, if yon will go; bat prjtiiee, let it be 
as qaarter-inaster, to inform the earl that we are coming." 
After having had an interview with the earl, Straloch and 
Domet returned with the answer that bis lordship had no 
intention to take up armsi witliont an order from the Tables 
as the boards of representatives, chosen respectively by tlie 
nobility, country gentry, clergy, and inhabitants of the burglis, 
were called, that if the Gordons would dispeme lie would 
give them early notice to re-assemble, if nccessiiry, fur their 
own defence, but that if they should attack him, he would 
certainly defend himself. 

On receiving; this answer the Gonlons disbMiuled their anny 
on the 2 1st May. The depredations of the Iliglilnnders upon 
the properties of the Coven.intcrs were thereafter carried on 
to such an extent that the latter complained to the earl, who 
immediately assembled a body of men out of Angus and the 
Mcams, with which he entered Alterdeen on the 23d M.iy. 
Two dnys afterwards he was joined by Montrose, at the head 
of 4,000 men, an addition which, with other accessions, 
made the whole force assembled nt Aberdeen exceed G.OOO. 
Tliis army was soon after marched into the Menms by Mon- 

On the approach to Stonehaven from AWrdeen of a royal- 
ist force under the vi«count of Aboyne, on the 14th June, the 
earl Marisclial posted himself with 1,200 men and some piecott 
of ordnance from Dunnottar castle, on the direct rrvid which 
Aboyne had to pass. As the latter descnuicd the Meagre 
hill, on the morning of the 15th, the cnrl opened a heavy tire 
upon him, which threw his men into complete disorder, and 
in a short time his whole army gave way. This affair was 
called ** the Raid of Stonehaven.'* 

The earl Blarischal and Montrose now advanced towards 
the Dee with all their strength, and as Aboyne was anxious 
to prevent their ptissage of that river, a brittle took place at 
the Bridge of Dee, in which the roynlibts were defeated and 
theur army obliged to fly. The next day, the 20tli June, 
1G39, the tidings arrived of the pacification of Berwick, con- 
cluded two days before, when Iwth parties disbanded their 

The earl was one of the association which Montrose had 
funned at Cumbernauld in Janu.iry 1641, for supporting the 
royal authority. In September 1644, however, he joined the 
army of the earl of Argyle, on its route to the north, to op- 
pose the royalist forces under Montrose, after the battle of 
Aberdeen. In the following October ho was one of the com- 
mittee of the Estates sitting in that city, when Montrose en- 
tered Angus, and on hearing of his approach, they issued, on 
the 10th of that month, a printed order, to which the e:irl 
MarischaVs name was attached, ordaining all persons, of 
whatever age, sex, or condition, having horses of the value of 
forty pounds Scots or upwards, to send them to the Bridge of 
Dee, the appointed place of rendesvous, on the 14tli October, 
with riders fully equipped and armed ; with certitication, in 
case of future, that each landed proprietor should be fined 
£1,000 ; every gentleman not a landed proprietor, £500 
Soots; and each husbandman 100 merks, besides confiscation 
of their horses. With the exception, however, of I/)rd Gor- 
don, eldest son of the marquis of Hnntly, who brought three 
troops of horse, and Captain Alexander Keith, brother of the 
eari Marischal, who appeared with one troop at the appointed 
place, no attention was paid to the order of the committee 
by the people, who had no desire to expose themaelves again 
to the vengeance of Montrose and his troops. In the battle 

of Fyvie which followed, the only person of note who wai 
killed was the above-named Captain Keith. 

llie earl was now to find a bitter opponent in his former 
assodate and friend, the marquis of Montrose. The latter 
took up his quarters at Stonehaven on 19th March 1645, and 
the following day he wrote a letter to l/ard Morisdial, who 
with sixteen ministers and some persons of distinction, bad 
aliut himself up in his castle of Dunnottar. Tlie bearer of 
the letter, however, witliont being suffered io enter within 
the gate, was sent away without an answer. It is said that 
he was advised to this line of conduct by his countess and 
the miiiistera who had taken refuge in Dunnottar. Highly 
incensed at the earl's silence, desured Ix>rd Gordon 
to write to George Keith, the earVa brother, who had an io- 
ten'icw with Montrose at Stonehaven, when the latter in- 
formed him that all he wanted from the cnrl was that he 
sliould serve the king his master against liw rebellious sab- 
jects, and that if he failed to do so, he would feel his ven- 
geance. But the cad declined to comply, as lie siud **he 
would not be against the country.** {Spalding^ xtA. ii. p. 806.) 

In consequence of this refusal, Montrose at once subjected 
his property to militan* execution. On the 21st of Marcli, 
he set fire to the houses adjuining the castle of Dunnottar, 
and burnt the grain stacked in the barn-yards. He next set 
fire to the town of Stonehaven. The lands and houses of 
Cowie 8liare<l the s:inie fate. The woods of Fettercsso were 
also burnt, and the whole of the lands in the vicinity ravaged. 
A ship in the harbonr of Stimehnven, after being plundered, 
was also set fire to, with all the fishing boats. The vassals 
and dependents of the earl cniwded before the castle of Dun- 
nottar, and with loud cri(.*s of pity, implored him \o save 
them from ruin. No attention was paid to thear supplica- 
tii>n.<, and the earl witncssctl from his stronghold the total 
destruction of the pn>pfrties of his tenants without making 
any effort to prevent it. He \:i said, liowett?r, deeply to have 
regretted his rfjfction of Montrose's ])roposals, when he be- 
held the smoke ascending all around liiiii ; *' but the famous 
Andrew Cant, who was among the number of his ghostly 
company, edified his resolution at once to its original pitch of 
finnness, by assuring him that that reek would be a sweet 
smelling incense in the nostrils of the Ix>rd, rising, as it did, 
from property which had been sacrificed to the holy cause of 
the covenant.** 

In 1648, the earl Rii^ied a troop of horse for the " Engage- 
ment,** formed by the duke of Hamilton for the release of the 
king from his captivity, and was present at the rout of Fres- 
ton, but escaped. In 1650, he entertained King Cliarles II., 
in the castle of Dunnottar, and on 6th June 1651, his castle 
of Dunnottar was selected by the Scots Kstates and privy 
council, as the fittest place for the preservation of the regalia 
of Scotland (see Kixtork, earl of, vol. ii. p. 611). He was 
one of the committee of the Kstates arrested by a detachment 
of English horse from Dundee, on 28th August, 1651, when 
sitting at Alyth in Angus. Carried prisoner to the Tower of 
London, he remained there till the Bestoration, having been 
excepted from CromwelPs act of grace and pardon, 12th 
April, 1654. He was sworn one of the privy coundllors of 
Charles II., and appointed keeper of the privy seal of Soot- 
land. He died in 1661. 

His brother, George, succeeded as eighth eari. In his 
younger years this nobleman served in the French army, and 
rose to the rank of colonel. At the commencement of the 
civil wars in Soothind, he returned home, and at the battle of 
Preston in 1648, he commanded a regiment of foot under tlie 
duke of Hamilton. At the battle of Worcester in 1^1, he 
had tlie eharge of three regiments appointed to goard a par^ 





tieaUr post, when, being overpowered by nnmbers, ]ie xna 
nude piiaoner. At the Berolation be aeems to have taken no 
|Kirt on «tber tide. In a letter from Yiscount Dundee to tbe 
tarl of Melfort, dated Jane 27, 1689, giving an account of 
the position and views of several of the Scots nobility and 
gently in regard to tlie struggle for the throne, Dundee sars 
of him, ^ Earl Marshall is at Edinburgh, but dues not med- 
dle.** Tbe earl died in 1C94. 

Ilis only son, William, ninth earl, took the oiitbs and his 
scat in the Estates, 19th July 1698, and always opposed the 
measures of King William's reign. In tbe parliament uf Cth 
May 1703, he protested agriinst the c.-illing of any of the earls 
befme biinsdf. He voted against the Union on even* occa- 
hiuii when any question regarding it was before the house, 
and when the treaty was agreed to, he entered u solemn pro- 
test against it. As heritable keeper of the regalia of Scot- 
huid, he ordered the same to be delivered up to the e^irl of 
Ghogow, treasurer-depute, to be lodged in the castle of Edin- 
burgh, pnitesting, at the same time, tlint this should not in- 
valid.ite his light as keeper theruof, and that if it should be 
found necessary, at any future time, to transport the regalia 
to any other place within the kingdom, this should not be 
done till intimation be made to him or bis successors. The 
prindpal instrument, attested by seven notaries public, in 
the hands <^ Alezsnder Keitli of Dunnottar, is printed in the 
Hooiid volume of Kisbef s System of Heraldry. At the gene- 
ral election, 10th November 1710, the earl was chosen one of 
the sixteen Scots representative peers. He died 27th May 
1712. By his countess, Jjidy Mary Dnimmond, eldest 
daughter of the fourth earl of Tertli, high chancellor of Scot- 
hmd at tlie Re\'ulution, he had two sons and two daughters. 
George, the elder son, eucceedcd as tenth earl MariKchal. 
James Francis Edward, the younger son, was the celebrated 
Mandial Kath, a memoir of whom is given at page 576 of 
rtil. iL I^dy ilary Keith, the elder daughter, married the 
Hxth earl of Wigtun, and was the mother of I.ady Clementina 
Fleming, wife of the tenth I.ord Elpliinstune, one of whose 
sons. Admiral Sir George Keith Elphinstone, K.B., was cre- 
ated Viscount Keith. (See vol. ii. p. 139.) l^dy Anne, the 
younger dsiughtcr, became comitess of Galloway. 

George, tenth earl, was born about lGi)3. Of tlie once 
vast property of his family all that he inhoritud were the 
fttates of Dtmnottar, Fetteresso, and Innerugic, the remain- 
der havir.g been dilapidated in the time of Cromwell, or given 
Si prm'udon to the }X)unger branches. From Queen Anne, 
bis lordship receit'ed the command of a troop of horse, and on 
tbe death of lieutenant-general the earl of Crawford (see vol. 
L p. 71G) he was appointed, 3d February 1714, captain of the 
Seott'udi troop of horse grenadier gnards. He signed the pro- 
clamation of George I., August 1, the same year; but not 
being acceptable to the duke of Argyle, he was deprived of his 
ooinmand, at the same time that his cousin the earl of Mar 
was dismissed from his office of secretary of state. Lord 
Marischal, on his way back to Scotland, met his brother 
Janes, the future Marshal Keith, at York, hastening to Lon- 
don, to npply for promotion in the army. They returned 
borne together, and instigated by their mother, who was a 
Jaoobite and a Roman Catholic, they at once engaged in the 
rebellion of 1716. 

Tiie earl was one of the disaffected nobles who attended 
the pretended hunting match, summoned by the earl of Mar 
st Aboyne in Aberdeenshire, when he unfolded his plans in 
favour of tbe Chevalier to those assembled, and he afterwards 
proclaimed "King James VIII.** at Aberdeen. At the battle 
of Sheriffinnir bs had the oomMand of two squadrons of 
On his arrival in Scotland 22d December, the Cheva- 

lier passed the next night at Kewbuigh, a seat of the earl 
Maritfchal, and at Fetteresso, the principal seat of the earl, 
he remained several days, suffering from ague. Here he held 
a recepUon, when the earl of Mnr, the earl 3ilarischal, and 
about thirty other noblemen and gentlemen, were introduced 
to him, and had the honour of kissing his hand. When the 
Chevalier made his public entry into Dundee, on 6th January 
1716, the earl of Mar rode on his right hand and the earl 
Mnrischal on his lefl. After the failure of the enterprise, the 
earl escaped to the coiitinent, but his titles, with the here- 
ditar}' office of Marischal of Scotland, which had been in the 
family since the days of Malcolm Canmore, wero attainted, 
and his estates forfeited to the crown. ' 

In 1719, the earl returned to Scotland, with the SpanUh 
troops sent by Cardinal Alberoni, prime minister of the king 
of Spain, to make another attempt ij^ the Pretender*s favour, 
lliis small force landed in the western Highlands, and was 
joined by some Highlanders, chiefly Seaforth's men. A dif- 
ference arose between the eairl Marischal and the marquis of 
Tullibardino about the comm.and, but this dispute was put 
an end to by the advance of General Wightman from Inver- 
ness, with a body of regular troops. The Highlanders and 
their allies had taken possession of the pass at Glenshiel ; 
but^ on the approach of the government troops, tliey retired 
to the pass at Strachell, which they resolved to defend. Gen- 
eral Wightman attacked and drove them from one eminence 
to another, when, seeing no chance of making a successful 
resistance, the Highlanders dispersed during the night, and 
the Sp.iniards on the following d.ny surrendered themselves 
prisoners of war. Marischal, Scnforth, and Tnllibardine, 
with the other officers, retired to the western isles, and thei-e- 
after escaped to the continent. 

On the rupture between Great Britain and Spain in 1740, 
the Chevalier despatched Lord Marischal to Madrid to in- 
duce the Spanish court to adopt measures for his restoration. 
Alluding to his expectations of assistance from France, the 
Chevalier, in a letter written to I/Ord Alarischal on 11th Jan- 
uary 1740, while his lordship was on his way to the Spanish 
C'lpital, says, " I am betwixt hopes and fears, tho* I think 
there ut more room for the first than the last, as you will 
luive perceived by what Lord Sempil (so an active agent of 
James was called) has, I suppose, writ to you. I conclude I 
blinll some time next month see clcirer into these great af- 
fairs." The original is among the Stuart papers in her Ma- 
jesty's possession. In 1743, the earl was at Boulogne, and 
in the following year, when the French government were 
meditating im invasion of Great Britain in support of the 
Pretender, a small force in connection with it was to be 
landed in Scotland under his lordship*s command. In a let- 
ter, however, to the Chevalier from Lord Marischal, dated 
Avignon, 5th September 1744, his lordship insinuates that 
there existed a design, on the part of the French ministry, 
or of the Chevaliefs agents at Paris, to exclude both the 
duke of Ormond and himself from any share in the expedi- 

The earl took no part in the attempt of Prince Charles ui 
1745. Having gone to reside in Prussia, he gained the con- 
fidence of Frederick the Great, who, in 1750, appointed him 
his ambnssador extraordinary to France. He also invested 
him with the Prussian order of the Black Eagle, and bestow- 
ed on him the government of Neufchatel. In 1759, the earl 
was ambassador from Prussia to Spain, and discovering, 
while at the court of Bladrid, the secret of the "Family 
Comp:ict,** by which the different branches of the houw of 
Bourbon had bound themselves to assbt each other, he com- 
nranicated that important intelligence to Mr. Pitt, then 

I . 

!i I 










prfine iiii»i»tcr uf Kngland, nt*t(*r\r:in]tf the first carl of Clint- 
\inu\. The hitter having rpprc.soiitcd his cum to Gcor^ II., 
a ]»Hrdi>n wnii granted to him 29t1i May 1759. The earl 
tiiorcniMm quitted Madrid, hut had not hvcii gone S<! Iioun 
before intelligence wa.^ ncvived of the conininnicatioii he had 
inude to Kngland. 

Arriving in London he was introduced to George II., lath 
June 17(30, and most gnicioiulj received. An act of parha- 
nicnt priKsed the same vuar, to enable him to inherit anv mtate 
that might descend to him, notwithstanding his attainder, 
and he was thus enabled to possefts the entailed estates of the 
earl of Kintoro, on his death in 17CI (see Kintouk, e:irl of, 
vol. iL p. Gil). He took the oaths to the govcnimcnt in the 
court of king's bench 2Gth January, 17G1. His own estates been sold in 17'20 to tlio York Unilding Company for 
£41,172, and his casile of dbniantled, but in 
1761 an act of parliament was passed to enable his nnijosty, 
George III. to grant to him out i»f the principal bum and in- 
terest remaining due on his forfeited estate, the sum <:f 
£8,618, with interest from WhiL^unduy 1721. In 1704. 
I^ord Alarischal purchiised back part of the family estites, 
with the intention of taking up his rfMdence in Scotland. 
The king of Pnisjsi.-i, hnwever, was urgent for his return to 
lierlin. In one of his letters he s:iid, *'If I had a fleet, 1 
would come and cam* vou off hv force." Tlie carl, in conse- 

9 9 ' 

qnence, went back to Prussia, where he si)ent the remainder 
of his days. A traveller, who visited Iterlin about 1777, thus 
writes: "We dined almost every d.iy with the I/)j"d Maris- 
chal, who was then 8o years old, and was still as vigorous as 
ever both in body and mind. The king had given him a 
house adjoining the gardens of Sans Souci, and frequently 
went thither to see him. He had excused himself from dining 
witli him, having found that his health would not allow him 
to sit long at table, and he was of all those who had enjoyed 
the favour of the king the only one who could truly be called 
his friend, and who was sincerely attached to his {)erson. 
Of course, every Inxiy paid court to him. lb was called the 
king's friend, and was the only one who had merited that 
title, for he had always stooJ well with him without fhitter- 
ing him.** His lordsh.ip died, unmarried, at Potsdam, 28th 
May 1778, in his 86th year. An ' Kloge de My lonl Mar6- 
chal* by DWIembert, was published at Berlin in 1779. 

MarJ(>rib.\xks, a territorial surname, from the lands of 
Rjitho-Miujoric, Renfrewshire. See p. 114 of this volume. 

Makr, or Mar, earl of, a title in the Scots peerage, now 
possessed by the family of Krskine. The ancient district of 
Alierdeenshireofthisname, king chiefly between the Don r.nd 
the Dee, was one of the old maormonloms into which the north 
of Scotland was divided, whose origin is lost in antiquity. The 
first mention of it is in 1 U6o, when Martachus, maonnor of 
3Iarr, was witness to a charter of Malcolm Canmore in favour 
of the Culdees of I^ochleven. His son, Gratn.nch, witnessed in 
1114 the foundation charter of the monastery of Scone by 
Alexander I. Properly, Gratnach may be considered the 
first earl of Marr, and not ^lartachus, as stated by Douglas 
in his Peerage, the Saxon title of earl not being known in 
Scolhmd in Malcolm Cnninore's d.iys. Ho had a son, Mor 
gundus, who witnessed a grunt of lands by David I., to the 
monks of Dunfennline, and was father of Gillocher, witness 
to a charter of the same monardi in 1093. Gillocher's son, 
Mo.-gimd, received from King William the lion in 1171, a 
grant of the renewal of the inx'cstiturcs of the earldom of 
.MaiT. He had five sons, the three eldest of whom, Gilbert, 
C'lclirist, and Duncan, acocrding to Dooglao, were soccee- | 

sively caris of Marr, but the suoccsnoD, m given in tlie Indrx 
to Anderson's Dijilomala Seatkii runs asfoUowi: 1. GniU 
nach; 3. Moi^i^and; 8. Gilchrist; 4. Duncan, Iiis brotber; 
5. William; G. Don.nld; 7. Gratney; 8. Donahl 11. ; 9. Tho- 
mas, &C. Earl Duncan died bi'fore 1284. 

His son, William, fifth earl, according to the aboro ■»- 
meration, was, in 1258, daring the minority of Alexander 
III., appointed one of the regents of Scotland. In 1264 be 
obtained the office of great chambcriain, and in 1S70 be was 
sent on a special mission to Henry III. of En^and. Ue died 
the same year. Hy his counters, Elisabeth, daughter of Wil- 
liam Comyn, carl of Buchan, he had two mus, DonaU and 

Donald, the sixth, osoally called the tenth earl of Marr, 
was knighted at Scone, by Alexander III., 29tb September 
1270, and witnessed a charter of that monarch to the foorth 
carl of Ijcnnox in 1272. He was also a witness to the mar- 
riage contract of the princess Margsiret of Scotland with 
Eric, king of Nor>vay, in 1281, and one of the Soots nobles 
who, in the parliament of Scone, 5th February 1288-4, iwoie 
to acknowledge the Alaiden of Norway as their sorrreign in 
the event of the death of Alexander II L He w.ns preaeot in 
I ho assembly at Brigham 12th July 1290, when the trndy 
for the marriage of the Maiden of Norway, Alexander's 
,';n!nd-daughter and successor, with the prince of Wales, af- 
terwards Edward II. of England, was concluded, but her 
(loath at Orkney, on her passage from Norway, pat an end to 
that pniji*ct for the union of the two kingdoms. 

Donald, carl of Marr, was one of the nominees choaen on 
the ptrt of Rol>ert Bnicc, carl of Carrick, in liia competition 
for the Scottish ciown in 1190. Ho died in 1294, leaving a 
son, Gratney, who succeeded him, and two daughters. Isa- 
bella, the eider, as the wife of Kobcrt the Drnce, waa qneen 
of Scotland. Mary, the younger, married Kenneth, third 
carl of Sutherland. 

Gnitney, 7th, billed 11th earl, married the lady Christian 
Bruce, sister of Hitbert I., the Bruce and Marr families Wing 
thus doubly united. With a S(>n, Donald, his successor, ]:e 
had a daughter, Ijidy Elyne Marr, thn wife of Sir John Men- 
teith, and mother of a daughter, Christian, married to Sir 
Eilward Keith. Ijidy Keith*.s daughter, .Tanet. in.nrrifd Sir 
Thomas Erskine, and her son by him. Sir Robert EnJcinc, in 
her right, claimed the earldom of Marr. The I Jidy Cliri>tian 
Bruce bronght to the family of Marr the magnificent castle of 
Kildnnnmie, in Abenleenshire, which, at an early period, w:is 
royal property. In 1335, when bcMegcd by the earl of A thole, 
wlitim the Baliol faction had made governor of the kingdom, 
it was under her ch:irge. After Earl Gnitney*s deatii, the 
countess married Sir Christopher Seton of Seton, and after- 
wards Sir Andi'ew Moniv of Bothwe'.l. 

Donald, 8tli, called 12lh earl, was very young at hisfather*a 
death. On the defeat of his uncle, Uobert the Brace, at Melb- 
ven in 1306, the earl of .Mar was tiken prisoner by the Eng- 
lish. During the long and arduons struggle for Sciitland*s in- 
dependence, he remained a captive in EnghuuL When, how- 
ever, it had at last been achieved on the field of Bannockbum, 
he obtained his liberty, being, with the wife, sister, and daugh- 
ter of Bruce, and the bishop of Glasgow, exchanged fur the 
earl of Hereford. He was present in the p.irlianicnt of Scone 
in 1318, but as he appears to have chiefly resided in England 
daring the uneasy reign of Edward II., hb name does not 
appear at the famous letter of the Scottish noUes to tlie Pop* 
in 1820. He was appointed by King Edward guardian of 
the castle of Bristol, and in September 1326, when the Eng- 
lish queen Isabella, with her paramoor, Lwd Mwtiiner, 
Unded iu England firom France, with an annjr, againat hm 










bottband nnd hui fiironrites the Despeniers, he delivered up 
tlie easCte to her, nnd retnmeJ to Scotland. In the followin;; 
rear he tseld a tuboniiaate command hi the Scottish nnnv 
whirii, under Randolph and Douglas, inrade<l England. 

On the death of Randolph, Jiilv 80, 1332, the cnrl of Marr, 
on 2d August, iras cho6en re<^nt iu hut stead, his principnl 
reeommendation bein^ that he was the nephew of the late 
kiD^ M ht was ever/ way niifitted for an office so nrduotts. 
He bdd the appointment, howeTer, only f«>r ten days. On 
the Tirjr daj of hin election he received notice that Edn'ard 
Befiol, accompanied by the lords Beaumont and Wake, had 
appeared with a fleet in the Frith of Forth. After dcfeatii);; 
a inudl furee which had hastily collected to oppose his land- 
in;; at Kinghom, Baliul marched to Perth, and encamped 
near Foiteriot, haring the river Earn in his front. Tlie earl of 
Ifsrr drew np his army, of 30,000 men, npon Dnpplin moor, 
on the opposite bank of the river. Raliors force did not ex- 
ceed 8,000 men, bnt he had friends in the Scottish camp. 
Many of the Soots nobles, whose rehitives had been disiuher- 
Hfd by Brace, secretly favoured his pretensicms, as* offering n 
chance of their being restored to their estates. Despising so 
small a force as Baliol commanded, the Scots abandoned 
tlicRiselves to careless security, and af>er spending the dav in 
drunkenness, went to rest, without taking the common pre- 
caution even of placing sentinels. During the night of the 
13th of August, the English crossed the river by a ford 
pmnted ont to them by Andrew Murray of Tullibnrdlne, one 
of the disaffected Scottish barons, and attacking the Scots 
snny in their sleep, put them to complete rout. Among the 
killed was the earl of Man*. He left a son, Thomas, ninth 
earl, and a daughter, Ltdy Margaret, who succeeded her 

Thomas, ninth cnlletl thirteenth earl, was one of the am- 
basmdors aent to treat with England, for tlio temporary re- 
kaM in 1351 of David II.. from his English captivity ; nnd 
in 1357, when that weak king was at length set at liberty, lie 
was one of the seven great lords from whom three were to be 
•elected as hostages for the payment of his ransom. In 1 .158, 
the earl of ^I.nrr was appointed great chainberlain of Scotland. 
In 1362, he was named an ambassador to treat with England, 
and in 13C9 he was one of the guarantees of a truce with 
tli.nt nation. He appears to have favoured the English in- 
teivst, as he h.nd a pension from King Edwanl III. of COO 
merks yearly. He difd in 1377, leaving no issue. In him 
ended the direct male line of the old earls of Marr. 

His si»ter, Margaret, succeeded as countess of Mnrr. She 
married, first, Wiiliam, fir^t earl of I)ougI:is, who, in her 
ri;;ht. became earl of Marr, and is designed earl of Donglas 
ind Jilarr in sevenil charters. Having been divorced from 
him, she tot>k for her second husband Sir John S win ton of 
Swinton, killed at Homildon hill in 1402. By the earl of 
Douglas she had a ion, James, Earl of Dongl:is and Marr, and 
a d.-tugliter, Isabella. The second marriage was without issue. 

James, earl of Douglas and Marr, fell at Otterhum, July 
81, 1388 (see vol. ii. p. 43.) 

" Tliis deed was done at Otterboume, 
Alr-mt the brc;iking of the day ; 
K:irl Donglas was huritMl at the braken bnsb. 
And the Percy led captive away." 

As he left no I»*gitimatc issno his sister, Is.'d>eIIa, became 
cauntess of >Iarr. She married, first, Sir Malcolm Drum- 
mond of Druinmond, 8tyle<l, in her right, earl of Marr. He 
d:*-d without issue, before 27th May, 1403. At this time the 
oounteas was residing tranquilly at her castle of Kildrummie, 

and Alexander Stewart^ a natural son of the earl of liuchnn, 
called the wolf of Brfdenoch, deeming her and her broad lands 
a prize worth the having, at the head of a formidable band of 
outlaws ar.d robbers, stormed the castle, and either by vio- 
lence or persuasion, obtained her in marriage. Tlie father of 
this lawless young man was the foiu'th son of King Robert 
II., and as his father's brother, the duke of Albany, governor 
of the kingdom, fur his own piurposes, winked at the feuds 
nnd excesses of the nobles, he took advantage of the disturbed 
state of the country and the unprotected condition of the 
countes.s to commit an act, which was attended with com- 
plete success. On 12th August, 1404, the ciountess made 
over her earldom of Marr and Garioch, with all her other 
land.**, to the said Alexander Stewart, " and the heirs to be 
procreated between him and her, whom failing, to hu heirs 
and assignees whatsoever." To give a legal aspect to tlie 
whole transaction, on the 19th September, he presented him- 
self at the castle gate of Kildnimuiie, and surrendered to the 
countess not only the castle, but all within it, and the title 
deeds theivin kt* nt : in testimony of which he delivered to her 
the keys to dispose of as she pleased. The countes.^ holding 
them in her hand, delibemtely and of her own free will, chose 
him for her husband, and conferred upon him the cistle, per- 
tinents, &c., as a free marriage gift, of which he took instni- 
nients. This, however, was not deemed sufficient, for, on the 
9th December following, the countess, standing in the fiehls, 
outside the castle of Kildrummie, in presence of Alexander, 
bishop of Ross, and the whole tenants, that it might appear to 
have been conferred without force on his part or fear on hers, 
granted .a charter of the same to him, duly signeil nnd sealed. 
After this the said Alexander Stewart was usually styled earl 
of Marr and lord of Garioch. 

In 1406, ho was one of the ambassadors sent to England, 
to tre.'it of peace. The following year he was again in Eng- 
land, when he engaged in a tournament with the earl of Kent 
at I.ondon. In 1408, he went to Fnmco and Flanders, with a 
splendid retinue, and, according to W}'ntoun (jChronyhil^ vol. 
ii. pp. 421 — 440) gained great distinction in the service of the 
duke of Burgimdy, by whom he was sent to assist in qnelling 
a rebellion at Liege, of the inhabitants against John of Bava- 
ria, their bishop. It is said that, on this occasion, although 
his wife the countess of Marr was then alive, he manied the 
lady of Duffyl in Brabant. In a charter to his brother, An- 
di-ew Stewart, with his other acquired titles, he is styled 
" dominus de Duflc." This was the earl of Marr who cora- 
mande<l the royal army against Donald, lord of the Isles, at 
the battle of Harhiw in 1411. The ostensible cause of the 
battle was the earldom of Ross, which had been held by his 
fatlicr, the Wolf of Badenoch, in right of his wife, the countess 
of Ross, and was claimed by his uncle, tlie regent Albany, for 
his second son, the earl of Bnchan, as well as by Donald of 
the Isles in right of his wife. (See vol. i. p. 37.) Tlie strug- 
gle, however, was only a part of that long contest which took 
place betwixt the Saxon and the Celtic portions of the nation 
for the sovereignty of tlic country, which htsted till the latter 
were finally obliged to succumb. The h)rd of the Isles, with 
an army of 10,000 men, h.'ul .idvanced as far as the district of 
Marr, intending to plunder the c'.ty of Abei*deen, and to 
ravage the country to the borders of the Tay, but was stopped 
in his progress by the earl of M.arr, as thus related in the old 
historical ballad called * The Battle of HariaiW : ' 

" To hinder this pmnd enterprise. 
The stout and mighty earl of Mar, 
With all his men in arms did rise, 
Even frae Curgarf to Craigievar. 

1 1 

1 1 




: I 

' I 




And doon the tide of Don right fur, 
Angni and ftlearns did all convene 
To fecht, or Donald come bm nenr, 
The rojal bur|;h of Aberdeen. 

" And thus the martial earl of ^f ar 
Marcht with his men in richt armv. 

Before the enemy was aware, 
His banner baiildly did didplnr. 
For weel eneuch they knew the war. 

And all their nemblance weel ther i^nve, 
Without all danger or dehiy, 

Came hastilv to the Harlaw.** 

In 14in the earl was appointed ambassador extraonlinar}* 
to England, and aoon after warden of the marches. His 
uncle, the duke of Albany, being at this time governor of the 
kingdom, may partly nceount for his being preferred to such 
high offices, especially after the signal service he hnd done 
him in defeating his fonnidable rival, Donald nf the Isles. 

Tho countess of Marr died in 1419, when the fee of thtr 
earidom should have devolved on the heir of line, .Tanet Keith, 
wife of Sir Thom:is Erskine, but Earl Alexander, conscious 
that he had only a liferent right to it, used the device of re- 
signing it into the hands of the king, James I., on which a 
charter of the earldom, dated 28th May 142G, was gnmte<l by 
the king, to hun.self for life, and to his natund son, Sir 
Thomas Stewart, after him, and the lawful heirs male of his 
bodv, and on their failure to revert to the crown. Earl 
Alexander died, without legitimate iMue, in August 1435, 
and his natund son, Sir Thomas Stewart, having predeceased 
him, the earldom, according to the charter, became vested in 
the crown. 

Sir Rubert Erskine, only son of Sir Thomas Er»kine and 
Ijidy Janet Keith, grcat-granddnngliter nf Grntner, 7th, 
Cjdled tlie Uth earl, (see page 108) now advanced his claims 
to the earldom, in right of his mother, (see vol. ii. p. 144.) 
On 2*2d April 1438, he was, before the sheriff of Aberdeen, 
served heir to the Countess Isabel, and in the following 
Xuvemlier infeftcd in the estates. Assuming the title of 
earl of Marr, he granted various charters to Yass.ils of the 
earldum. lie was not, however, allowed to retain possesbiun 
of it. In 1437, immediately after the assassination of James 
1. an act of parli:mient passed that no lands or posses- 
sions belonging to the king shouM be given to any man with- 
out the consent of the three Estates, till the young king 
(James II., then only seven years old) should l>e twenty -one 
years of age, and in 1440, it was agreed ** fur the good and 
quiet of the land, that the king should deliver up to Sir 
Robert Enskine, calling himself earl of Marr, the castle of 
Kildrummie, to be kept by him till tho king*s majority, when 
the smd Sir Robert should come before the king .and the three 
Estates, and show his rights and chiinis, as far as law will.'* 
At the same time Sir Robert delivered up to the king the 
castles of Marr and Dumbarton held hy him. In 1442, Sir 
Robert Erskine took a protest at StirUiig, in presence of the 
king and council, complaining against the cliancellor, fur re- 
fusing to retour liim to the lordship of Garioch, and put him 
hi possession of the castle of Kildrummie. lie afterwards 
besieged and took the castle, whereupon the castle of Alloa, 
belonging to him, was taken possession of in the king*s mime. 
In 1448, in consequence of a new indenture, Sir Robert 
Erskine obliged himself to deliver up the castle of Kildrum- 
mie to the king. 

On Sir Robert*8 death, after 1449, tho king, on various 
grounds, obtained a reduction of his service before an assize 

of error, held, in hu presence, at Aberdeen, 15tb Mny 

llie earldom, being that unjustly withheld firom the right- 
ful ownen, was never long enjoyed by any of the Tarioot 
personages on wh<nn it was inbeeqnently con f erred, the fate 
of all of whom wai lingularly unfortunate. The Hal of 
these was John, 8d son of James II., a young prince of great 
accomplishmenta, and expert in all the kniglitly eaereiief 
and p.x>time8 of the age. Having rendered himself obnoxioiis 
to the favourites of his brother, J.imes III., he was in 1479 
by them accused of plotting against his life by spells and in- 
cantations, and by the king's command imprisoned in Cmig- 
millar castle. Bemg condemned to die by the king*s domes- 
tic council, he was removed to the Canongate, Edinbni^ 
and bled to death by having a vein opened. The earidom 
was next bestowed, or rather the revenues of it, on Coch- 
rane, the principal favourite of the king, who styled hfinselT 
earl of Mar, hanged at Ijinder Bridge in 1482. 

The next possessor was Alexander Stewart, duke of Ross, 
third son of James III., who had a charter of the same, 2d 
Marnli, 1486. After his death, the date of which is unknown, 
it retumetl to the crown, and in Februaiy 1561-2, it 
conferred by Queen Mary on her natural brother, the lord 
James Stewart, afterwards regent A week previous he had 
been created earl of Muray, a title which he preferred to that 
of .Marr, the latter being claimed by the Erskine family. 

At length in 15(1.3, the earldom of Marr was restored hy 
Queen Mary to its legitimate proprietor, John, fifth I^ord Er- 
skine, after the family had l>een deprived of it for 180 years. 

John, fifth I^ird Erbkine, and first acknowledged eari of 
Mar of tiiat family, was elected regent of the kingdom, on 
the death of the regent Lennox, in 1571. A notice and por 
trait of him are given at page 1 14 of vol. ii. From Queen 
Mary and King Henry (l/>rd Daniley) he received a charter, 
18th July l.'iG'.', granting to him, heritably and irredeemably, 
and his hein>, bearing the sum.ime and arms of Enkine, the 
office of sheriff of Stirlingshire, and tho captaiiMhip and cus- 
tody of the castle of Stirling, with the office of bwliary and 
chamberlainry of the lands and lordship of Stirling and of the 
water of Forth. The Erskines had been hereditary keepen 
of Stirling castle from tlie time of Sir Robert Er)»kuie, who 
received the appointment fn>m D.ivid II. (see vol. ii. p. 144). 
The earl was by far too honest and p.itriolic for tho post d 
regent, to which he had been elected at a time when a civil 
war of unexampled ferocity raged in the kingdom, and being 
unable to prevent the scenes of blood and disorder which 
were continmilly occurring, or to bring about any union ol 
jiarties, lie s:tnk beneath the burden of anxiety and grief 
\^hich the distnicted state of the kingdom occasioned him, 
and died 29th October 1572. Ry his wife, Ammbclla, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Murray of Tuliibanline, he had n son, 
John, and a daughter, Mary, Cfmntess of Angus. 

John, 2d, properly 7th earl of, of the name of Erhkine, 
bom about ITi/iS, w:is, though ci^ht vears older than the 
prince, eductted with King James VI. at Stirling cuttle, hy 
George Itncliaiinn, under the eves of the countess of Mar, his 
mother, and Sir Aleximder Erskine of Gngar, his uncle, an- 
cestor of tlie earls of Kellie. (See Kkluic, earl of.) He was 
only 14 years of age when he succeeded his father in 1572. 
In April 1578 the earl of Morton prevailed upon him to re- 
move his uncle. Sir Alexamler, from Stirling castle, and to 
t.ike the keeping of the cnstle and of the king^s person into 
his own hand. Morton then obtained admission to the castle, 
with his friemls and fullowers in small parties, and after 
that the young earl durst do nothing but what he commanded 






I 1 

MARK, 1 

In Aafnst \S8S, Uht wai one of tha noblM engiged in 
A* Bald sf Ruthrcn, t1i« ol^ of Kliicb niu to g«t rid of 
tin blwuilM, t>niMU ud Amn. TbeMlDttinej-nc, Amin 
brii>s nodkd to Cowt, Uir tu tiMnmittcd to Die aatodj of 
tilt Mil «r Ai^l*, and ordvnd to iblirer iqi tlie cutlg uf 
Sb'iImK to tb* Idng and council, on pain of tmaon. On Iiii 
ling n, tbe king gara tlia kHpIng of Stirling oiMl* to Ar- 
nii, aod alio ippointcd liim proroat of Sttrling. Uar, in the 
RMantinw, with tba olbm concrmcd in tha Rutliran niFair, 
I Ind takao nftiga in Inland. IMunung to Scotland, thff, 
I ta tha ITth April IWi, lurpriiwd Stirling c»tl«, but ncra 
fimed honicdl^ to Inra it, on tlia 27th, on tlis ippRncli uf 
tha kingwitb a Inri^ fum, and to tuke thaltar in Hnglnnd. 
In tba put inmant vLich mr 1 21i Angut of tbM rear, tlie aul 
na iltalnlrd, with Ilia otiian. In Konmbtr I5S5, bonercr, 
li« and tha otlwr bauisliad Inrda ra-ant«rcd Scotland, and aa- 
aamUiag tlicir ntaiurn, at tlis licad of 6,000 man, took poi- 
inaioiiofStiriirgeaatlc and )hi king's pnion,tli<nnprJiiciplad 
Ann, ilripiKd of al] liis tillca and calati^ 1>*'°K allcncrd to 
drop into bia original oUcunlf. In Ilia parliament nliiFli 
mrt in Dacnnbcr of Ilia Hina raor, tba pardnia of tlia con- 
frdtnltd hmh wm ntitinl, and tlirir liniioun nnd raluica 

On lilt anival of Ilia king with Quaan Anns frnni Den- 
mark lit Jlaj 1S90, IbfT wan rawivrd at the top of the 
ttain at the piar of Lallh, bj tliaduka of I^nnoi, tlit anrla 
of U:ir and Botbwell, nnd otlicra; Ilia countaianofMnraiid 
llariichal atanding Ent in order nmoDgit tlit vxltm nobla 
wonwn nnd ladia* taWctad to rccaii-a tha qnaeii. In loOi lia 
iru appointad governor of the caatia of Edinliurgli. At Ibis 
tiina ka waa in high credit tt court, and IifIJ tba offica of 
pnt mmler of tlia houieliold. In Uarcb 1501 he rim nnt 
aftUa nciblFinen wbo inbicHbad Iha land at Aherdeen, wbera 
tlie kill); Ihni wni, for Iba lecuritf of tlie prottttant rdi^on, 
■galnat tba Pupiili eniia, Ilniitlv, Angna, and Erro), and 
other*. After tha baptiam uf Fiiiim Heni; on the penult 
daj of Angnal that rear, tba king dubbed the rojal infant 
a kii'tglit, when lie wai " touobcd with tlia aput br tha rarl of 
Unr." At tlie banquet wbicb (bllowcd, '' tba king and quacn, 
with Iba ambasH.idiir', ut at tHble in tba great bill, at n^bt 
bnnn at ricn ; tha ofllce nien to the king, tbe eail of JIar, 
grmt imatar boutcbold ) tha lord Flaming, grant ualier ; tba 
earl of Montraae. cnrreri tha cai4 of Gteiicaim, copper; the 
nil of OtlmaT, aewar ; to the queen, Iba hwd Selon, cnrvar; 
Iba lord Hume, cnpprr; the timi Setnpill, aewer. 'I'lie table 

In tha ipring of 1595, tha qnaan iiiaiated tlmt tba Toang 
prifica ahoald be icniovad from ^T!rling tu Edinburgh buIIf, 
■" ~ ' r oflbalaltcrlurtrcM, 

orM..t, Hlu'li-idrhar 

of tbe iiifaKl, w 

w her ti 

tiina Mar Itim, eiceptwiib n ainnll ntiiiiw, leit he tliould be 
earned off hi .lulf of that .'ear the king hrnallj iiitrusird 
lb* heaping nnd educatian of tlie piiuea to Iba earl, be a wnr- 
nnt Biidrr his own band, being the Eflh gtncmtion uf the 
lojij (iunilj wblcb bud bean pnt under Iha chaii;e uf an Kra- 
kint. At a ounTenliun btlJ at Holjrood pnbica. Dec. 10, 
liOS, the earl of Mar araaaiitom one of tha council uppuiiiled 
Id matt Iwice ■•weak to asiiit tbe king nilh their lulvice. 

lo iha mj^eriona InuineM of the Gowrit runnpinicj Iba 
ami of Uar via one of tl« king't allendiiiiM («o 
Tnl. ii. p. 659). In IGOt lit niu tent to KiiKbiiid. a* ainbiia- 
udor, and lo Iiii eicelkut raansgemaiit on Ibi* occauan ii 
h) p.irt attributed Ibe imODlh accnaion of King Jainei lo 
tbe Kiigliali tbroue. When in Ijindun, Itobert Bract 
Iba crlabcated preacher, than in baniahinent fur hli diibelief 
rf the gnilt of the Gowrie broIliRa, had nn interview iritb 


him, and thrnngh tha carl's influence witli tba king, be 
enhaeqnentl^r recelrad ■ Ueenia to return to Scotland. In 
1603, the earl was one of t)ie Soots noblas who accompanied 
tbe lung on liia departure for I^mdon to tnka p( 
tba tlirona of England. Bofura raacbing York, h 
waa coTnpallad to return, u the queen had tnkan adranlaga 
of bis sbaenca to go to Stirling wi^ a large retinoa of noble- 
men and otben, and demand tbnt prince Hanrj should be 
delivered up to her. The eonnlesi of Slur, tba carl'a motlier, 
nfuaed to give him up, without an order under the mrl'a 
own hand. Tha qnaen, annged at tbe rrfutal, look lobar 
bad, and, aave Ci.ldeiwooJ, " parted with child the lOlh of 
Hkj, as wai conitantljr leporttd." Ha refueed to ^ra to 
anv one but banalf tha Irttan be had brought from 
tbe king to her niajaatj, and both the qoean and tbe a.irt 
wrote tu Jiimes cipreei regarding this busineek The duke 
of IvCnnoi KBis in eonaequene*, sent trnm court to bare tba 
affair s^jiuted. Ho arrivrJ at Stirling Iha 13th ilty, with 
Uie king's approral of llie proendinga of the earl and but 
mother, and with eommiaaion to Iranaport both tha qoaen 
and prince lo England. The earl nf Mar then rppaurd tii 
I.oiidon, and on hit arrival at court, be ivai awoni a member 
of tha Kiigliili prii^r council, nnd inatalled a kiiigbt of tba 
G.irter, !7th Juljr the aiune ;ear. In 1604 be naa cnaled 
I.urd Cnrdroet (see vol. i. p. 987). at Iba aania time obtain- 
ing tbe kironj of that name, \vilb the power of aaugning Iha 
hnron; end title to anj of his male heirs. Tlie king'* reavm 
fur conferring thie onuaual privilege upon bim, u stated In 
tlie grant, was that lie " iniglil lie in a better coDdilion to 
prorida for hit jrounger sona, \iy Lndv llarv Slewiict, daugliter 
of tha duke of Lennox, and a rebilion of liia majealv." Hit 
pnrlrail ii niljiiined. 

le beginning of 1606, ha returned to Scotland Irom 
, to auiit at tbe trial of lit. John Welch and five 
liniitm at linlithgow, on a charge of treatnn. for 





having lU'i'linoJ the jurisdiction of the privy c<mncil in n mat- 
ter purely ecclrainstical. He was nit her f:iroiirHlIe than 
otherwise to the prisonera, fur when the justice-depute, on n 
prelimiti.'iry objection being taken to the rvlevancy of the in- 
dictment, declared that hv the unifonn votea of the whule 
CMuncil and lordx there preaent, the trial should pmceed, the 
earl of Mar and two others iuterpoKcd, and said, " Say not 
all, fur there arc here that are not, nor ever will lie, of that 
judgment." They were, however, overruled, lie was a 
member of the court uf high commiasiou erected in IGIU fi>r 
tiie trial of ecclesiuatic;d offencea, and also on its renewal in 
ICIO. Ill Decemlier IClfi, he was appointed lord-high- 
trca<urvr of Sothuid, an oflico wliich he held till IGoO. At 
the opening of the pariiainent at Kdiiiburgli, 25th July 1G2I, 
he earned the sce])trc. as lie had often done on »iinilar occa- 
sions before. It was at this parliament that the obnoxious 
live articles of Perth were ratified, the earl of Mar being 
among those who voted for them. As a courtier and favour- 
ite of King .lames he could not have d«ine otherwise. In 
1G2.3 he w:is one of the noblemen named in a commi^^ion to 
sit at Kdinburgh twice .n-week for the redress of grievances, 
but which never to«>k etlVct. lie wa? at the proclamation of 
Charles I. as king nt the CrON't of Kdinburgh, lietwixt bix 
and seven oVI(K-k i:i tlie evening of the last day of 3Iarch 

The earl died at Stirling castle 14th I>ecembcr 1G3-4, aged 
77, and was buried at .Mloa. He was twice m:u-ried, lirst, to 
Anne, second daughter of David, second Lord Dnmimond, 
by whom he had a son, John, his Fuccessor; and secondly, 
to I^ndy Mary Stewart, second daughter of »me, duke of 
I^nnox, nircadv mentioned. Bv this hidv he had live sons 
and four daughters. The eldest of these sons, Sir James 
Erskine, m.arried Mary Douglas, cnnutess of Dnchan, in her 
own right, and was created earl of I>iichan (soo lirciiAX, 
earl of, vol. i. p. 4ol, where his portrait is gi\eii). The sec- 
ond son, Henry, received from his father the barony uf Car- 
dn>ss, and w.hs known as the tii-ht Lord Cardruss. Tlic thinl 
son. Colonel the Hon. Sir Alexander Krhkii;e, was blown up 
at Dimglas-house, in Kiiht I/)thian, with his brother-in-law, 
the eai-l uf Haddington, in 1G40. He was a man of elegnnt 
person, and the hero of the beautiiul and pathetic Scot! iith 
song, begiiming ** Baloo, my boy,*' the heroine of which was 
Anna liothwell, daughter of I^rd ]lolyroodhou.«e. I be victim 
of an unfortunate passion (see vol. L p. 3G4). The Hon. Sir 
Charles Krskinc of Alva, knight, the 4lli s«m, was aiiccKtor of 
the Krskiiies of Alva (see vol. ii. p. 145), a family now iv- 
presented i>y the. calls of Rosslyn ; .ind the lion. Wiiiiam V.rn- 
kine, the youngest son, was cupbearer to Charles 1 1., and master 
of the Charter House, lA)ndon. All the lord-treasm-er's fi»nr 
daughters were marriinl to carls, namely, Marischal, I?(»thes. 
Kinghom, and Haddington. The carl himself familiar- 
ly called by his classfcllow, James VI., "Jocky o* Sclait- 
tis,** that is, slates ; and this name ho continued to 
give him even after he had l>ecflltne lord-treasurer. When 
a widower, the earl had fallen deeply in love wi:Ii L'ldy 
Mary Stewart, the d.nughter of I.ennox and cousin of the 
king. As his lordship was twice her age, and had already a 
son and heir, she at first pofiitively refused to take him. The 
king, however, took his part, and in his own liomely way, 
said, " I say, Jock, yo s:inna die for ony lass in .V the land.** 
He is s.aid to have prev.ailed on the lady to marry him by 
piiii'.iising to make a peer of her eldeat son. 

.lohn, the eighth earl, was invested with the order of the 
Rath at the creation of Henry prince of Wale^ SOtli May 
IGIO; sworn a Tpnvr counciUor, 20th July 1615, and ap- 
pr)ii:tetl governor of Kdinburgh castle. On Ist Febmaiy 

1G20, while still I.ord Knkine, he was named one of the ex- 
traordinary lords of session, and in 1G26 was sopeneded with 
the rest of the extraordinary lords. Reappunted 18th Jnne 
1G28, he again sat on the bench till 1G30. lie succeeded his 
father in 103 1, and in IG38 was deprived of his command of 
Kdinburgh cistle. General Ruthven, aflerwards earl of Forth 
(ace FoitTii, earl of, vol. ii. p. 2o4), having been recalled 
from the Swedisli scrx'icc and by the king appointed governor 
of the castle, at tlie conimeucement of the civil commotions in 
Scotland, when the infatiuited Charles resolved to rappreai 
the covenant by forco. He got security, however, for a com- 
pensation of £3,000. The same year, he was prevailed upon 
to sell to the king the sherifiship of Stirling and bniliarr of 
tlie Forth, for £8,000 sterling, for which he obtained a bond, 
1st November 1G4I. (^Douglni Pttmyt^ vol. ii. p. 2IG.) 
He was one of the noblemen pn>pivsed by the king to llw 
Scots Kbtiites to be a prin' councillor, and was accOTdingly 
sworn one fur life on the 13th of the same month. Being a 
great pn jector, he obtained a p:itent for the tanning of le.i- 
ther, but in consequence of its having been compluined of as 
a mono]K>ly, it was disch:u'gcd by parliament, on ICth No- 
vember the same year. A remit wan, however, made to the 
council to consider his expenses, that repamtiun might be 
made to him for the Mime. 

The earl of Mar at lln»t favoured the Covenanters, bat 
soon joined tlie Cumbernauld association to support the king. 
In consequence, his property was forfeited by the Kstates. \U 
is said to have sold several lands in Scotland, and with the 
money receiv(>d for them, purchased an estate in Ireland, 
which he \*mX br the Irish rebellion. He died in 1G54. Bv 
his countciNS. Lidy Christi:in Hay, danghter of Francis, ninth 
earl of Enrol, he had three sons and two daughters. 

The elder son« John, called the 9th earl of Mar of tlie 
name of Krskinc. had, when btill Ix)rd Krakine, the comni.ind 
of the Stirlingshire regiment in the Scots anny which, in 
1G40, marched to Kngland. The following year, wiili his 
father, ho acceded to the Cumbernauld association to enp- 
port the royal cauM*. In 1G45, on the appro:ich of Montrow's 
anny to Alloa, the Irish in his senice plundered that town 
and the adjoining lordship which lielonged to the earl of 
Mar. Notwithstanding this unprovoked outrage, howe\*er, 
the earl and Ix^rd Krskinc his son, g:ive the royalist leader 
a<id his principal oflicers .in elegant entertainment, and for 
doing so, the marquis of Arg}-le subsequently threatened to 
burn his castle of Alloa. {OvtIiry*i AfeMoin, p. 153.) After 
tlie battL' of Kiisylh, lotli August 1G45, lA>rd Erskine joined 
Montrose, and was at the rout of Philiphaugh, on 13th Sep- 
tember fiillowitig, but escaped, and was sent by Montrose 
into the district of Mar, to raise forces to recruit his discom- 
litcd anny. He was fined by the Estates 24,000 meiks, and 
his houses of Erskine and Alloa wero jilundered by tlieir or- 
der. On succeeding his father in lGo4, his whole eatatei 
were setincstrated, and till the Restoration he lived privately 
in a small cottago at tho gate of Alloa house. To add to hii 
misfortunes, he w.'is stnuk with blindness. In his portrait 
he is represented as a fair-haired, mild-looking old man. 
When King Charles got " his own again," tlie earl wnt re- 
storctl to his estates. He died in September 1668. Ha was 
twice married. His first wife, I<ady Slaiy Scott, eldest 
daughter of the first earl of Dnccleuch, had inr^iving issue. 
\W bis second countess, I^ly Mary Mackenzie, eldest daugh- 
ter of the second eari of Seaforth, he had two eons and three 

The elder son, Charies, tenth earl of the Erskine name, 
bom 10th OctoWr 1G.')0, succeeded to the earldom in bit 14th 
year. In 1679 lie raised the 2 Ist regiment of foot, or Rnjal 

I . 


L . 




James, bom in 1801, lieutenant, East India Company*s ser- 
Tiee, died Nor. 28, 1825. 5. Gilbert, born in 1802, went to 
Sidnej, New Sootli Walea, and died there. 6. George, bom in 
1806, aoTKeon, died in 1828. 7. Tliomas, bom in 1809, or- 
dained in 1834, mtuifltGr of Lochmiiben, Dumfries-sbire, and 
is 1849 tnmsbted to Stenton, Haddingtonshire, married in 
18S5, Blary, only datigbter of Rev. Dr. Cook, Professor of 
Uonl Plulotophj in the university of St. Andrews; issue, 3 
not and a daughter. 8. Enkins. 

Daagliten: 1. Katherine Krskine, wife of William Balfour, 
RKicfaant, of the familj of Balfour of Pilrig, who died in 1859 
without issue. 2. Mury, married Robert Ilonbui^h, Esq., 
factor at Tongue to the Duke of Sutherland. S.Christian, 
wife tf John Soott Moncrieff, Esq., Accountant, Edinburgh* 
4. Sanh, wife of William TurabuII, Esq., died without issue. 

The eldest son, AloLinder Maijoribaiiks, bom OcL 31, 1792i 
is a magistrate for Linlithgowshire. The estates of Balbardie 
and Bathgate, which had been for several centuries in tlie 
family, were at Whitsundnj 1861 sold to the Trustees of 
Stewart's Hospital, Edinburgh, for £48,000. 

The desctndant of a jounger branch of this family, Kdvrnrd 
Uagoribaaksi a natiTe of Linlithgowshire and proprietor of 
the estate of Hallyards, Mid Lothian, married a daughter of 
Ardiibald Stewart, Esq., lord provost of Edinburgh wlicn 
Prince Charles had possession of that city in 1745, and wns 
for manj years a wine merchant nt Bordeaux in France. 
On SQOceediug to the estate of Lees in Berwickshire, in 
1770, as heir of entail, he returned with his family to Scot- 
land. His eldest son, John, bom at Bordeaux in 1762, 
at one period a captain in the Coldstream guards, became 
a partner in a banking house at Edinburgh. In 1814, he wns 
dected kvd piorost of thatdty, and the following year created 
a baronet In 1811, he was chosen M.P. for Buteshire, and 
in 1818 for Berwickshire. While chief magistrate of Edin- 
hnifi ha distinguished himself by carrying forward the im- 
peoTcmenta of the dty, and was the diief promoter of the erec- 
tioo of the new gaol and the Regent's bridge. In 1 825, he was 
agun lord provost of Edinburgh. Sir John died Feb. 5, 1833, 
in hit 71st year. He had married in 1790 Alison, eldest daugh- 
ter of WOliam Ramsay, Esq., of Bam ton. His eldest surviv- 
ing son. Sir William Maijoribanks, 2d baronet, bora Dec 
15, 1792, died Sept. 22, 1834. Sir William's son, John, bom 
ia 1830, became 8d baronet. 

Mabohall, a surname derived from the andent und hon- 
oumUe office of marischa], and not confined to Scotland. 

There was a painter of this name, George Marshall, a scholar 
of the y o nnge r Scougal (see Soouoal, George) and there- 
after of Sir Godfrey Kneller, whose paintings are remarkable 
for good ookmring, although there is a flatness in them which 
is displeadng to the eye. Afler a long practice in Scotland, 
be went to Italy, but thb produced no visible improvement on 
his works. He died about 1732. 

MARSHALL, William, a celebrated composer 
of Scottish airs and melodies, was bom at Foch- 
abers, Morayshire, Dec. 27, 1748, old style, 
In his 12th year he became employed under the 
bouse steward at Gordon castle, Banflbhire, the 
seat of the Duke of Gordon, but was soon ap- 
poined batlcr and house steward, a situation 
which he held for nearly 80 years. *^Tho 

correctness of Marshall's ear," snys a MS. me- 
moir of him quoted in Stenhouse's Johnson's 
Scots Musical Museum, (vol. iv. p. 413,) to 
which we are indebted for this notice, " was 
unrivalled, and his style of playing strathspeys 
and reels lively and inspiring, while his fine taste 
and peculiarly touching manner of executing the 
slow and more plaintive Scottish airs and melo- 
dies, delighted all who heard him." He is styled 
by Bums " the first composer of strathspeys of 
the age." 

About the beginning of 1790, the delicate state 
of his health obliged him to relinquish his situa- 
tion at Goi*don castle, when he retired for a short 
time to a small farm in the neighbourhood of 
Fochabers. Tlie same year he removed to the 
larger farm of Keithmore, belonging to the duke 
of Gordon, in the lordship of Auchendown and 
parish of Mortlach, where he became a keen agri- 
culturist. Shortly thereafter he Was appointed 
factor or land steward to the duke, over a very 
extensive range of his estates in the counties of 
Banff and Aberdeen, comprehending the districts 
of Cabrach, Auchendown, Glenlivet, Strathaveu, 
Strathdown, &c. This situation he filled with 
fidelity and honour till 1817. He died at New- 
field cottage, 29th May 1833, aged 85. He had 
manied, at the age of 25, Jane Giles, who prede- 
ceased him, on 12th December 1825, and by 
whom he had five sons and a daughter. 

A collection of Marshairs * Airs and Melodies' 
was published, by subscription, in May 1822, con- 
taining 176 tunes. It was followed by a supple- 
ment of about 74 additional tunes. Many of 
them had appeared separately, before the close of 
the 18th century, and were well known. 

MARTIN, David, an eminent artist, the prin- 
cipal portrait painter in Edinburgh of his day, was 
bom in Scotland, and studied under Allan Ram- 
say, the celebrated painter, the son of the poet, 
whom he accompanied to Rome, but at a time 
when he was too young to receive much advantage 
from the visit. On his return to England, he at- 
tended the drawing academy in St. Martin*s Lane, 
London, and obtained some premiums for draw- 
ings after life. He subsequently practised both as 
a painter and an engraver, and also scraped some 
portraits in mezzotinto. In the latter department 





he finished a very good print of Roubilliac the 
scniptor. Among his cntp-avcd portraits there is 
a whole length of Loiil Bath, from the original 
picture >vhich he painted of his lordship ; also, a 
whole length of Lord Mansfield, from another of 
his own pictures. His best poilrait is a half 
length of Dr. Franklin, said to be the truest like- 
ness of that remarkable pei'son, from which a 
mczzolMito print was published in 1775. Mr. 
^lartin married a lady of some fortune, and lived 
for some years in Dean Street, Soho, but after her 
death, which was very sudden, he went to reside 
at Edinburgh. {Edwards' Anecdotes of Painting), 
The Surgeon's Hall, Advocates' Libraiy, and 
Horiot's Hospital, of that city, possess many fine 
portraits by Martin, of the most eminent men of 
his time, in the several departments of physic, law, 
and philosophy. After succeeding his brother, a 
General Martin, he lived principally at No. 4, St. 
James' Square, Edinburgh, where he died 13th 
December 1797. Some time ]>i*evious to his death 
he had been api>ointed limner to his royal high- 
ness the prince of Wales. According to his obi- 
tuary notice in the local papci*s, he was *'very 
extensively known, not only in his own but in 
uther countne.«, for his eminence in his pi*ofcssion, 
his knowledge of, and exquisite taste in, the fine 
arts, in general. He will long be remembered 
and much regretted by his numerous acquaint- 
ances, but more particularly by his friends, not 
more for his genius and taste than for his genero- 
sity and spirit, warmth of heart and other amiable 
(|ualitics." So little was this flattering notice re- 
alized that, within sixty years of his death, he was 
so absolutely forgotten in the city in which he 
lived and died, that, with the exception of an old 
artist or two, who had known him in their voutli, 
and his own descendants, few had ever heard of 
his existence, and scarcely any knew that he was 
a Scotsman. His reiJUtalion was completely 
eclipsed by the more brilliant talent of Sir Henry 
Kaeburn (sec llAEBUiix, Sir Henry), who had 
his attention first directed by David Martin 
from miniature to the more powerful and facile 
process of oil painting, in which he gave him 
some instructions and advice in a friendly way, 
although, not behig a pupil of his, he refused to 
show him how to prcpsu'e his colours. The iden- 

tity of style of the early works of Baebnm with 
those of Martin, Is very remarkable, and tbe dif- 
ference of the two masters only begins as Baebnm 
became more confirmed in that stylo in which lie 
nitimately dlstingnished himself, and which be- 
came 80 peculiarly his own. 

The following is a list of most of the plates 
which Martin engraved: La Mnchcla Gabriela, 
after P. Bottoni; Lady Frances Manners; Eail of 
Mansfield; David Hume; Ronssean; The Earl of 
Bath ; Roubilliac ; a portrut of Rembrandt ; Pro- 
fessor Fergusson; Summer Evening, after Cuyp; 
and the Ruins of ancient Bath, after Grasper 

^lARTIXE, George, a physician, was bom hi 
Scotland in 1702. After studying at Edinbnrgh, 
he went to Leyden, where he took the degree of 
M.D. in 1725, and on his return home commenced 
practice at St. Andrews. In 1740 he accompa- 
nied I^rd Cathcait on his expedition to America, 
as physician of the forces under his command; 
and died there of a bilious fever in 1743. — ^His 
works are : 

KssajA, Medical and Philosophical. LonJ. 1740, 8to. 

l)u SimilibiM Animallbus et de Aiiiinalibns Caioire, libri 
duo. Ix)nd. 1710. 

In Hartholomaii Eutitacliii Tabulas Anatoinicas Onninen- 
tarii. Edin. 1755, 8vo. Publislicd by Dr. Monro. 

Account of the Operation of Bronchotome, as perfonned at 
St. Aiidretrs. Phil. Trans. 1730. 

An Essay on the alternate motions of the Thonx .nnd 
Lungs, in Respiration. Ed. Med. Ess. i. 158. 173L 

An Kssny concerning the Analysis of Ilmnan Blood. lb. 
ii. CO. 

Some Tht^iuglits concerning the ProducUon of Mineral 
IleaiU and the DevaricatioD of tbe Vascular Srstem. lb. 
iii. 334. 

Kxpcrinicnt of Cutting tbe Recnrrent Kerres, carried far- 
ther tlian has hitherto been done. lb. 114. 

Ki-flcctions and Obsen-ations on th« Seminal Blood Ves- 
sels, lb. V. 227. 173G. ' 

MAUY' STUART, Queen of Scots, cclebrat- 
ed for her bcautj, her accomplishments, her err- 
ors, and her misfortunes, was bom at the palace 
of Linlithgow, Deci^mber 8, 1542. She was the 
daughter of James V., by his queen, Mary of 
Lonaine, of the family of Guise. Her father d}'- 
ing wheu she was only eight days old, she became 
(lueen, and was crowned at Stirling, September 9, 
1548. After an ineffectual attempt on the part of 
Cardinal Bcthune to obtain the I'egency, the gov- 
ernment of the kingdom was, during her inliuicy. 





i ; 






vested in tlio earl of Arran. The two first years 
of her childhood were spent at Linlithgow, under 
the care of her mother ; and the following three 
jean at Sturling, nnder the charge of the Lords 
Erskine and Livingstone. Owing to the distract- 
ed state of the country, she was subsequently 
removed, for a few months, to the priory of Inch- 
inahome, a small island in the beautiful lake of 
Menteith, Perthshire, where she had for her at- 
tendants and companions four young ladies of no- 
ble rank, all named like herself, Mai*}- ; namely, 
Mary Bethunc, niece of the cardinal ; Mar}' Flem- 
ing, daughter of I^ord Fleming; Mary Living- 
stone, daughter of ouc of her guardians; and 
Mary Scton, daughter of the lord of that name. 
At the age of six she embarked at Dumbarton for 
France, where she was instructed in every branch 
of learning and polite accomplishment. Besides 
making herself mistress of the dead langungcs, she 
spoke the Frencli, Italian, and Spanish tongues 
fluently, and devoted much of her time to the 
study of histon*. Tlirough the influence of tlie 
French king and lier uncles, the Guises, she was 
married, April 20, 1558, to the dauphin, after- 
wards Francis 11. of France, who died in 15G0, 
abont sixteen mouths after his accession to the 
throne. On her marriage she had been induced, 
by the persuasion of the French court, to assume, 
with lier own, the style and anus of queen of Eng- 
land and Ireland, an offence which Elizabeth never 
forgave, although, as soon as Mai-}- became her 
"-'wn mistress, she discontinued the title. 

Tlie widowed queen soon found it nccessaiy to 
ntum to Scotland, wliitlior t^he was invited by 
her own subjects, and arriving at Leith, August 
19, 1561, she was received by all ranks with every 
demonstration of welcome and regard. At firet 
the committed the administration of aflaii*s to 
IVotestants, her principjd advisers being her na- 
tural brother, the Lord James Stuart, prior of St. 
Andrews, and Maitland of I^thington, and so 
long as she abided by their counsels her reign was 
mild, prudent, and satisfactory to her people. In 
August 1562 she made a progress into the north, 
where, by the aid of lier brother, afterwards cre- 
ated earl of Moray, she crushed the formidable 
rebellion of the earl of Iluntly. In February 
1563 occnrred at St. Andrews the execution of 

the young and accomplished French poet Chate- 
lard, who, having fallen deeply in love with his 
beautiful mistress, had twice intiiided himself into 
her bed-chamber, for the purpose of urging his 
passion. It was the wish of her subjects that the 
queen should marr}-, that the crown might descend 
in the right line from then* ancient monarchs, and 
she had ali'eady received matrimonial overtnres 
from various foreign princes. The ardour of 
youthful inclination, however, rather than the dic- 
tates of prudence, led her to prefer her cousin, 
Henry Lord Damley, to all her suitors. Tliis 
young man, whose only recommendation was the 
elegance of his person and manners, was the eldest 
son of the earl of Lennox, who had been forced to 
seek refuge in England, in the reign of James V., 
and Lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of the earl 
of Angus and the queen dowager ^fargaret, sister 
of Henry VIH. ; and after Mar}- herself, he was 
the nearest heir to the crown of England, and 
next to the earl of An*an in succession to the 
crown of Scotland. Tlie royal nuptials were cel- 
ebrated July 29, 1565, in conformity to the rites 
of the church of Rome, of which Mary was n 
zealous adherent, while the majority of her sub- 
jects were Protestants. 

With this ill-fated mamagc began the long series 
of her misfortunes, which were terminated only 
by her melancholy death upon the scaffold. Tlie 
marriage had been disapproved of by the earl of 
Moray and the leadei^s of the protcstant party, 
who, having taken uji arms, were opposed by the 
queen in person, with remarkable energ}* and 
promptitude. At the head of a superior force, she 
I>ur3ued the insurgents from place to place, and 
compelled them at last to quit the kingdom. 
Marj* now not only joined the league of the popish 
princes of Europe, but evinced her full dfteraiina- 
tion to re-establish the Romish religion in Scot- 
land. Bnt all her plans were frustrated by an 
unexpected event which took place on the evening 
of March 9, 1566. Darnley, upon whom she had 
conferred the title of king, and whose weak and 
licentious conduct veiy soon changed the extrava- 
gant love she had entertained for him into equally 
violent hatred, excited by jealousy of David Riz- 
zio, her foreign secretary, and favourite, had or- 
ganized a conspiracy for his destruction ; and on 





the evening mentioned, while the qneen was at 
snpper with Rizzio and the conntcss of Arg}ie, he 
suddenly entered her chamber, followed by Loixl 
Ruthven and some other factions nobles, and 
caused the unfortunate secretary to be dragged 
from her presence and murdered. This atrocious 
deed, aggravated as it was by the situation of his 
wife, then six months advanced in pregnancy, 
could not i\iil to increase the qucen^s aversion for 
her husband. Dissembling her feelings, however, 
she prevailed upon Damley to withdraw fi-om his 
new associates, to dismiss the guards which had 
been placed on her person, and to accompany her 
in her flight to Dunbar. In the course of a few 
days, at the head of a powerful army, she returned 
to Edinburgh, when Ruthven, Morton, ^laitland, 
and Lindsay, the chief of the conspirators, were 
forced to take refuge in Newcastle, and Moray 
and his fiiends, who had in the mcnntime arrived 
from England, were again received into favour, and 
intrusted with the chief management of aflfairs. 

The birth of a son, afterwards James VI., 
on June 19, I0G6, had no cft'ect in producing a 
reconciliation between Mary and the king, and, 
enraged at his exclusion from power, the latter 
sullenly retired from court, declared his intention 
to quit the kingdom, and refused to be present at 
the baptism of the infant prince. He took up his 
residence with his father at Glasgow, where, in 
the beginning of 1567, he was seized with the 
small-pox, or some other dangerous disease. On 
hearing of his illness, Mar}' sent her own phy&i- 
clan to attend him, and, after the lapse of a fort- 
night, she visited him herself. When he was able 
to be removed, she accompanied him to Edin- 
burgh, and lodged him in a house in the south- 
ern suburb.^, called Kirk- of -Field, near to 
the university of that city now stands. Here she 
attended him with the most assiduous cnre, and 
slept for two nights in the chamber under his 
apartment. On the evening of the 9th of Febru- 
ary she took leave of him with many embraces, to 
be present at the marriage of one of her servants 
at Holyrood. During the same night the house 
in which Damley slept was blown up with gun- 
powder, and his dead body and that of his page 
were next morning found lying in the adjoining 

Of this atrocious deed, the earl of Bothwdl, the 
new favourite of the qaccn, was openly accused of 
being the perpetrator, and Mary herself did not 
escape the suspicion of being accessory to the crime. 
At the instigation of the earl of Lennox, the father 
of Damley, Bothwell was brought to trial, bnt he 
was attended to the court by a formidable array 
of aimed followers, and neither accuser nor Irit* 
ness appearing agdust him, he was foimaliy ac- 
quitted by the jury. On the 20th of April, Both- 
well prevailed upon a number of the nobles to 
subscribe a bond, in which they not only declared 
him innocent of Damley^s murder, but recom- 
mended him as a fit husband for the qneen. Four 
days afterwards, at the head of a thousand horse, 
he intercepted Mary on her I'etum from Stu'ling 
to Edinburgh, and dispersing her slender suite, 
conducted her to the castle of Dunbar, of which 
he was governor. Having proposed marriage, on 
the queen*s refusal, he produced the bond signed 
by the nobles, and, as is alilmied by Mary*s par- 
tizans, compelled her by force to yield to his de- 
sires, when the unhappy princess consented to 
become his wife. Mary's accusers, on the other 
hand, say that, in the whole of this transaction, 
the queen was a willing actor. Her marriage to 
Bothwell took place May 15, 15G7, only three 
months after the death of Damley, and it is a 
prominent point in her history, for which it is im- 
possible to find any justification. That act of 
folly virtually dii^crowned her. A confederacy 
of the nobles was immediately foimed for the pro- 
tection of the infant prince, and for bringing to 
puniishment the mnrdei'ers of the late king. As 
the people generally shared their indignation, they 
soon collected an amiy, at the head of which they 
advanced to Edinburgh, Bothwell and the qneen 
retiring before them to Dunbar, where they as- 
sembled a force of about 2,000 men. At Carberry 
Hill, near Musselburgh, the two hostile armies 
confronted each other, June 15 ; but, to avoid a 
battle, Mary, after a brief communication with 
Kirkaldy of Grange, agreed to dismiss Bothwell, 
and to join the confederates, by whose conncils 
she declai'ed herself willing to be gnidcd in futnre, 
on condition of their respecting her " as their born 
princess and queen." Taking a hurried farewell 
of Bothwell, who, with a few followers, slowly 




rode off the field, and whom she never saw again, 
she gave her hand to Grange, and surrendered to 
the associated lords, by whom she was conducted 
in trinmph to the capital. As she passed along, 
slie was assailed by the insults and i*eproaches of 
the populace, and a banner was displayed before 
her, on which was painted the dead body of 
Damley, with the infant prince kneeling beside it, 
saying — " Judge and revenge my cause, O Lord!" 
Xext day, she was conveyed a prisoner to Loch- 
levcn castle in Kinross-shire, situated in the mid- 
dle of a lake, and committed to the chai'ge of 
Lady Douglas, mother of the Regent Moray by 
James V., and widow of Sir Robert Douglas, who 
fell at the battle of Pinkie. On July 24, 1567, 
she was compelled to sign a formal renunciation 
of the crown in favour of her son, and to appoint 
u regent, during the king's minority, her brother, 
the earl of Moray, commonly called the Regent 
Murray, who soon after arrived from France, and 
entered upon the government. 

Mary now employed all her art to recover her 
liberty, and having gained over George Douglas, 
youngest son of the lady of Lochleven, on March 
25, 1568, she attempted to escape in the disguise 
of a laundress, but the whiteness of her hands be- 
trayed her to the boatmen, by whom she was 
conducted back to the castle. Her beauty and 
misfortunes, however, had made a deep impression 
on William Douglas, an orphan youth of sixteen, 
a relative of the family, and he was easily pre- 
vailed upon to assist in a project for her escape. 
Accordingly, on Sunday, May 2, 1568, at the hour 
of supper, he found means to steal the keys, and 
opening the gates to the queen and one of her 
maids, locked them behind her, and then threw 
the keys into the lake. Mary entered a boat 
which had been prepared for her, and, on reaching 
the opposite shore, she was received by Lord 
Scton, Sir James Hamilton, and others of her 
friends. Instantly mounting on horseback, she 
rode first to Niddrie, Lord Seton^s house in West 
Lothian, and next day to Hamilton, where she 
was joined by a number of the nobility, and in a 
few days found herself at the head o( about 6,000 
men. On May 13 her forces were defeated by 
the regent at the battle of Langside, and the un- 
hnppy queen,' who had anxiously beheld the en- 

gagement from a hill at a short distance, to avoid 
falling again into the hands of her enemies, fiod 
from the field of battle, accompanied by Lord 
Hemes and a few other attached friends, and 
rode, without stopping, to the abbey of Dundreu- 
nan, in Galloway, full sixty miles distant After 
resting there for two days, with about twenty at- 
tendants, she embarked in a fisher boat at Kirk- 
cudbright on the 16th, and crossing the Sohvay, 
lauded at Workington, in Cumberland, where sho 
claimed the protection of her kinswoman, the 
queen of England. " As well might the hunted 
deer have sought refuge in the den of the 
tiger." By Elizabeth's orders, she was conducted 
to Carlisle, from whence, on the 16th of June, 
she was removed to Bolton castle. But though 
treated on all occasions with the honoui*s due to 
her rank, Elizabeth refused to admit her to a per- 
sonal interview. To adjust the differences be- 
tween Mary and her subjects, a conference was 
held at York in October 1568, and afterwai'ds re- 
moved to Westminster, but without leading to 
any decisive result. Under various pretences, 
and in direct violation of public faith and hospita- 
lity, Elizabeth detained her a prisoner for nine- 
teen years; and after having encouraged the 
Scots commissioners to accuse her publicly of the 
murder of her husband, denied her an opportunity 
of vindicating herself from the revolting chai'ge. 

In the beginning of 1569, Mary was transferred 
to Tutbury castle, in Stafibrdshire, and placed 
under the care of the earl of Shrewsbury, who dis- 
charged the important trust committed to him 
with great fidelity for fifteen yeare. She was sub- 
sequently removed fi*om castle to castle, and at 
last consigned to the custody of Sir Amias Pawlet 
and Sir Drue Drary, by whom she was finally 
conveyed to Fotheringay, in Northamptonshire. 
Throughout all the sufferings and persecutions to 
which she was subjected by the jealousy and per- 
fidy of Elizabeth, she preserved, till the closing 
scene of all, the magnanimity of a queen of Scot- 
land. She made many attempts to procure her 
liberty, and, for this purpose, carried on a con- 
slant correspondence with foreign powei*s. Being 
the object of successive plots, on the part of the 
English Roman Catholics, who made use of her 
name to justify their insurrections and conspira- 




cics, Elizabeth nt length resolved upon her death, 
and cansed her to be an*aigned on a charge of 
being accessary' to the conspiracy of Anthony 
Babiugton. A commission was appointed to con- 
duct her trial, and though no certain proof ap- 
peared of her connection with the conspirators, 
she was found guilty of having compassed divers 
matters tending to tlie death of the queen of Eng- 
land. Although Elizabeth affected great reluc- 
tance to put Mary to death, slic disregarded the 
entreaties of tlie ambassadoi*s from Scotland and 
Fi-auce on her behalf, and signed the warrant for 
a mandate to be made out under the great seal for 
her execution. A commission was given to the 
earls of Shrewsbury, Kent, Cumberland, Derby, 
and others, to see it carried into effect, and the two 
former lost no time in proceeding to Fotheringay. 
The sentence was read to Mary in presence of her 
own domestics, and she was desired to prepare her- 
self for death the ne.xt day. She crossed her 
breast, in the name of the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Ghost, and said she was ready to die iu 
the Catholic faith, which her forefathers professed. 
She forgave them that were the procurers of her 
death, yet, she said, she doubted not but God 
would execute vengeance upon them. Afaiy then 
prepared for her fate with the utmost serenity, 
fortitude, and resignation. She was attended to 
the hall of Fotheringay castle, where her head was 
to be struck off, by Robert Melville, her master of 
the household, her physician, chirurgcon, and apo- 
thecary. At the foot of the stau-s leading into the 
hall, she desired Mr. Melville to commend her to 
her son. To the executioners she said that she 
pardoned them, and she desired Jane Kennedy, 
one of her attendants, to bind her eyes with a hand- 
kerchief. She was beheaded Feb. 8, 1587, in the 
45th year of her age. " The admirable and saintly 
fortitude with which she suffered," it has been well 
remai'ked, '^foiTued a striking contrast to the 
despair and agony which not long afterwanla 
darkened the deathbed of the English qtieen.'* 
Mary*s body was embalmed and interred, August 
1, with royal pomp, in the cathedral of Peter- 
borough. Iler funeral was ahso celebrated with 
great pomp at Paris at the charge of the Guises. 
Twenty years afterwards, her son, James I., or- 
dered her remains to be removed to AVestminster, 

and deposited among those of the kings of Eng- 
land, in Henry the Seventh's chapel, where a mag- 
nificent monument was erected to her memory. 

The portraits of IMary ai*e nnmerous, but many 
of them are fictitious. In some of them, says 
Pinkerton, she is confounded with Mary of Gntse, 
her mother, with Marj' queen of France, sister of 
lieu 17 VIII., and even with ^laiy de Medicis. 

While the conduct and character of Queen 
Mary have been the subject of much controversy 
with historians, her leaiiiing and accomplishments 
are universally acknowledged. She wi*ote with 
elegance and force in the Latin and French, as 
well as in the English language. Among her 
compositions are : 

lioval Advice to bvM' Son ; in two books: the ConBolntion 
of bcr long Iinpn'sonnient. 

Eleven I^etters to James Earl of Bothwcll. Transl.ited from 
Ibc French originals, by Edward Simmondu, of Oxford. 
Westminster, 1726, 8vo. 

Ten letters, with ber Answer to the Articles fsbibited 
against ber were publislu'd in Hnynes* Stnte Papers. 

Six Letters ; printed in Anderson's Collections. 

A Letter, published in the Appendix to ber Lift*, bv I>r. 

Many of ber letters to Qneen Elizabeth, Cecil, and others, 
are preser^-ed in the Cottonian and Ashmoleon libraries, and 
in the library of the king of France. 

Besides the above, she wrote " Poems on Various Occa- 
sions," in tbe Latin, Italian, French, and Scotch languages. 

2iLvsTERTON', a local surname of great antiquity in Scot- 
land, derived from lands of tbat name in Fifesbire. Accord- 
ing to tradition, one of tbe principal arcliitects at the bml(Hng 
of tlio abbey of Dunfermline, obtained from Malcolm Can- 
more tbe estate of Mosterton, in that ndgbbourhood, and 
was the founder of a family of the name. Among the barons 
recorded in the Ragman Roll as having sworn a compulsory 
fealty to Edward I. of England in 1296, appears William de 
M.isterton. A female descendant of this family, Margaret, 
daughter of Alexander Masterton of tbe lands of Bad in 
Perthshire and Parkmlll in Fifesbire, and wife of Mr. James 
Primrose, was nurse to Ilcnry, prince of Scotland, eldest son 
of James VI., for which she aud her husband had a pension 
during their lives. 

Mr. Allan Masterton, teacher of writing and arithmetic in 
Edinburgh, is known to all the admirers of Bums the poet, 
as one of bis most intimate companions and the composer ot 
the ail's to many of bis songs. He is said to have possessed a 
good ear aud a fine taste for music, and, as an amateur, 
played the violin remarkably well. Among the tunes C(nn- 
posed by him for Bums* pieces were those to * StrathaUan's 
I.ament,* * Beware of Bonnie Ann,* * The Braos of Balloch- 
myle,* * The Bonnie Banks of Ayr,* * Willie brewed a peck 
u\Maut,' and ' Ou hearing a Young Lady Sing/ On Aug. 26, 
1795, Dugnld and Allan Alasterton, and Dugald Masterton, 
jun., were elected writing masters in the High School of Edin- 
burgh. Tbe verses beginning, *' Ye gallants bright, I rede you 
right,** were written, in 1788, by Bums, in compliment to 
Miss Ann Masterton, the daughter of the composer. 






I I 

I I 

If ATBBtoK, the name of a dan (CUnn Mkatkam)^ from 
the GwtUe Sfatkameaekf heroes, or ratheff from llaUian, pro- 
noonced Mahan, a bear. The name is not the same as the 
English MatbisoD, which is a oonraption of Matthewson. The 
BIocMathans were settled in Locliabh, a district of Wester 
Boes, from an earlj period. Thej are derived hj ancient 
|>eneaIogies from the same stock as the Earls of Ross. Ken* 
neth MacMathan, who was constnhle of the castle of Ellen 
Donan, is mentioned both in the None nceonnt of the expe- 
dition of the king of Norway ngainst Scotland in 1268, and 
in the Chamberlain's Rolls for tliat year, in connection with 
that expedition. He is said to have married a sister of the 
Earl of Ross. The chief of the clan was engnj^ed in the 
rebellion of Donald, lord of the Isles, in 1411 (xee vol. ii. 
p. MG), and was one of th? chiefs arrested at Invemess 
bj James I., in 1427, when he is said to hare been able 
to master 2,(M)0 men. The possessions of the Mathesons, 
at one time very extensive, were greatly reduced, in the 
coarse of the 16th centnry, by feuds with their turbulent 
neighbonrs, the Macdonalds of Glengarry. 

The clan Matheson was divided into two great branches, 
namely of Lochalsh, from which descended the Mathesons of 
Attadale, now Ardross, and of Sliinness, Sutherlandsbire. 
Tlie former is descended from John Matheson of I/xshalsh, con- 
stable nnder Mackenzie, the 9th laird of Kintail, of the castle 
of Ellen Donan, who was killed in defending that fortress 
ngninal the MacDonalds of Sleat in 1547. His son, Dngnid 
Roy, was socceeded by his son, Alnrdoch. The latter bad 2 
sons, Roderick, ancestor of tlio Mathesons of Bennetsfield, 
and Dngald, who inherited Balmacarra, and had 8 sons. 

John Matheson of Attadale, the 6th from this last Dugrild, 
married Margaret, eldest daughter of Donald Matheson, Esq. 
of SkinnesB, and died in 1826. He had 5 sons and 2 dnugh- 
tsrs. The sons were, 1. Alexander of Ardross. 2. Hugh, 
merchant, Liverpool. 8. Farqnhar, minister of Lairg. 4. 
Donald, settled in America. 5. John, deceased. 

The eldest son, Alexander Matheson, Esq. of Ardross 
tod Attidale, bom in 1805, is a merchant in London, (for- 
merly of Canton, in China,) a Director of the Bank of Eng- 
ktnd, a magistrate and deputy lieutenant of the counties of 
R<j«s, Crom-irty, and Invemess; has been M. P. for the Inver- 
ness bnrghs since 1847. In 1851, he pnrchosed the estate of 
lixhalsli, forfeited by his ancestors in 1427. He married, first, 
in 1840, Mary, onlv daughter of J. C. 2iIacI.«od, Esq. of Geanies. 
Silly, in 1853, I^vinia Mary, sister of I«ord Beaumont ; issue, 
it son and a daughter 3dly. in 1860, Eleanor, dnngliter of 
Spencer Perceval, E>q., by whom he has two son?. 

Tlie representative of the family of Sliinness is Donald Ma- 
theson, Esq. of Grandon Lodge, Surrey, eldest son of Duncan 
)latheson, Esq., Advocate, Edinburgh. His uncle, Sir Jnmes 
Matheson of Achany and the Lews, Bart, 2d son of Capt. 
Donald Mathcion of Shinness, was bom in 1796, at Laii^;, Suth- 
eriandahire. He was at one period a partner in the house of Jar- 
dine, Matheson, and Ca, and resided many vears in India 
snd China. On his return to Enghind, he received from the 
merchants of Bombay a service of plate, with an address, re- 
cording their sense of his conduct during the opium disputes 
vith China. Owner of the estate of Achany in Sutheriand- 
ihire, and, jointly with Lord Clinton, lord of the borough 
snd manor of Ashburton, Devonshire, he purchased the island 
of Lewis, which is abont 40 miles long by about 20 broad, 
and, with his other property, he has an extent of territory as 
peat as that poneased by the ancient chie£i of Lochalsh ; 
s deputy fieutenant of the counties of Ross and Sutherland ; 
member of the board of tmsteei for manufacturse and of the 

fishery board in Scotland ; a vice-president of the Caledonian 
Asylum, London; F.K.S.; was M.P. for Ashburton from 
1848 to 1847, and in the latter year was elected for the 
counties of Ross and Cromarty. He was created a baronet 
in 1850, on account of his benevolent and untiring efforts in 
alleviating the sufferings of the inhabitants of the I^wis at 
the period of the famme; authorof a pamphlet on the China 
trade. He married, in 1843, Mary Jane, 4th daughter of M. H. 
Perceval, Esq. of Quebec, without issue. Sec Supplement 

Maule, a surname of Norman origin, assumed from the 
town and lordship of Maule in France, which, for four cen- 
turies, belonged to the lords of that name. In the army ot 
William the Conqueror, on his invasion of England in 1066, 
was Guarin de Maule, a younger son of Arnold, lord of Maule. 
From the Conqueror, besides other lands, he obtained the 
lordship of Hstton, in Cleveland, Yorkshire. One of his 
sons, Robert de Maule, attached himself to David, earl of 
Cumberland, afterwards David L, who was educated at the 
English court, and accompanying him into Scotland, received 
a grant of hinds in Mid Lothian. He died about 1180. The 
eldest of his three sons, William de Maule of Fowlis in Perth- 
shire, was at the battle of the Standard in 1138, but died 
without male issue. The second son, Roger de Msule, was 
the progenitor of the Maules of Panmure. The marriage of 
his daughter Cecilia to Walter de Ruthvcn brought the bar- 
ony of Fowlis into the Gon-rie family, of which her husband 
was the ancestor. 

Roger do Maule*s grandson. Sir Peter de Msule, married, 
about 1224, Christian, only daughter and heiress of William 
de Valoniis of Pannomor, or Panmure, and got with her the 
baronies of that name and Benvie, in Forfarshire, as well as 
other lands both in England and Scotland. He had two 
sons, Sir William and Sir Thomas. The hitter was governor 
of the castle of Brechin in 1303, when it sustained a siege 
for twenty days by the English*, under Edward I. ; and it was 
not till the governor, Su: Thomas Maule, was killed, by a 
stone thrown from an engine, that the garrison surrendered. 

The elder son. Sir William de Maule of Panmure, was sher- 
iff of Forfar at the death of Alexander III., and was among 
tlio barons who swore fealty to Ednard I. at St. Andrews, 
10th July 1292. 

His son. Sir Henry de Maule of Panmure, wss knighted 
by King Robert the Bruce, on account of bis services. Sir 
Henry*s eldest son, Su: Walter de Maule of Panmure, was 
governor of the castle of Kildrummy, Aberdeenshu^, in the 
reign of David 11. Ho had two sons, Sir William and Hen- 
rv, the latter the first of the Maules of Glaster. 

Sir William's son. Sir Thomas de Maule of Panmure, led 
a strong body of his name to the assistance of the e.'url of 
Mnr at the battle of Harluw, against Donald, lord of the 
Isles, in August 1411. As the old ballad says: 

" Panmure with all his men did cum.'' 

The Forfarshire clans mustered strong on the occ.ision ; be- 
udes the Maules, the Lvons, Ogilvies, Camegies, Lindsays, and 
others belonging to Angus, hastened to range themselves under 
the banner of Mar. Sir Thomas Maule was among the slain. 


The knight of Panmure, as was sene, 
A mortal man in armour bright.** 

His posthumous son, aftei-wards Sir Thomas de Maule of 
Paxunnre, was, notwithstanding his infancy, served heir to 
his father in 1412, an act of parliament having been passed 

1 . 

I ! 




I I 

to allow this in all cases of heirs in nooagef where the fathers 
had fallen in the king*s service. The lordship of Brechin 
held by the earl of Athol bj conrtesy since the death of his 
wife, Elizabeth Barclay, belonged by right to Sir Thomas 
Maole, the grandson of her annt, Jean Barday, bnt although 
that nobleman, previous to his ezecntion for being concerned 
in the conspiracy which led to the assassination of James I., 
in 1487, declared this to be the case, Sir Thomas received 
but a small portion of it, as it was annexed to the crown by 
act of parliament. His great-grandson, Sir Thomas Haule 
of Panmurc, fell at the battle of Flodden. With a daughter, 
married to Rumsny of Panbride, he had two sons, Robert and 
William, the latter ancestor of the Maules of Boath. 

The elder son, Robert ifaule of Panmure, joined the earl 
of Lennox in his unsuccessful attempt to rescue James V. 
out of tlie hands of tlie Douglases in 1526, for which he got 
a remission. Two years afterwards, the king granted him a 
dispensation for life, from all public duties and attendance, 
on account of tlie true, good, and faithful services done by 
him to his majesty. He was one of those who opposed tlie 
projected marriage between the young Queen Mary and Ed- 
ward prince of Wales in 1543. In 1547 he bravely defended 
liis house of Panmure against the English till he was severely 
wounded, when he was taken prisoner, and sent to London. 
He remained in the Tower till 1549, when, at the solicitation 
of the marquis d*Elboeuf, French ambassador to Scotland, he 
was released. One of his sons, Henry Maule of Melgum, a 
Icimed antiquarian, was author of a history of the Picts, 
published after his death. 

Thomas Maule of Panmure, his eldest son, in his father's 
lifetime accompanied David Betliune, abbot of Aberbroth- 
wick, afterwards archbishop of St. Andrews, when ho went 
to France as ambassador in 153B. He was taken prisoner in 
the engagement with the English at Hadden Rig, 25th Au- 
gust 1542, when the Scots were commanded by the earl of 
lluntly, and sent to Morpeth, where he remained till afler 
the death of James V., when he was released by order of 
Henry VIII. He fought also at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, 
:ind in 15G7, lie joined the association for the safety of the 
infant Prince James, on the marriage of his mother. Queen 
Mary, to Bothwcll. He died 17th March IGOO. With three 
daughters, he had tcven sons. Robert Maule, the fourth son, 
commissary of St. Andrews, a learned and judicious anti- 
quary, was the author of several treatises, p.irticularly Periodi 
Gentis Scotorum, a history of his own family, and a tract on 
the Antiquity of the Scots nation. A branch of tlie Maules, 
descended from Tliomas Maule, lieutenant-colonel of the 
marquis of Ormondes regiment, son of Thomas, the fifth son, 
settled ill Ireland. One of this family, Henry Maule, dean 
of Cloyne, was consecrated bishop of Cloyne in 1720, trans- 
lated to Dromore in 1781, and to Meath in 1744. 

Patrick Maule of Panmure, the eldest son, married Marga- 
ret, daughter of John Erskine of Dun, superintendent of 
Angus and Me.ims, and died 21st May 1605. With two 
daughters he had a son, Patiick Maule of Panmure, wiio 
WAS one of the select few that accompanied James VI. to 
England in April 1603, when ho went to take possession of 
the English throne. On 3d August 1646, he was by Charles 
I. created Baron Maule of Brechin and Navar and earl of 
Panmure, in the Scottisli peerage (see Pasmurr, carl of). 

^I.vxTONE, a surname derived from the lands of Maxton 
in Roxburghshire. A family of this name has for centuries 
owned the estate of Cultoquey, Perthshire, which, during the 
time that it has been in their possession, has never, it is said, 
been larger or smaller than when they got it. They liad the 

same common unceator as the Maxwells, the one namt 
derived from Maocas-Aoi, a Saion tennination, and the othtf 
firom Maoeus-ieeB^ (in oonna of time ibortaaed into Maitaa 
and Maxwell,) to denote the manor and well of Maocna, a 
Saxon baron who came into Scotland at an early period, 
(see next artidc,) and reedred a grant of linda upon the 

Robert da Maxtone had a charter of the lands of Gnltoqucj 
dated 1410, bot that the family poeaeifled the estate prerioQi 
to that time la proved by mention being made of them in 
charters of other houses of older date. His descendant, Ro- 
bert Maxtone of Cultoquey, who had a charter of the lands of 
Ardoch in 1487, was s^ain at Fh>dden in 1518. Anthony 
Maxtone of the same family, waa, in the reign of Charles I., 
prebendary of Durham. Tlie succession in tiie male Une has 
been uninterrupted from father to son from the first The 
18th proprietor, James Maxtone Graham, Esq. of Cultoquey, 
bom June 20, 1819, succeeded his father in 1846. 

One of the proprietors of this house is celebrated for hav- 
ing repeated the following curious addition to his litany every 
morning at a well near his residence : 

** From the greed of the CainpbeUs, 
From the pride of the Gruluuns, 
From the ire of the Drummonds, 
And tlie wind of the MumtyH, 
Good Lord deliver u.^" 

His estate was surrounded by the Bread:ilbane, Montrose, 
Perth, and Athol families, and he thus showed his appre- 
hensions of his more powerful neighbours. 

James Maxtone Graham of Cultoquey, married in 1851, 
the daughter of George £. Russell, Esq., East India Com' 
pany's Service. In 1859 he succeeded to the estate of 
Redgorton, Perthshire, on the death of his unde, Robert 
Graham, Esq., cousin of the celebrated Ix>rd Lynedoch, and 
in consequence assumed the name and arms of Graham nndii 
letters patent of the Lord Lyon. 

Maxwkll, a surname of ancient standmg in Scotland, 
orij^nally Maccns-well, so called from the territory of that 
name on tlie Tweed, near Kelso. In the history of the Anglo- 
Saxons mention is made of Alaccus, the son of Anlaf, king of 
Northumbriu, (949—952.) Anlaf was sumamed Cwuran, 
and appears to be identical with the Amlaf Cuarran whose 
name occurs in the Annals of Ulster, (944 — 946.) On tlie 
expulsion of Anlaf by the treachery of his people, King Eric, 
a son of the Danish king, Harald Blntdud, was sot on the 
Northumbrian throne, but, with his son Henry and his brother 
Regnald, was slain in the wilds of Staninore, by the hand of 
MaccuSj the soa of Anlaf. (Lappenberg's History qfEn^^md 
under the Anglo-Saxon Kings, Thorpe^ s TranslaHon^' xq\, 
i. p. 125, London^ 1845.) A potentate of the same name, 
**Maccus of Man and the Hebrides,** is also moitioned some- 
what later in the same century. The following is from Lap- 
penberg (Jhid. vol. ii. p. 148), *' On making liis annual sea- 
voyage round the island. King Edgar foTmd, on his arriral at 
Chester, eight sub-kmgs awaiting him, in obedience to the 
commands they had received, who swore to be faithful to him, 
and to be his fellow-workers by sea and land.** These were 
Kenneth of Scotland, Malcolm of Cumbria, MaceuM qf Man 
and the Bebridesy Dyfhwall or Dunwallon of Strat Clyde, 
Siferth, Isgo, (Jacob) and Howell of Wales, and InchiU of 
Westmoreland. All these vassals rowed the proud Basileos 
on the river Dee in a barge, of which Edgar was the steers- 
man, to the monastery of St John the BapUst, where tbey 






offered vp their orisooa, and then returned in the same ordef 
to the palafoe." 

Tha tame in snbstanoe Is mentioned in the Chronica de 
Mdrot, wbicb styles Ifaeeus the ** King of many Isles." 
Bogjtt of Wendo?er and William of Malmesbary also relate 
the tarnt, the latter of whom caUs Maccns ** that Prince of 
piimtai,*' tfans identifying him with Afaseutnu Arehipiraia^ 
who aboot the same time (973) was a witness to a charter by 
King Edgur of England, and who signs immediately after 
M gSw^^jM rex Albania" and the royal family, and before all 
the bishops, " Ego Mascnsins Archipirata confortavi." (^Dug- 
dak MomuL yoL L p. 17.) This Maccns wonld therefore ap- 
pear to ha?e been a friend or ally of Kenneth king of the 
Soots, and may ha?e held lands under him. 

The name <^ Maks or Max, in medimval Latin Macns, is 
fiiund in Domesday Book as being that of a boron holding 
several manors in England before the conquest ; and Mex- 
borongh in Yorkshire, and Maxstoke in Warwickshire, still 
pi e s erv e the memorial of his residence and possessions. 
The latter, Maxstoke, is said to hare belonged to Almundns, 
or Ailwynd, the same name, no doubt, as Undewyn, as the 
father of Maocus, hereafter mentioned, was called. The sal- 
tire cognizance of the Maxwells appears on the ceiling of the 
ancient priory oi Maxstoke, along with many others of Nor- 
man descent, bnt without name. 

At an eariy period extensiTS possessions on the Tweed hod 
occo held by a person of the name of J/oocitf, from whom 
Maoeoston (Maxton) and Maccus-well (Maxwell) were de- 
feignated. Maeeas<-well has been supposed originally to have 
been called Maocns-Yille, but the old chartularies give no 
countenance to this supposiUon. Maccnswel or Moocuswell 
means cfidently the pqpl, weii, or well of Alaccus, (Saxon, wtflU^ 
»ee charters in Saxon in Dugdale, where the word is trans- 
UtcdybM, a well), probably from his haying aright of fishing 
there ; in the same way as other fishings on the Tweed, as 
the fishings of Schipwell or Sipwell (Lt6. de Jfelrot^ Tom. 
L pp. 16, 17), and of BhuJnrell, (Reg, Cart de Kelso, pp. 33, 
44, Ae.) Probably long before the time of David I., the name 
came to be given to the adjoining territory and church, in tlio 
ume way that it was afterwards called Maxwell-heugh, from 
.mother natural characteristic, probably coincident with the 
well or pool of former times. 

The origin of the family who held the lands of Maccus- 
well, in or before the time of David I., is doubtful. The opin- 
ion generally entertained at the present time is that they were 
directly descended from Maccus, from whom the lands got 
their name, but this opinion is far from certain. 

A Maochus was uritness to a charter of foundation of the 
monasteiy of Selkirk in 1113, afterwards transferred to KeUo, 
(JZ^. Cart de Kelto, p. 4.) 

Maocus filius Unwein is a witness to the Inquisition by 
Eari David, afterwards David I., into the possessions of the 
Church of Glasgow, about 1117. 

Maccns filius Undwain is also witness to charter by David 
!. in the life of Prince Henry ; which charter mentions a Per- 
ambulation of the lands which took place " Armo scilicet se- 
enmdOj quo Stqthanus Rex Anglic captus estV Stephen was 
taken prisoner in 1441, so that the charter must have been 
between 1143 and 1152, when Prince Henry died, and there- 
fore the Maccus here mentioned is evidently not the ancestor 
of the Maxwells, {Liber de Metros, Tom. i. p. 4.) 

OU writers say that the family came from England. The 
iiL^toiy of the Maxwell family, printed in the Herries Peerage 
Case, (page 294) gives tiie same account. The manuscript 
wu got in a monastery in Flanders, probably Douay, and 
sent to Terrsgles in 17G9. It seems to have been written 

chiefly before 1660, and although inaccurate in many particu- 
lars, shows that the writer must have had means of informa- 
tion which probably do not now exist. 

Other copies of this manuscript are extant, but all, as well 
as the printed one, seem to have been carelessly copied from an 
older and not very legible manuscript, and added to in the 
transcription. A more correct copy is in tiie possession of 
the Kirkconnel family, but only brought down to 1580, about 
which time it seems to have been originally compiled. — The 
chronicles and chartularies of the monasteries in Dumfries- 
shupe and Galloway may have at that time been extant, and 
furnished materials for family history which do not now exist. 
Captwn Grose must have seen a copy of this genealogical 
history as authority for the facts he relates. He nientions 
tiiat there was a tradition that the first of the Maxwell name 
in Scotland was a Norwegian in the suite of Edgar Atheling 
and his sisters, on their arrival in the Frith of Forth two years 
after the Norman conquest. 

Ewin Maccnswel of Carlaverock was at the siege of Alnwick 
with Malcolm Canmore in 1093. (Jlist. Family of Maxwell, 
printed as mentioned aboceJ) This seems the same namo as 
Engene or Hugh. 

Herbert de Maccnswel made a grant of the church of 
^laccuswel to the monastery of Kelso, probably in the time of 
David I., as it is among Uie earlier grants to that monaster}'. 
(Reg. Cart, de Kelso, pp. 7 and 14.) He is said to have 
died in 1143. (Familg Tree at Terregles.) 

Edmund de Macheswel, probably a brother of Herbert, was 
witness to a charter before 1152, {Cart, de Kelso, p. 145.) 
Other witnesses to the same charter are Hugo de Morvile, 
William de Sumervile, and William de liiorvile, whose sur- 
names have uU the Norman termination rt/e— difitring in a 
marked manner in tiiis from Edmund de MachesiM/. 

Eugene de Maxwell was taken prisoner with King William 
in 1174. He assisted Roland, lord of Gailoway, and married 
his daughter, {Hist. Family of Maxwell) 

Herbert de Maccnswel makes a grant to a chapel in the 
church of St. Michael of iiaccuswcl, in honour of St. Thomas 
the Martyr, drca 1180, {Ueg. Cart, de Ktlso, p. 325.) He 
was sheri£f of Tevidale, and witness to variou.s charters from 
1180 to 1198. (See Lib. de Kelso, and Chartidary of 

Sir John do iMaccuswcl was sherifl' of Koxburgh and Tevi- 
dale in 1207, and in 1215 wiis ambassador to King John. 
{Rymer's Fadera, v. i. part i. p. 135.) In 1220, he was one 
of the guarantees of the marriage of King Alexander II. uitii 
the princess Joan, si&ter of Henry III. of Enghmd, and he 
was one of the witnesses to the grant of dowry to her on 
June 18, 1221. lU chamberlain of Scotland iiom 1231 
to 1233, and died in 1241. 

His son Eumerus or Aymcr de Maxwell, under the desig- 
nation of Homer Maxwell, is witness in the reign of Alexander 
II., in a donation of the kirks of Dundonald and Sanquhar to 
Paisley, by Walter the Great Steward. By his marriage with 
Mary, daughter and heiress of Roland de fleams, he obtained 
the lands and baronies of Meams and Nether Pollock, in 
Renfrewshire, and Dryps and Caldemvood in Lanarkshire. 
He was one of the councillors or in the housi-huld of the 
young king, and in 1255, he and Mary his wife, with the 
Comyns, John de Ballol, Robert dc Ros, and others, were re- 
moved by Henry, king of England, to make way fur Ncill, 
earl of Carrick, Robert de Brus, William de Duneglas, and 
others of the English party. He was sheriff of Dumfries- 
shhe, and great-chamberlain of ScoUand. In 1258, with 
other barons he engaged that the Scots should not make peace 
with the English without the consent of tiie Welsh, in 


! ;i 

1 1 


■ I 


\ I 





1265, he WM justiciary of Galloway, (^Lib. de Melrote, Tom. 
i. p. 271.) lie had three eons: Sir Herbert, his successor; 
Sir John, to whom he gave tie lands of Kether Pollock in 
Renfrewshire, and who was the founder of the family of that 
designation, baronets of 1G82 ; and Alexander, of whom no- 
thing is known. 

Sir Herbert, the eldest son, sat in the parliament at Scone, 
oth February, 1283-4, when the nobles agreed to acknow- 
Icilge the Maiden of Norway as queen of Scotland, on the 
death of her grandfather, Alexander ill. He is witness to 
an afjreement between the Convent of Pusselet and John de 
Aldhus, in 128*, {Chartulary of Pauley, p. 66.) In 1289, 
he was one of the biu-ons who subscribed the letter to Kdwurd 
I., from nrigham, as to the marriage of the Maiden of Kor> 
way with his son Edward. On June 6, 1292, he was one of 
those named on the part of John Buliol to discuss before Ed- 
ward the right to the throne of Scotland, and in the same 
year he swore fuulty to Edward. He died before 1800. Of 
three sons which he had, the eldest predeceased him. 

Sir Herbert, tlie second son, succeeded him, and soon afler 
his castle of Curlaverock sustained a siege from the English, 
a singularly curious and minute description of which has 
been preserved in a poem, in Norman- French, supposed to 
have been written by Walter of Exeter, a celebrated Francis- 
can friar, who is also said to have been the author of the ro- 
mnntie history of Guy, earl of Warwick. This description of 
the siege of Carlaverock castle suj^gestcd to Sir Walter Scott 
the idea of the siege of the castle of Front de Boeuf in 
" Ivauhoe.'* About the 1st of July, 1300, the English army 
]«>ft Carlisle commanded by Edward I. in person, attended by 
the prince of Wales, afterwards Edward II., and the whole 
chivalry of England. At thb time Edward was in possession 
of almost every stronghold in Scotland between Berwick and 
tlic Moray frith. The strong castle of Carhaverock alone held 
out. The assaults of the English were made by every de- 
rt-ription of engine then in use, while the besieged sliowcrcd 
upon their assailants such " huge stones, quarrels, and 
arrows, and with wounds and bruises they were so hurt and 
exhausted, that it with very great difficulty they were 
able to retire." Indeed, the courage of the garrison, which 
amounted only to sixty men, was most conspicuous. We are 
told that as one of them became fatigued another supplied his 
place, and they defended the fortress gallantly the whole of 
one day and night, but the numerous stones thrown by the 
bcjsiegers, and the erection of three large battering engines of power, caused them to surrender. To obtain a cessa- 
tion of hostilities, they hung out a pennon, but the soldier 
who exhibited it, was shot through the Ihind to his face by 
an arrow. The rest demanded quarter, surrendered the castle, 
and submitted to the mercy of the king of England. 

Sir Herbert's son, Sir Eustace Maxwell, succeeded his 
father before 1312. Entert:uning the hereditary feelings of 
his family in ftivour of the Baliols and Comynt*, in oppobltion 
to Robert the Bitice, he regained possession of the castle of 
Carlaverock, and on April 30, 1312, he received from Ed- 
ward II., an allowance of X20 for its more secure keeping. 
He afterwards juined the party of Robert the Bruce. His castle 
of C.nrlaverock was again in consequence besieged by the Eng- 
iihh, and liereiided for several weeks, when the assailants 
were compelled to retire. Fearing that it might again fall 
into the hands of the English, Sir Eustace demolished a part 
of the fortifications, for which he was rewarded by King Ro- 
i>ert Bruce. Sir Eustace was one of the barons who signed 
the letter to the Pope, asserting Uie independence of Soot- 
Itnd, in 1820, and in the same year wm tried for being ac- 
cussorr to a conspuncy ngaiiut the king, hot was acquitted. 

In 1332, Edward Balid landed in Scotland, and wucrowiwd 
at Scone. He was afterwards besieged in Perth, when the 
men of Galloway, under Sir Eustace de Maxwell, invaded the 
lands of the besiegers, and eaosed them to raiie the liege, 
(ChroH. de Lanerco^ p. 269,) On Dec. 18, 1883, Sir Euttace, 
with others, waa chosen by Edward III., to ascertain the 
value of the castle, comity, and city of Berwick upon Tweed, 
(^Roiuli Seoiiat roL i. p. 260.) Jaunaiy 26, 1885-6, he waa 
appointed one of the conaenrators of the truce with the Scota, 
on the part of Edward, and on August 23, following, a letter 
was sent to him as sheriff of Dumfries, as well as to tlie other 
sheriffs of Scotland, rebuking them for their tardiness in giv- 
ing in their accounts, (/Md. vol i. p. 441.) In 1887, he 
made a temporary defection from Baliol, and caused the men 
of Gallow.iy on his own side of the Cree, to rise againit the 
English, although he had only immediately before received 
from Edward III , money and provuuons for the more aecnre 
keeping of Caihiverock castle, (CAroaicon de LanereoU, p. 
290.) The castles of Dumku'ton and Carlaverock are sud 
to have been the only strong castles then in possession of the 
Scots. The latter had therefore been repau^ after its de- 
molition. On August 20, 1889, Sir Eubtaco de Blaxwell, 
Duncan Makduel, aud Michael Mngeth, of Scotland, received 
from Edward IIL letters of pardon, and admitting them to 
the king's peace, for having joined with his enemies, (RotmH 
Scotia f vol. i. p. 571.) Sir Eustace was a witness to a 
charter of confinnation by Edward III., in 1840. He died 
at Curiaverock, March 8, 1842-3. 

Sir John de Maxwell, knight, ''son of the deceased Sir 
John Maxwell of Pencateland, and heir of Shr Eustace de 
Maxwell, his brother," succeeded, r.s appeaxa by charter 
granted by him to the Abbey of Dr}-bui^h, confirmed by 
William, Prior of St Andrews in 1348, being '* the patronage 
of the church of Pencateland, which John de Maxwell of 
Pencateland, and Sir John Maxwell, knight, doininna de 
Maxwell, granted to the abbot and convent of Drybniigh** 
Sir John Maxwell was taken prisoner, with David IL, at the 
battle of Durham, in 1346, and died sliortly after. 

Sir Jolm Alaxwell, Lord (dominus) of Maxwell, his son, 
probably did not for a time regain possession of Carlaverock. 
Roger de Kirkpatrick had in the end of 1356 taken the castle 
of Ciurlaverock and levelled it with the ground, and when re- 
siding in the neighbourhood, was, in June following; assassinat- 
ed by Sir James IJndsay. Sir John Maxwell sat in tlie meeting 
of the Estates at Edinburgh, 26th September 1857, when 
the tenns proposed by Edward III. relative to the release of 
David 11. were agreed to, and he was engaged iu the nego- 
tiations relating t hereto. A charter was granted by Robert 11. 
to Robert de Maxwell, son and heir of John Maxwell of Car- 
laverock, knight, on the resignation by his father of the lands 
he held of the king, under resen'atiou of his liferent, and of 
the terce, to Christian his spouse, iu cose she somved him, 
dated Sept. 19, 1371. He is supposed to have died in 1873. 

His son, Sir Robert Maxwell of Carlaverock, succeeded. In 
the charter of resignation mentioned above, he is called by 
King Robert II., diUctus coManguineus noUer^ which wculd 
infer that his mother ChriAtInn was related to the lung. He 
is supposed to have erected the castle of Carlaverock on ita 
present site, the former one having been in a lower situation 
more to the east. He made agrant to the monastery of Dxy- 
burgh, fur the welfare of his soul and of the soul of Sir Her^ 
bert de Maxwell, his son and heir, before 1400, (Liber de 
Dtybwyh^ p. 273.) He seems to ha\'e been alive in 1407, bnt 
was dead befure Nov. 23, 1413. The Sir Robert Blaxwell 
who was then sent as ambassador to the Engli|h court most 
have been Sir Robert M:LXwell of Calderwood. 





Sir H«rtert llazwtll of CarlaTerock, his son, socceeded. 
H« Bamed in 1885 or 1386, Kiitherine, dangbter of Sir 
John Stout of DabwintoD, under a dispensation from the 
popo. From hia kinsman, Archibald, earl of Dooglaa, he had 
reeeiTad a charter of the ttewaidship of Annandale, dated 
Sth Fcbniarj 1409-10. He was probably dead before Oct. 
20, 1420, bat ctrtainlj so before ^arch 16, 1421. Besides 
Hertoft, his soc c e sa or , he left another son, Ajiner, who mar- 
ried the hdress of Kiricoonnel of that ilk (see Maxwkll of 

Tbt elder son. Sir Herbert Maxwell of Carlaverock, sac- 
eeeded. In his father*8 lifetime he had a safe conduct, Nov. 
8, 1418, with othen, to go to England as hostages. On 
Maieh 16, 1421, he was retonred heir to his father in the 
lands of Uekill Dripps. He was knighted at the coronation 
of James I., Maj 21, 1424, and some years afterwards was 
ereated a krd of parliament, a dignity established by King 
Jamea under the Act, March 1, 1427. His ancestors, from 
as earij period, ranked among the moffnatet oxproceret rtg- 
wi; and in sereral charteni in the vernacular yet extant are 
styled hrd$ of CarlaTerock, b the same way as the lords of 
GaDowaj and others. In 1425 he waa arrested with Murdoch, 
duke of Albany, hot soon liberated. Albany was at first sent 
to CarhiTerock castle, but soon taken back to Stirling, where 
be was ezecated. The tower at Carlarerock, in which lie 
was confined, was from him called Mnrdoch*s tower. In 
the pariiament held at Perth, M.nrch 10, 1429, Maxwtll is 
entovd as one of the lords of purliament who adjndicated on 
the plea between Margaret, lady of Craigy, and Philip de Mow- 
hsy. {AcU <tf SeotM Pari, vol. il, p. 28). In 1480 and 
14W ho was warden of the west marches, and on 20th March 
af the latter year be was one of the conservators of the truce 
with England. He was one of the lords of parliament present 
in pariiament, Jone 28, 1445. He is again named a conserva- 
tar ofthe trace, Aprfl 29, 1450, April 16, 1451, and May SO, 
1458. (BotmU AoCmv.) On Aug. 8, 1440, he had a charter 
mder the great teal authorising him to build a tower on the 
cngof the Heams, and on May 15, 1444, he hud a letter from 
the king empowering him to build the castle of the fleams. 
He died before Feb. 14, 1453. He was twice married : first, 
to a daughter of Sir Herbert Herries of Terregles, by whom he 
had two sons, Bobert his successor, and Sir Edward Max- 
well, of whom descended the Maxwells of Tinwald and 
Monreith ; and secondly, to Katherine, daughter of Sir 
William Seton of Seton, widow of Sir Allan Stewart of Der- 
ndy, and mother of the first earl of Lennox. By this lady, he 
had, with otiier issue, Geoi^, ancestor of the Miixwells of 
Gomsalloch, and Adam, of the Maxwells of Southbar. 

The eldest son, Robert, 2d Lord Maxwell, waa retoured 
heir to hia father February 14, 1453-4. On the forfeiture of 
the Douglases in 1455, the extensive lordship of Eskdale was 
aeqnired by him, and remained with the Maxwell family 
throQ^ioat the 16th and 17th centmies. He was a guarantee 
to a treaty with the English in 1457, and again in 1459. 
He had, before January 20, 1424, married Jauet, daughter of 
Sir John Forstar (Forrester) of Corstorphine. On March 6, 
1457, he waa appointed one of the viiiitors of hospitals in Gal- 
loway. On FeU 10, 1477, he executed a resignation of the 
barooies of Maxwell, Carlaverock, and fleams, in favour of 
John Ma:|weU, his eldest son, on which tlie latter had char- 
ter from the king on the 14th of the same month, lie died 
before May 8, 1485. He had three sons, John, his succes- 
sor, Thoinos, who married the heiress of Maxwell of Kirk- 
eonnel, and David. An illegitunate son, also named John, 
waa killed in a quarrel with the Murrays. 
Tbt tUest aon, John, 8d Lord Maxwell, as he was cilled 

in his latter years, although he predeceased his father in 
1454, married Katherine Crichton, daughter of George Earl 
of Caithness. He waa appointed steward of Annandale. 
That he was called Lord Maxwell in his father's lifetime, 
after: the resignation of the baronies of Maxwell, Carlaverock, 
and Meams, to him as already mentioned, appears from the 
Ada Auditorum, On March 27, 1482, " John Lord Max- 
well " is mentioned. On December 12, 1482, John Maxwell, 
son and apparent heurof '' Bobert Lord Maxwell; " and in a 
mutual grant of certain lands to endow a chapel in Car- 
laverock, " Robert Lord Maxwell," and " John Lord Maxwell," 
his son, are mentioned by these titles, and as then alive, June 
5, 1483. Juhn Lord Maxwell, or the Master of Maxwell 
was treacherously slain by one of his own countrymen at the 
close of a battle in Annandale with a party of English and 
some rebel Scots, July 22, 1484. Besides John, his succes- 
sor, he left numerous sons, from whom descended the Max- 
wells of Cowhill and Kiilylung, of Cavens, of Portrack, o^ 
Hills, and Drumcoltran, &c. 

John, 4th Lord Maxwell, his eldest son, was one of the 
commissioners nominated to settle border differences by ihe 
treaty of Nottingham, Sept 28, 1484. He fell at Flodden, 
9th September 1513. By his wife, Agnes, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Stewart of Garlics, ancestor of the earls of Gallo- 
way, he had, with three daughters, three sons, vis., Bobert, 
fourth Ijord Maxwell ; Herbert, ancestor of the lilaxweUs of 
Clowden ; and Edward, taken prisoner with his brother at 
the rout of Sol way in 1548, but released the following year, 
on payment of a ransom of jCIOO sterling. 

Robert, fif\h Lord Maxwell, tlie eldest son, was a conspicu- 
ous character in Scottish history in the first half of the 16th 
century. On the 10th June, preceding the battle of Flodden 
Field, he had been knighted by James IV., and, at the 
same time, on the resignation of his fatlier, he was ap- 
pointed steward of Annandale. In 1516 he acquired part of 
the lands forfeited by Lord Home, and in the following year 
he was appointed warden of the western marches. In 1524 
he waa lord provost of Edinburgh, and in that capacity cho- 
sen one of the lords of the articles for tlie commissioners of 
burghs. On 21st June 1526, on James V. being declared of 
age to assume the government of the realm, Lord Maxwell 
was sworn a member of the secret council, formed to assist 
the earl of Angus with their advice and support as guardian 
of the king's person. Soon after, he was with the young 
monarch, on his return from his expedition ag.iinst the Arm- 
strongs, when, at Melrose bridge, Angus* party was attacked 
by Walter Scott of Buccleuch, with the design of rescuing 
his majesty from the hands of the Douglases. In 1526 he 
was infeflt as steward of Kirkcudbright and keeper of Threave 
castle, offices afterwards made hereditary. On the escape of 
James from Falkland c;istle to Stirling in 1528, Lord Maxwell 
was one of the first of the lords who attended the council 
summoned by the king. In the distribution of offices which 
took place when the king soon after proceeded to Edinburgh, 
a free monarch, to his lordship was intrusted the command of 
the capital with the provostship of the city. Angus* brother. 
Sir George Douglas, the late master of the king's household, 
and his uncle, Archibald Douglas of Kilspindy, the late trea- 
surer, having made an attempt to raise the inhabitants, wei*e 
attacked by Lord Maxwell, and driven from the C4ipital. He 
was rewarded with a portion of the lands of the forfeited An- 
gus. (^Dougloi Peerage^ vol. ii. p. 317). 

The same year, his lordship and other principal border- 
chiefs were arrested and placed in Kdinburgh castle, prepa- 
ratory to the king's celebrated journey into Eu.*>dale and 
Teviotdiile for the punishment of the border tliiuves, whose 






in tliAt city, with their foUowars, to aasist him, bat departed 
without carryiDg their design into effect 

The attainder of the earldom of Morton was rescinded bj the 
hinges letten under the great seal, in Jannary 1585, in farour 
of Archibald earl of Angna, the heir of entail, (ratified by act 
of pariiament of 29th July 1587,) who thereby eaoceeded to 
the otf title of earl of Morton, bat not affeoting Lord Maxwell's 
title of eail of Morton created in 1581 (see MoBZOir, earl oQ. 
Haring incorred Anan*s displeasore for refasing to exchange 
his lands of Pollok and 3f iixwellhangh, which lay contignons to 
Arrant estate, for others of eqoal Yalae, Lord Maxwell pro- 
aeeded to coUeet a force in his own defence, when he was de- 
nooneed rebel, and pot to the horn, throng the malice of the 
eari of Amm, on which the lieges were conmianded by pro* 
damatioa to meet the king on (^wfordmnir, on Oct. 24, to 
proceed against him. He joined the banished nobles in their 
coDspiracy for the removal of Arran, whom they considered the 
eanse of aU the eTiIs that afflicted the country, and was with 
them when, on Nor. 1, they took the castle of Stirling. On 
this occasion his followers availed themselves of the op- 
portnnity to do a little bit of bosiness on their own aocoant, 
while in effect aasbting in the overthrow of the court fa- 
vourite, for, we an told, they carried off by force all the horses 
they could find, **not respecting friend or foe.** A general 
act of indemnity was passed in favour of the lords who had 
driven Arran fiom court, and on December 10, 1585, a special 
Act of Parliament granted Lord Maxwell, his friends and 
mrants, entire indemnity for all their unlawful doings within 
the realm, fipom April 1569 to the date thereof. Of the men 
oamedin the ad, there wereabont 600 from Lord Maxweirsown 
estates in Kithsdale and Galloway, 600 from Eakdale, Ewes- 
dale, and Waochopedole, mostly Beattiea, litUes, and Arm- 
strongs, SIO from Lower Annandale, chiefly Carruthers, Bells, 
and Irvings, and about 450 better organized soldiers, in three 
co mpun les of infantry, and two troops of cavaliy, one troop 
bdng from Galloway and Nithsdale, commanded by John 
Maxwell of Newlaw and Alexander Maxwell of Logan ; and 
the other from Annandale, commanded by Gearge Carruth- 
ers of Holmends, and Charles Carruthers, bb son. 

Having, coDtraxy to law, caused mass to be celebrated 
openly in the ooU^ of linduden, near Dumfries, on 24th, 
25th, and 26th Dec of the same year, his lordship, and the 
rest of the hearers, were charged to appear before the secret 
coundL On hie appearance be offered himself to trial, but 
was committed to the castle of Edinburgh. It does not 
appear how long he remained a prisoner. Ty Uer says (^HisL of 
Seotimtdt vol ix., p. 4), that when the king received Uie news 
of his mother's execution, he sent for Lord Maxwell, and others 
of the more warUke of the border leaders, to consult as to 
what should le done. He was not, however, employed in the 
matter, for on April 12, 1587, he gave bond, with John, Ix)rd 
Hamilton, William, Lord Henries, and Sir John Gordon of 
Lodiinvar, as cautioners, that he would leave the realm and 
go beyond sea in a month, and in the meantime should not 
trouble the country, nor, when abroad, do anything to injure 
the religion then professed, or the pence of the realm, and 
should not return without his MHJesty*8 special license. Ijord 
Herrics, also, on May 29 following, gave bond that Sir Robert 
Maxwell of Dinwiddie, John Maxwell of Conheath, and Ed- 
ward Maxwell of the Hills— probably imprisoned at the same 
time as Lord Maxwell — should not do or attempt anything 
to the prrjudice of the religion then professed. Soon after, 
Ijord Maxwell went to Spain, and when there he did what he 
could to promote the success of the invasion of England by 
the Armada, and, with that view, to produce a diversion in 
Scotland, where a powerful body of the nobility was ready to 

assist (IhUL vol. ix., p. 17.) In the month of April 1588, he 
returned to Scotland without the king's license. He at once 
began to assemble his followers, that he might be ready to 
assist the Spaniards on the arrival of their much-vaunted 
Armada. He fortified the oastle of Loclimaben, the command 
of which he gave to Mr. David Maxwell, brother of the hurd 
of Cowhill, while he himself took refuge on board a ship. 
With a large force James marched to Dumfries, and sum- 
moned Lord Maxwell's various castles to surrender. They 
all obeyed, except Lochmaben, but after two days' firing it 
also was ^ven up, when the governor and five of his officers 
were hanged before the castle gate. In the meantime, Sir 
William Stewart, brother of Captain Stewart, the quondam 
eari of Arran, was sent after Lord Maxwell Finding himself 
pursued, his lordship, quitting the ship, took to the boat, and 
had no sooner landed than he was apprehended. He was nt 
first conveyed to Dumfries, but aftcowards removed to the 
castle of Edinburgh, and deprived of his office of warden of 
the western marches, whidi was conferred on the laird of 

With other imprisoned nobles. Lord Slaxwell was released 
from his confinement on 12th September, 1589, to do honour, 
by theur attendance, to the queen of James VI. on her arrival 
in Scotland from Denmark. He had become, from policy or 
otherwise, a convert to Protestantism, and on 26th January, 
1598, subscribed the Confession of Faith before the presbytery 
of Edinburgh, under the name of Morton. On the 2d Feb- 
ruary following he and the new earl of Mwton, striving for 
precedency in the church at Edinburgh, were parted by the 
provost before they had time to draw their swords, and con- 
veyed under a guard to their lodging, as was also Lord Ham- 
ilton, for having assisted Maxwell. 

He had been restored to the wardenship of the western 
marches, but in consequence of its having been held for a 
time by the hurd of Johnston, the old feud was renewed be- 
tween the two families. On the 7th December, 1593, nt the 
head of about 2,000 men, I^rd Maxwell, having a commission 
of lieutenantcy, went to demolish some houses belonging to the 
Johnstons, when he was resisted by the chief of that name, 
with his allies, the Scotts, Elliots, and other border clans, to 
the number of 500 men, and *^ being a tall man and heavy in 
armour," was slain. This affair was colled the battle of Dryfe 
sands. Tlic Maxwells, though much superior in numbers, 
were routed and pursued ; and lost, on the field and in the 
retreat, about 700 men, besides their commander. Many of 
those who were killed or wounded in the retreat were 
cut down in the streets of Lockcrby, and hence the phrnse, 
currently used in Annandale to denote a severe wound, " A 
Lockerby Lick." By his wife. Lady Elizabeth Douglas, 
second daughter of the 7th earl of Angus, Lord Maxwell 
had, with three daughters, three sons, John and Robert, 8th 
and 9th Lord Maxwell, and James Maxwell of Kirkconncl 
and Springkell, who lefl no issue. 

John, 8th Lord Maxwell, the eldest son, was put to the 
horn for various acts of disobedience to the king^s authority, 
and by the laws then in force as to religion, before the year 
1600. The old feud between the Maxwells and the Johnstons 
was kept up by the appointment of Sir James Johnston 
to the wardenship, June 17, 1600. Lord Maxwell w:is 
in March 1602 imprisoned in the cnstlc of Edinburgh on 
account of his favouring popery. He aflcrwards broke out of 
ward, and was proclaimed a traitor. A sort of reconciliation 
had taken place between the Maxwells and the Johnstons, in 
testimony whereof Lord Maxwell executed " Letters of Slayns,'* 
June 11, 1605. 

In 1607, Lord Maxwell, asserting still his rights as carl of 




detetoded fnHn Robert III., aiid Iind a son and 3 daugbten. 
He died iu 1677. 

Sir Geof^ Maxwell's nnrau is associated nitb one of the 
moot eztraordinaiy eaiues celibratt in witcbcraft wbich oc- 
coned in Benftewalure. lla\-ing been token snddenljr ill, 
wbile in Glasgow, on tbe night of Oct. 14, 1677, bo was, on 
hji xetnrn borne, confined to bed with severe bodiljr pains. 
A ragrant girl, named Janet Dougbis, wbo pretended to 
be doinb, and was considered a clerer witcb-finder, and wbo 
ovcd some of bis tenants a grudge, accused several of tbem 
of bewitching Sir George, and, to confirm her assertions, she 
coDtriTcd, in (me or two instances, to secrete small wax fig- 
BRs of tbe snfiering kuigbt, stuck witb pins, in tbe dwell- 
ii^ of the accused persons. A special commission was 
iuoed for the trial of tbe case on tlie spot, and after a long 
inrcstigatlon, at which were present, besides some of tbe 
lords of josticlaiy, most of tbe leading men of Renfrewshire, 
tbe following unfortunate creatures, nameljr, Janet Slathie, 
wiUow of John Stewart, under miller in Shaw mill, John 
Stewart, licr son, and three old women, tbe parties accused, 
were condemned to be strangled and burned, and Annabil 
Stewart, a gui 14 jean old, tbe daughter of Matbie, or- 
dered to be imprisoned ! Tbe case is recorded in Cranford^s 
* Histoiy of Renfrewshire.* A ballad has also been written 
on tbe sulgect Tbe accused confessed their guilt ! 

Tbe son. Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, was created a baronet 
of Nora Scotia bjr Charies II., April 12, 1682, witb extension 
of the title, in rirtue of another patent, March 27, 1707, to 
his beixB male whatsoerer. In Juljr 1683, Sir John Maxwell 
was imprisoned for refusing to take tbe test, and December 2, 
1684, be was fined .£8,000 by the privy council, fur allowing 
xvcusants to live on bis lands, and refusing the bond and test. 
Tbe ooondl, however, declared that if paid before tbe end of 
tlie month, the fine would be reduced to £2,000. In 1689, 
Sir John was sworn a privy councillor to King Wililim. The 
■ame year be represented tbe county of Renfrew at tbe con- 
vention of estites. He was afterwards commissioner for tbe 
same county in tbe Scots parliament. In 1696 be was ap- 
pointed one of the lords of tbe treasuiy and exchequer. On 
tbe 6tb February 1699 be was admitted an ordinary lord of 
aoMon, and on tbe 14tb of tbe same month nominated lord- 
jostice-clerk. In tbe latter ofiice be was superseded in 1702. 
He died July 4, 1732, in his 90th year, without issue. 

His cousin, Sir John M.nxwcll, previously Atyled of Dlnvrcrt- 
Lill, succeeded as 2d b.nronet of PoIIok. lie was the son 
of Zecbarias Mnxwell of Rlnwertbill, younger brother of Sir 
George Maxwell of Auldhouse and PoIIuk. He married, 1st, 
Ijdy Ann Carmicliael, dau{;hter of John, enri of Hyndford, 
and bad a son, John, and 2 daughters; 2dly, Barbara, daughter 
of Walter Stewart of BlairimI), issue, 8 sons; 1, George, of 
UUvertbill, wbo died unmiirried; 2, Walter; 3, James; and 
3 daughters; 3dly, Margaret, of the family of Caldwell of 
Caldwell, without issue. He died in 1753. 

His eldest son, Sir John Maxwell, became 3d baronet. On 
liis death, his half brother. Sir Walter, succeeded as 4tl) 
baronet, and died in 1761. 

Sir Walter's only son, Sir John, became 5th baronet, but 
difd nine weeks after his father. 

The title and estates reverted to his father's youngest 
brother. Sir James, 6th baronet This gentleman married 
Frances, 2d daughter of Robert Colquboun, Esq. of St. 
Cbristopber's, of the family of Kenmure; issue, 2 sons; 1, 
John, bis successor; 2, Robert, a cnptuin in the army, died 
without uiKue; rjid 2 daughters, 1, Frances, wife of John 
Conningbam of Cnigends; 2, Usurbara, married Rev. Grerilie 
Eving. Sir James died in 1785. 


His elder son. Sir John, 7th baronet, was M.P. for the 
Paisley Burghs. He married Hannah Anne, daughter of 
Richard Gardiner of Aldborougb, Suflulk; issue, a son. Sir 
John, and 2 daughters, Harriet, who died in 1842, and Elisa* 
beth, wife of Archibald Stiriing, Esq. of Keir. 

The son. Sir John ^laxwell of Pollok, 8tb baranet, suc- 
ceeded July 80, 1844; F.R.S.; was educated at Westminster 
and Christ Church, Oxford; M.P. for the county of Ren- 
frew from 1826 to 1831, and for Lanarkshire from 1832 to 
1837; deputy lieutenant for counties of Lanark and Renfrew. 
He married in 1839 Lady Matilda Harriet Bruce, daughter 
of Thomas, earl of Elgin and Kincardine. This lady died Aug. 
81, 1827. 

Tbe family of Maxwell of Pollok are in possession of sev- 
eral original writings of considerable interest. One of these 
is the letter written by Queen Mary, after her escape from 
Locbleven, to Sir John Maxwell, whom she bad knighted, 
requiring him to hasten to her aid with all bis people, ** bod- 
in in fear of weir,** that is, equipped for war. He obeyed 
tlio call, and as stated above, fought at tbe battle of Ijing- 
side, on tbe very border of his own domains. 

: I 

The Maxwells of Calderwood are descended from Sir John 
Maxwell of Pollok, knight (see page 128). He got from bis 
father tbe lands and baronies of Kether Pullok, Renfrewshire, 
and of Dryps and Calderwood, I^marksbire. By bis first 
wife, Isabel de Lindsay, Sir John had 2 sons. Sir John, bis 
successor, and Sir Robert, ancestor of tbe Maxwells of Calder- 
wood. He died in tbe beginning of the reign of Darid II. 

Tbe younger son. Sir Robert Maxwell, who inherited Pol- 
lok and Calderwood, died in 1363. 

Sir Robert's eldest son and successor. Sir John Sfaxwcll of 
Pollok and Calderwood, bad 2 sons, John, to whom he gave 
the lands of Nether Pollok, and Robert. 

The latter, Sir Robert Maxwell, got the b.irony of Cal- 
derwood and other lands. A indenture was entered 
into by tbe two brothers, dated at Dumbarton, Dec. 18, 1400, 
in which all their lands were enumerated, and under tbe au- 
thority of their father — tbe principal party — this deed allo- 
cated or partitioned certain lands to tbe sons and their respec- 
tive heirs at law. Sir Robert married in 1402, Elizabeth, 
daughter and co-heir of Sir Robert Denniston of Denniston, by 
whom be obtained the barony of Newark, in Renfrewshire. 
From this marriage lineally descended Sir James Maxwell 
of Calderwood, who died in 1622. He was thrice married, 
and had issue by all his wives. His third wife, Lidy Marga- 
ret Cunningham, daughter of James, 7th earl of Glenc:iini, 
and widow of Sir James Hamilton of Evandale, was sister 
of Ann, marehioness of Hamilton. Ry her he had 4 daugh- 
ters and 2 sons; 1, John, lineal ancestor of the present baro- 
net, and 2, Alexander. 

His son. Sir James Maxwell of CaIdcrv«-ood, who suc- 
ceeded him, was by bis 2d wife, Isobel, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Hamilton of Innerwick. He was created a bar- 
onet of Scotland and Nova Scotia, with remainder to his heirs 
male whatsoever, March 28, 1627. On the death of Sir John 
M:(xwell of Pollok without sun'iving i.ssue, in 1647, Sir 
James attempted to set aside a disposition of the Pollok es- 
tates, made some time before his death, by Sir John Max - 
well in favour of George Maxwell of Auldhouse, but without 
effect. His son. Sir William, also prosecuted his claim to tlie 
Pollok estates, founding, like bis father, on the deed of in- 
denture of 1400, above mentioned, but he was equ:dly imM;c- 
cessful. Sir James died in 1667. His half brother, Colonel 
John Maxwell, has an bistonc:d name as having attended h\& 
cousin, the duke of Hamilton, on bis unfortunate expedition 




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into Eiigbnd in 1648 for the rescue of Charles I. Od hif 
return lie was obliged to do penance forhui ibare in the *' en- 
gagement,** as it was called, before the congregation in the 
parish church of Carlake, in which parish the fainjij at that 
time resided. He served as c<^oneI in the Scots annj which 
opposed Cromwell on his entering Scotland in IGoO, and was 
killed lit the b.nttle of Dunbar that year. 

Sir James* eldest son. Sir William, 2d baronet, married 
Jean, daughter of Sir Alexander Maxwell of Saughton Hall, 
and had two sons, and one daughter, who predeceased him. 

His first cousin, Sir John, son of Colonel Maxwell, half 
brother of the first baronet, succeeded as 3d baronrt. He 
was fifbt designed of Abington, but uf^rwurds of Calderwood. 

His only sumving son, Sir William, 4 tit bamnet, died in 
1750. Hp mnrriod Christian, daughter of Alexander Stew- 
art, Esq. of Turrcnce, and li.nd, with 4 daughters, 8 sons. 1 . 
William. 2. Juhn, a colonel in the amir, who had the com- 
mand of a regiment of grcnadierji, and spn-cil with great rep- 
utation in the German war, under Prince Ferdinand. 3. 
Alexander, a merchant in Leitli, who married Mar}*, dangli- 
ter of Hugh Clerk, Esq.. of the faniily nf Penicuik. Their 
son, Ctiptain Sir Murmjr Max-.vell, di.stingiiifihed himself as 
a naval officer. A memoir of him is given at page 134. 

Sir William*s eldest son, Sir William, 5th baninet, died 
.Tanuarr 2, 1780. 

The only snn*iving son of the latter. Sir William, Ctli baro- 
net, born in 1748, died without issue, August 12, 1S20, and 
was succeeded by liU cousin. 

Sir William Maxwell, 7tli baronet, a distinguished generil 
in the army, died March IH, 1837. He had four sons. 

'l*he eldest sou, Sir William Alexander Maxwell, 8th baro- 
net, born in 1793, became a colonel in tho army in 1851, and 
retired in 18o3; married, without issue. Two younger 
brothers died utimarried. Hugh Bates, his younger brother, 
was bom in 1797; m.vried, issue, a son,, l>om in 1828. 

His 2d son. Sir Alexander, loccecded aa 2d baraneC, and 
iir William, the eldebt son of Sir Alexander, bMuna 8d bar- 
onet. Sir William died Aug. 22, 1771. By liis wife, Mag- 
dalene, daughter of William Blair, Esq. of BUr, Ajnbire, be 
had, with 8 daughters, 8 sons. 1, Wiliiam; 2« Hamilton, 
lieutenant-colonel, 74tb regiment, who commanded the gim- 
adieffs of the army under Lord Comwaliia, in the war agiunst 
Tippoo Sultaun. He died iu India, unmarried, in 1800; 8, 
Dunbar, li. M., died young iu 1775. 

Sir William, the eldest son, succeeded as 4th ImroncL He 
married his counn, Katlierine, daughter and henreM of Da- 
vid Blair, Esq. of Adainton, and had 3 sons and 6 daoghten. 
He died in 1812. 

The eldest son. Sir William. 5th baronet, serred as licntcn- 
ant-colnnel in the 28tli foot under Sir John Moore in Spain, 
and lost an arm at Corunna. He died Aug. 22, 1838L 

His eldest son. Sir William Maxwell, Cth baronet, bora 
in 1805, succeeded. He was a captain in the anny, bnt r»- 
tii-ed from the service in 1844; lieutenant-cohmd of militia; 
married llt-lenorn, youngest daughter of Sir 3Iicliael Shaw 
Stewnrt, bart.. of Greenock and Blackball; iame, Herbert 
KuNtacc, bo!-n .Ian. 8, 1815, another son and 4 danghtem 

The .MnxtvdN of Cardoness, Kirkcudbrightshire, descend 
from William Maxwell of Newlands, yonnger son of Gavin 
Maxwell, Esq., wlioiiu t* Ide&t son. Sir Ilobert Maxwell, knight, 
was grandfather of tiie tintt baronet of Culderwood. 

David Maxwell of Cardoness, son of Major John Maxwell, 
by his wife, a daughter of Irving of Bunshaw, n.-is created a 
baronet, June 9, 1801. He married in 1770, his cousin, Hen- 
rietta, daughter of David Maxwell, Esq. of C.iim6more. Kirk- 
oudbriglithliire, and had 4 sons and 4 daughters. He died 
iu 1825. 

His 2d son, David, succeeded ; his cldostson, Wiliiam, having 
been drowned on his passage to Minorc.-i, Feb. 17, 1801. Sir 
David, 2d b.aron<'t, bom in 1773. vice-lieutenant of Kirkcud- 
bii;;htsliire, and honorary colonel of Galloway Rifles, married 
Geoigina, eldest daughter of .^ainucl Martin, Esq. of Anti- 
gna, and had 3 sons and 3 d.'mgliters Sir David died Nov. 
13, 18G0, .nnd was succeeded by his eldest Kurviving son. 

Sir William, 3d baronet. l>oni 1809, married Ist, 1811, 
Mary, danghtcr of .T. Spmt, Esq . by whom (who died 1840) 
lie had 2 sons and 1 daughter. Sir Wiili.nui married, 2dly, 
1851. I^uisa Maria, eldest daughter of Geoffrey J. Shakerley, 
Esq.. and by her als<> (who died I8oG) has issue 4 daugiiters. 

The Maxwt^lls of Monreitli, Wigtownsliire, are descended 
from Hcrl>ert of Carlavorock, firbt Lord Maxwell His 2d 
son. Sir ICdward Maxwell, obtiuned a charter of the barony of 
Mureith, now Monrcith, Jan. 15, 1 181. He was lineal .nn- 
cestor of William Maxwell of Monreitli, created a baronet of 
Nova Scotia, January 8, 1G81. He died in 1709. His eldest 
son, William, drowned in the Xitli, in 1707. 

The Maxwells of Spriiigkell, iu Aunandale, barooeta, are a 
branch of the family of Auldhouse, of which Maxwell of Pol- 
lok is the senior representative. Tliey are second in anoces- 
sion from PoUuk. George 3ilaxwell, Esq. of Auldhouse, 
married, 1st, Janet, daughter of John Miller, Esq. of New- 
ton, and had one son, John, whose son, George, succeeded to 
the PoUok estates ; 2dly, Jean, daughter of William Mnv, 
Esq. of Glanderstone, issue, a son, William; 3dly, Janet, 
daughter of of Waterside, issue, a son, HnglL 

William Maxwell, tlie 2d son, acquired in 1C09, the bar- 
ony of Kirkconiiel and Springkell, in Annandale. 

His son, Patrick Maxwell of Sprin^dl, waa created a 
baronet of Nora Scotia iu 1683. He died in 1720, leaving a 
son, and 4 daughters. 

His son. Sir William, 2d baronet, died in 1760, and was 
sucreetled by his only son. Sir William, 3d baronet, who died 
March 4, 1804. The latter had, with 3 daughters, 4 sons, 
namely, 1. William, a lieutenant 36th regiment, who died, 
unmarried, in 1784. 2. Michael-Stewart, colonel of Dom- 
fries-shire light dragoons, who died, unmarried, in 1880. 8. 
Patrick, an ofliccr iu the .irniy, drowned 1^ the npsettiug of 
a boat in a river in Nova Scotia, in 1 790. 4. Juhn. Tho 
youngest son succeeded his father. 

I.ientenant-general Sir John Maxwell, 4th baronet, who 
^ucv'eeded March 4, 1804, marrieil Mary, only surviving child 
and heiress of Patrick Heron, Esq. of Heron, in tlie atewart- 
ry of Galiuway, M.P., and on the death of his father* in-law, 
assumed the surname and anus of Heron, in addition to Ida 
own. He died J.inunry 29, 1830. 

His eldest Mtn, Sir Patrick Heron Maxwell, died, unmar- 
ried, August 27, 1841. 

His next brother. Sir John Heron Maxwell, became 6th 
baronet ; born in 1 808 ; an officer II, N. ; married, iaaiu, 4 > 

The Maxwells of Parkliill ; and other families of the name, 
sprung from the same C4>nimon ancestor us the Calderwood 
family. The Bev. Kobert M.oxwell, 2d son of Sir John Max- 
well of (Culderwood, knight, iu the end of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth was sent over to Ireland, by James VI., to secure 
nu interest for his majesty in that kingdom. He was ap- 
pointed dean of Armagh, and was ancestor uf the earis of 
Faniham peerage of Ireland, and of tlie Waring- Maxwells of 
rinnibroguc, connty Down. 


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The Slaxwells of Dnrgavel are an old family in Reiifrew- 
•birt. John Hail Uazweli, Esq., present proprietor of Dnr- 
jpivtl, is aho the representatiro of another ancient family in 
the Mine countr, tbr Halls of Fulbar, the reputed chieft of 
the name, which in the charters of the time is given in the 
fjitbi fonn of de Ania. The ancestor of the latter obtained 
a charter of the hinds of Fnlbar from James, high steward of 
Scotiand, grandfather of King Robert II., confirmed by that 
nonareh in 1870. One of the descendants of this family feU 

The Dai^aTel branch of the family of Maxwell was a cadet 
of th« house of Newark, an offshoot of the family of Calder- 
wood (aee page 129). Of the Maxwells of Newark, Mr. 
Hall Maxwell ii now also the representative. 

John, eldest son, by lib 2d wife, of Patrick Maxwell of 
Newark, obtained from his father in 1516, a charter of the 
lands of Dargarel, in the parish of Erskine, with tho^ of 
Ituhielee and Haltonridge, in the adjnccnt parishes of liich- 
innan and Kilmalcolm. One of his descendants wss iduin in 
the deq»erate conflict at Lookerliy in 1593, between the rival 
clans of Maxwell and Johnston. 

John Jifaxwell, the proprietor of Dargnvel in 1710, entailed 
that estate, and died without issue. He was succeeded by 
his brother, William !ilnxwell of Frceland, who also died 

Their sister, Margaret Maxwell, had married Robert Hal] 
of Fnlbar, and the 2d son of this marriage, John Hall, suc- 
ceeded to Dargavel, as next heir of entail, when he took the 
Dame of MaxwelL By the death of his elder brother, he be- 
came proprietor of Fnlbar and mnle representative of the 
family of HalL 

His grandson, John Maxwell of Dargavel, died in 1830. 

His brother, William Maxwell, succee<led. He married 
Mary, dangliter of John Campbell, Esq. of Fossil, Dumbar- 
tonshire, and had by her a numerous family. He died in 

His ddest son, John Hull ]^Iaxwel1, Esq. of Dargavel, C.B., 
bom in 1812, passed advocate at the Scottish bar in 1835, 
and in 184G was appointed secretary to the Highland and 
Agricultural Society of Scotland. In 1856 he was m.ido a ' 
onnpanion of the Bath ; n magistrate and deputy iieutenant ' 
of Renfrewshire. He married in 1843, Anne, daugliter of , 
Thomas Williams, Emj. of Bnrwood House, with issue. His 
ion and heir, William Hall, was bom in 1847. 

Tlie Maxwells of Rirkconnel descend from one of the older 
cadets of the M.nxwell family. Representing the family 
of Kirkoonnel of Kirkconnel, it is one of the oldest families 
in Galloway, and has been settled in the parish of Troqueei* 
f'N- centuries. The Maxwells spell the name Kirkconncll. 

The first of the house of Kirkconnel of that ilk is suppose/i 
to have been a person of Saxon origin, who had come from 
the north of England and settled at Kirkconnel, near the 
mouth of the Nith, in the time of Earl David, afterwards 
David J., or in that of King Malcolm his father. The 
names, John, W*illiam, and Thomas, which the Kirkconnel 
family used, indicate their north of England extraction; 
while the surname of the family being the same as the name 
uf their lands, gives right to infer that they held these lands 
from the time of Malcolm Csnmore (1057 — 1093) when 
family surnames derived from territorial possegsIi>ns began 
to be used in Scotland. 

Tlie arms of the Kirkconnels, azure, two crosiers, or, placed 
in li^hire ardoss^ with a mitre of the last placed in chief 
{\ubef$ Ilemldry^ Fart 2, cli. 10) being the same as those 
of the blshoDS of Ar^le or IJsmore in the Tith century. 

might be thought to show that the one was derived from the 
other, but was probably assumed from the name of the terri* 
tory and its connexion with the church. 

The first of the name on record is John, **dominus de 
Kirkconnel, fundavit Saenim Boscum.** (Dugdal^t 3foiuu- 
ticon (1661) Coenobia Scoticm, vol. ii. p. 1057.) He founded 
the nbl)ey of Holywood some time in the 12th century, in 
the place of a former religious house. He was probably the 
father of Michael de Kirkconnel, whose son, William Fits* 
Michael de Kirkconnel, about the year 1200 made a grant of 
lands in Kirkconnel, in favour of the abbey of Hohncultram 
in Cumberland (JIuichesofCa Cwnh^land^ vol. ii. p. 881), 

Gilchrist, the son of GUcwUl, is witness to a charter of 
lands in Dnnscore near Dercongall or Holywood, granted by 
Afllrica, daughter of Edgar, to the monks of Melrose, in the 
reign of William the lion or of Alexander II. (Liber de 3fel- 
ro$e, vol. i. p. 182). 

There is no farther account of anv one of the name until 


the contest arose for the throne of Scotland between John 
Baliul, lord of Galloway, and Robert Bruce, lord of Annan- 
dale. Among those who swore fealty to Edward 1. in 1296, 
we find Thomas de Kirkconnel of the connty of Dimifries, 
which then ineludeil both sides of the Kith. There can bo 
little doubt that Thomas de Kirkconnel and his immediate 
successors, like the rest of the men of Nithsdale and Gal- 
loway, supported the cause of Baliol. In 1324 mention is 
made of *' Dominut de Ktrkcomtett in vaUe de NUk^ (jChahi^ 
era" Caledonia), 

Owing to the wars and confusion of the times little is 
known of the Kirkconnels for two or three generations, but 
it is prob.ible that they generally supported and shared the 
fortunes of their greater neighbours on the other side of the 
Kith, the Maxwells of Carlaverock. The connexion between 
the families of Maxwell of Carlaverock and the Kirkconnels 
was drawn closer hy the marriage of Avmer de Maxwell, 
2d son of Sir Herbert de Maxwell of Cariaverock and brotlier 
of Sir Herbert de Maxwell of Carlaverock, 1st Lord &Iax- 
well, with Janet de Kirkconnel, the heiress of the ancient 
fMinilv of Kirkconnel, when the name de Kirkconnel was 
merged in that of Maxwell, and tlie property went to their 
descendants of that name. Tlie date of the marriage is un- 
known, but it may have taken place before the year 1410. 

On 11th July 1448, there was a perambulation of the 
niarchea (»f Little Airds, l)elonging to the abbey of Sweet- 
lieart, and Meikle Airds, l)e1onging to Kirkconnel, to which 
Aymer de Maxwell was a party. {Original Papers and 
Deedit at Kirkconnel.) On 20th March 1456, Aymer de 
Maxwell and Janet de Kirkconnel, his spouse, had a charter 
of resignation and confirmation of their lands of Kirkconnel, 
in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright. On 18th Nuvember 1461, 
Aymer de Maxwell of Kirkconnel, superior of the estate of 
Kelton, which probably was his own, and not acquired by his 
wife, granted a feu to George Neilson of part thereof. 

A3rmer*s son, Herbert ^iaxwell of Kirkoonnel, succeeded 
him. He left two sons, and probably others. 

The elder son, whose Christian name is not known, is ftup- 
posed to have predeceased his father. His brothcr*s name 
was John. Tlie former had a daughter, Elisabeth, who suc- 
ceeded her grandfather, and another daughter, probably 
named Agnes Miixwell. 

Elix:ibeth ]^Iaxwell of Kirkconnel had precept from the 
Crown directing sofine to be given to her as heir of the late 
Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel and Kelton, her grandfather, 
in virtue whereof she was infeft in the lands of Kelton in the 
sheriffdom of Dumfries on 5th November 1492. Among the 
witnesses of the ijifeftment were "John Maxwell, undo of 

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tlic said EliMbetk, Horbert Maxwell, son of the snid John," 
&C. Djriiig without issue, Kiisubeth was succeeded bjr her 
nephew, Herbert. 

Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, under precept from the 
crown, had sasine given to him, as " Iieir of tlie late Eliza- 
beth Maxwell, his aunt,** (avtmevla — mother*s uster,) of the 
hinds of Kiri(connel and Kelton, on 12th April 14*J5. All 
accounts of tlie Kirkconnel and Maxwell families, and gene- 
alogists generally, concur in stating that Thomas Maxwell, 
2d son of Bobert, 2d Lord ^laxweli, married Agnes Max- 
well, the heiress of Maxwell of KiHcconnel, and that from 
them the present Kirkconnel family are descended. It is 
more than probable that Elizabeth's married sister, whose 
son Herbert succeeded his aunt, was the Af/ne* who l>ccaine 
the wife of the said Thomas Maxwell, probably between 
1450 and H70, and that it was their son Herbert who was 
heir to his aunt Elizabeth. Tliis might be inferred from the 
se:il of Herbert att.iched to a charter granted by him on July 
4, 1517, being asaltire, between two small chevrons. The 
chevron being often used as a mark of cadency, (A'isftefjr 
IlerrUdt'jff vol. i. p. 151,) it would seem that the tiro chor- 
runs were intended to show his descent from two cadets of 
the Maxwell family ; Aymer, who married Janet de Kirkcon- 
nel, and Tliomas, thought to have been the father of Her- 
bert. As a follower of the chief of his name. Herbert M.ix- 
well of Kirkconnel was present at the afl'nty, on July 30, 
15U8, on the sands of Dumfries, between John I/)rd Max- 
well, and Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, and their respecUre 
f«>Uuwers, when the latter nobleman was driven from the 
town, and many of his friends slain. QBaJfour*$ Annah, 
1508.) For tliis and other lawless doings Herbert Maxwell 
receive<1 a general remission from the crown on 17th Octo- 
ber the same year. He was twice married, hy his fintt 
wiff, whose name is not ascertained, he had four sons: Ro- 
bert, John, NYJlliam, and Edward. His 2d wife was Euphe- 
mia Lindsay, issue unknown. William, the third son, was 
in the hou.<«hold of Mary of Guise, and afterwards for a time 
in a regiment of Scots men at arms in the service of the king 
of Fnince (MS. on Scottish Guard Hintorj/). On the ICth 
Feliru:iry. 1557, he had a grant of the lands of little Airds. 
His 84)n, Willi:im, succeeded him in IJttle Airds. The latter 
had a son, James, who wrote his Autobiography, and was 
author also uf several polemical works. 

Herbert died b«rore 28th Dec. 1548. His eldest son, Ro- 
bert, nn July 4, 1517, had a charter from his father of the 
hinds of Kelton. He married Janet Crichton, and on Aug- 
ust 16, 1519, had a grant ot Anciient'iui. Ho predeceased 
his father, le.iving 2 sons, Herbert and John. 

Tiie elder Kon, Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, had sasine 
in the lands i)f Kirkconnel and Kelton as heir to his grandfa- 
ther, Dec. 28, 1548, and had charter of A uchen fad, J.innar)' 
22, 1548-9. He married a Janet MaxwHl, and had a son, 
Bernard, and three daughters, Agnes. Catherine, and Mar- 
garet. He died before 1560. 

Bernard Maxwell ot Kirkconnel succeeded his father in his 
minority. On May 6, 1571, with consent of his curators, he 
executed a disposition of the lands of Kirkconnel and Kelton, 
in favour of his uncle, John Mazirp!], and his heirs male, 
whom failing, to his own heirs general, and i-eserving his 
liferent, with power of redemption, in the event of having 
heirs male himself, and the hmds to \te held of himself, for 
£1,000 Scots, on which deed sasine was taken on the follow- 
ing day ; also, another deed of the same date, in nearly the 
s:unc terms, the lands to be held of the crown, on which sa- 
sine was tiken. He was alive and collecting the feu duties 
of Aurds in 1574 and 1577. 

John Maxwell, tutor of Kirkconnel, during tlw minority 
of Bernard, his nephew, was infeft, as above stated, in the 
property. May 7, 1571. He died befisn his nephew, and be- 
foro August 1578. 

His son, John Maxwell of Kirkconnel, succeeded liiin, and 
to his right to the estate in his minority, his tnton or cu- 
rators being James Crichton of Carco and William Somcr- 
viile, vicar of Kirkbean. On July 8, 1574, he was retound 
heir male to John Maxwell of Kirkconnel, his father, in the 
lands of Kirkconnel, re8er\ing the liferent therein of Bernard 
Maxwell and of Janet Maxwell, relict of Herbert Maxwell, 
in a part thereof; in virtue whereof Jdm Maxwell was in- 
feft therein, Oct. 8, 1574, Bernard Maxwell, the liferenter, 
being a witness to the infeftment. In April and May, 1593, 
he took part in the slaughterings and fend between the Max- 
wells and Johnstons. On Nov. 26, 1601, John Maxwell of 
Kirkconnel and several others were summoned before the 
pri\7 council, for contravening the Acts of Parliament against 
saying and hearing of mass, and entertaining priests, espe- 
cially Dr. John Hamilton and Abbot Gilbert Brown, and 
liaving children baptized by them (^Chambert* JJomestie An- 
unit, vol i., pp. 358, 359). John Spottiswoode, ardilriahop 
of Glasgow, having, with a party of soldiers, invaded Kew 
Abbey, in search of priests, broke into the house of tlie exiled 
abbot. Gilbert Brown, and plundered it of whatever savoured 
of popery. The books found there were given into the care 
of John Maxwell of Kirkconnel, who afterwards, being un- 
willing to part with them, served with letters of homing 
on ten days* charge, ordering him to deliver the same over to 
Spottiswoode (jOriginal iMtert as to Ecdeiiatthal Affmrs^ 
liannatyne Club^ pp. 409-411). John Maxwell of Kirkcon- 
nel died after June 29, 1614. He had five sons — 1. Herbert, 
his successor. 2. John, of Whitehill and Millhill, suppoticd 
to have been the father of John Maxwell of Bamcleugh, town- 
clcrk of Dnmfries. 3. J.nmes. 4. Thomas. 6. George. 

The eldest son, Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, was esquire 
in ordinary to the body in the household of James VI., mhen 
he succeeded to Kirkconnel. Preferring to continne his attend- 
ance on royalty, the king granted him a pension for life of 
£200 out of the escheats of Scotlnnd. He received diartor 
of confirmation of the lands of Kirkconnel and others, Aug: 
28, 1616, and was infeft therein 25th Sept following. He 
got into some dispute with James Maxwell of Innerwick, 
a lord of the bedchamber, afterwards eari of Dirlton, the son 
of John Maxwell of Kirkhonse. The dispute came before the 
Court of Session, and four days after the hearing of the c-ise 
(March 11, 1628), and as if at the instigaUon of his opponent, 
Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, Charles Brown in New 
Abbey, Barbara Maxwell, I^dy Mabie, and others, werv 
charged by the privy council with contemning ** excommnni- 
catiofl and homing," persisting in *' obdured and papish opi- 
nions and errors,'* and visiting all parts of the country, ** as 
if thoy were free and Kiwful subjects." Sir William Grierson 
of I^g, and Sir John Charteris of Amisfield, were commis- 
sioned to apprehend those thus denounced, as well asthrir ** re- 
setters," or harbourers. How it fared with Herbert Maxwell 
does not appear, but the commissioners were successful in 
ciptnring in New Abbey Charles Brown of Chnchan, and 
Gilbert Brown of Shambellie (/>o»ie#/iV; i4niui&, vol. ii. pp. 
18 and 19); whereupon Janet Johnston of Newbie, Lady 
Lochhill, spouse of John Brown, assembling the women of 
the parish, .nttacked the minister and schoolmaster, their 
wives and servants, with sticks and stones. For this ener- 
getic defence of her faith I^dy I/>chhill was banished the 
rc.ilm, under a penalty of 1,000 merks if she dared to return. 
Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel died in Oct 1637, leaving 



' I 





-1. John, his tnoeessor. 2. Edwiird. 8. Georf^. 4. 
Robert. 6. Darban (Udj Mabie, March 1628). 6. Ma- 
rioa, and an illegitunate Bon, Herbert. 

The eldest son, John Maxwell of Kirkconnel, was retonied 
licir to his father, Dec. 19, 1638, in the lands of Kirkconnel, 
with salmon fishings in the water of Kith, &c, and had 
usine therein, J;ai. 31, 1639. James Maxwell of Innerwick 
bad receiTed from Charles I. a gift of the non-entry of the lands. 
la 1642, John Maxwell of Kirkoonnel morriftd Agnes, daughter 
ot' Stephen I^nrie of Maxwellton, and Marion Corsone, his 
spooM. John Maxwell of Kirkconnel got into difficulties 
mon after his marriage, bnt the estate was preserved by 
the pnident management of his lady, liberally assiiited by 
l4klr Maxwellton, her mother. He died in or bet'ure the 
Tear 1679, his wife surviving him. They had 4 sons nnd 
3dai^tcis. I.James. 2. William. 3. Herbert, a Jesuit 
priest. 4. Stephen, a Jesuit priest. 5. Euphemia, ;/i. the 
i^rd of Corbeath. 6. Marion. 7. Agnes, ni. Edmund, eldest 
son of William Brown of Nunton. 

The eldest son, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, nisirried, in 
1G72, Elizjibeth, only daughter of Alexander Durham of Ber- 
wick, son of Sir John Durham of Duntarvie and I«idy Mnr- 
gAret Abercrumby, probably of Biricenbog. Herbert Max- 
v.ell, Jesuit priest, was, in Oct. 1G86, appointed cli:iplain to 
the earl of Melfurt, secretary of James VII., and about the 
k.-ime time, his brother, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, was 
.nppoioted one of the receivers-general of the Customs, &c. 
(cnromiasion dated at Whitehall, Oct. 22, 1G86). When, on 
Dec 10, 1687, King James, by his royal writ, reduced tlie 
number of the recdvers-general fiom four to two, ho granted 
tu Kiricoonnel the office of superintendent of the customs, 
foreign excise, rents, casualties of royal property, and funds 
allocated for the payment of fees and pensions. The salary 
was at first £200 but afterwards i:300 yearly. The Revo- 
lotion soon deprived him of all place and pension. He died 
in or before the year 1690. He had 4 sons and 2 daughters, 
riz — 1. James, his successor. 2. William, who succeeded 
James. 8. Alexander. 4. Stephen, Jesuit priest. S.Agnes. 
6. EUzabeth. 

The eldest son, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, was edu- 
cated ot Donay, and served heir gener.iI to his father Dec. 
21, 1699, but never otherwise made up his titles. The I^rd 
Atlvocotc cited him and the earl of Nithsdale to appear befui-c 
li:c Justiciary Court in Edinburpli, Feb. 2, 1704, to answer 
tor contravening the acts of parliament against heaving mass 
and harbouring and concealing Jesuits and prie6ts, and of 
wLIcU ** shaking off all fear of God," it was alleged, they 
were guilty. This did not prevent him from petitioning tlie 
Piveriiment, in that very year, for payment of a balance due 
:o Lis fxtlier as receiver-general. The books of the kirk sos- 
>:>n f.f New Abbey in 1705 stigmatised the Maxwells of Kirk- 
« nnel as " a popish family," and warned Protestants not to 
tulcc domestic senice with them. James Maxwell died, 
*:tl:ont issue, about 1705. 

His next brother, William Maxwell, succeeded to Kirk- 
Miiiel. like James, he was eduaited at Donay, whence he 
^t1:.^lcd to Scotland in 1696. In the inquest by the pres- 
:;:'TT into the number of papists in each parish in 1701, 
^Vjlliam is mentioned as brother of the laird of Kirkconnel. 
lie WAS scr^-ed heir general to his brother James, Feb. 14, 
I'Oo, in which year he was called on as an heritor to pay h'ls 
r-ronortion of £137 Gs. Scots money for building of the manse 
^ Troqneer. He married, April 29, 1706, Janet, eldest 
(loagbtcr of (Jeorge Maxwell of C.Hrnsalloch, widow of Colonel 
Jtihn Donj;las of Stenhonse, and eventually heiress of Cam- 
mIMi, under the disposition and deed of entiil executed by 

James Maxwell of Camsalloch, her brother, March 11, 
1745. On May 6, 1708, William Maxwell executed a dis- 
position, settling the succession to his estates. On June 15, 
1733, he agreed to dispone heritably to William and Robert 
Bimie 8 merklands of the 12 merklands of Kelton, James 
Maxwell of Bamdeugh, as next Protestant heir to Kirkcon- 
nel, giving his assent thereto, which was probably considered 
necessary by the purchasers, owing to the penal laws then 
in force against Koman Catliolics. John Maxwell of 
Barncleugh, and Margaret Young, his spouse, tbe father 
and mother of the James Maxwell here mentioned, are both 
entered as " papists " in the lists made ont for the privy 
council in 1704. William Maxwell of Kirkconnel died April 
13, 1746. John Bigg, someUme tenant in Meikle Knox, and 
formerly in Townhead, near Kirkconnel, used to relate that 
when James Maxwell, his son and heir, went off m 1745 to 
join Prince Charles, th; c!d man, his father, rejoiced, sjiying 
that his son was going in a good cause, nnd that if he lost his 
life it would bo well spent He had issne^l. Elizabeth, 
married, before 1730, to William Maxwell of Munches. 2. 
James, his successor. 3. Agnes. 4. Janet 5. Alary. 6. 
George, Jesuit priest 7. Margaret 8. William, Jesuit priest 
9. Clarion, married John Menzies of Pitfoddels. 10. Halbert. 
The eldest son, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, commenced 
grammar at Dou.iy college, August 21, 1721, and was dis- 
tinguished as a student of great genius and persevering dili- 
gence. After concluding his conrse of philosophy, he re- 
turned to Scotland in 1728. In 1745, James Maxwell, then 
younger of Kirkconnel, took part in the insurrection, and be- 
came an officer in the Pretender's service, nnd of sndi rank 
as to have had access to know the most material things that 
were transacted ** hi the council, tliough not a member of it** 
He w.ns, moreover, an "eyewitness of the greatest part of what 
happened in the field.*' Alter the battle of CuUoden he 
escaped to France, and while residing at St Germains for 
several years, drew up a " Narrative of Charlei, Prince of 
Wales* Expedition to Scotland in the year 1745 ** (printed by 
the Maitland Club, 1841), which he evidently intended for 
publication. While he thus resided abroad, his mother, Janet 
Maxwell of Camsalloch, m.inaged the Kirkconnel estate to 
the best advantage, and protected her son's interests as far 
as in her power. In Juno 1746, the whole troop horses of 
St. George's regiment of dragoons were put into the Kirkcon- 
nel policies, besides 40 or 50 galloways belonging to the offi- 
cers or soldiers; and the tacksmen petitioned Lieutenant- 
Gcneral Bland, commander-in-chief in Scotland, for compen- 
sation in consequence. In 1 750, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel 
ventured to return to Scotland, and built, with bricks made 
on the property, the modem portion of the front of Kirkcon- 
ncl-house. He sold the estate of Camsalloch, derived from 
his mother (who died in 1755), to Mr. Alexander Johnston, 
merchant in London, ancestor of Major-General Johnston of 
Camsalloch (1862), and purchased the estate of Mabie. He 
was a witness in 1755 to the marriage of his sister Marion 
with John Menzies of Pitfoddels. In 1758 he married Marv, 
youngest daughter of Thomas Riddell of Swinburne Castle. 
He died July 23, 1762, aged 54 years. *' His Narrative,*' the 
Maitland Club editor says, " is composed with a remarkable 
degree of precision and taste, inasmuch as rather to appear 
tlie production of a practised litterateur than the work of a 
private gentleman who merely aimed at giving memoranda 
of a series of remarkable events which ho had chanced to wit- 
ness.*' He left 3 sons — 1. James. 2. William. 3. lliomas, 
who died June 1, 1792. The two younger sons were edu- 
cated at the New College of the Jesuits at Dinant, in France, 
arriving there Sept 3, 1771. During his attendance at the 





; I 

1 1 


incdicul scbooU in France, Willbin, the 2d son, imbibed the 
French reTolutionaiy idens of the time, nnd was one of the na- 
tional giucds present at the execution of l^uis XYI., Jan. 
21, 1793. Ue afterwords settled as a phjsician in Dumfries, 
and wns fur man j years one of the most eminent in Scotland 
of his profession. He died at Edinlmi^h, at tlie house of hia 
relative, John Meniaes of Pitfoddels, Oct. 13, 1834. 

The eldest son, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, when verj 
Toung, was, Nov. IC, 1764, rerred heir in spedal to his fu- 
ther, and infeft, under a precept from the crown, April 19, 
17G5, in.the bnds and baronr of Kirkconnel He was twice 
matried, 1st, to Clementinn Kliziibeth Frances, unngliterof Si- 
mon Scroope of Dnnbjr, Yorkshire, witliout issue; and, 2d]y, 
to DorotliT, dauj*hter of William Witham, Esq., solicitor of 
Gmr's Inn, Loudon, grandson of Williiim William of Clifie, 
Yorksliire, the marriage contract signed Aug. 29, 1817. He 
died Feb. 6, 1827, leaving au only daughter, Dorotliy Mary 

This lady, heiress of Kirkconnel, was on July 27, 1827, 
sen'od as nearest and lawful heir of tailzie and provision of 
the deceased James Maxwell of Kirkcoiinvl, her father. She 
married at Southampton, April 17, 184'!, her cousin, Robert 
Shawo James Witham, eldest sumviiig son of William Wi- 
tliam, solicitor, Gray*s Inn, London, and great-grandson of 
William Witham. Esq. of ClifTe, Yorktihire. The Withain 
pedigree is given in Burke's Commoners of England^ vol. iL 
p. 5. Tltis gentleman, as Rubert Maxwell Withum, w:ui, 
with liis spouse, duly infef), under a precojtt of siisine, dated 
Oct. 29, 1846, contained in a charter of Ri'^igtiation granted 
by the crown, in the lauds, barony, and fihliiiigs of Kirkcon- 
nel, to be holden by them of the crown, in conjunct fee and 
liferent, and to tlie heirs of the marriiige. The sasine was 
registered at Edinburgh, Kor. 16, 1846. lliey had also sa- 
sine of the lands of Gillfoot, recorded Feb. 11, 1852. They 
had 6 sons nnd 3 daughters. 1. James Robert, died, an in- 
fant. May 5, 1845. 2. Frances Man'. 3. and 4. James and 
Thomas, twins. 5. William Herbert. 6. Janet, died, an 
infant, May 15, 1853. 7. Inland. 8. Robert Ilvrnard. 9. 
Anner Richard. 

The ^laxwelU of Itrcdiland are a branch of the ancient 
family of the Maxwells of Cnrlnvcrock. CrawfunI, in his 
History of Renfrewshire, suys, ** A little towards the north of 
the castle of Sttunley lie the house and lands of Brediiand, 
which have been possessed by the Iklaxwelhs of this race 
for upwards of two hundred years. Their original chnrter, 
which 1 have seen, is granted by Robert, abbot of Paisley, 
to Thomas Manwvll, dcbijnicd son of Artbour Maxwell, an- 
no 1488, in the reign of James IV., of whom John Maxwell, 
now of Brediiand, is the lineal heur." This family has fur- 
nished some considerable cadets, as the Maxwells of Castle- 
head, the Maxwells of Merksworth, nud the MaxwelU of 

Gavin Maxwell of Casllchead, the son of Hugh Maxwell of 
Rredihmd, married Janet, a daughter of Cochran of Clip- 
pens, a cadet of the family of Dundonald. Of this family the 
second son (on the failure of the eldest) succeeded to Bredi- 
iand, which estate is now in that line. 

The third sou was James Maxwell of Merksworth. He 
married Janet Leckie, of Croy I.eckie, who (through Wil- 
liam Campbell of Glenfallocli) was lineally descended from 
Archibald, 2d earl of Argyll, and from John, 4th earl of 
Atbole. He had a son, Charles, and a daughter, Ann. The 
son married Anna Maxwell, the heiress of Williamwood. 
She was lineally descended from James Maxwell of William- 
wood, whose sufferings in the cause of the Reformation are 

so fully nnd graphically described by Wodfow in bU Hu^ 
tory of the Church. She sold tli« estate of WilUauwtod 
in 1812, and, on her death in 1815, the was inccecdid in 
the representation of both the families of Williamwood and 
Merkkworth by her next sister, Janet, who muriod James 
Gmliam, \\m^^ merchant, Glasgow, and the two fiunifies 
came thus to be represented by her eldest son, Jamci Mas- 
well-Gralnuii, Esq. On his d«ith the estate of Merksworth 
was inherited by his eldest uster, Agnes, whoss dao^ter 
(by her marrii^;e with James Smith, Esq of Cmigend) mar- 
ried David Stuart, 8th, properly 13ih, eail of Bncban. 

Ann, the daughter of James Maxwell of Merksworth, 
married James Black, Esq. of Paisley, the fiithtr of the late 
Mr. BUu^ of CUirmont, near Glasgow, and of otheis of that 
name in Glavgow. (See Lecuk, surname.) 

MAXWELL, Siu Murray, a gallant and dis- 
tinguished naval ofiSccr, was the son of Alexander 
Maxwell, Esq., merchant iu Lcith, and grandson 
of Sir William Maxwell, baronet, of Calderwood. 
He commenced his career at sea under the aus- 
pices of Admiral Sir Samuel Hood, and in 179C 
was appointed a lieutenant. He obtained liis 
conimiiision as post -captain iu 1803, when ho be- 
came commander of the Centaur, a tliird-ratc. 
After serving with distinction iu the West Indies, 
and in the expedition against Surinam, he cx- 
clianged, in the summer of 1805, to the Galatea 
frigate ; and was next nominated to tlic Alccste, 
4G, in whicli, with two other ships under his or- 
ders, lie greatly signalized himself in an attack 
on a Spanish fleet near Cadiz. In the spring of 
1811, when cruising on tlie coast of Istria, he as- 
sisted in the destruction of a French 18-gun brig, 
iu the liarbour of Parenza ; and towards the close 
of the same year, after an engagement of two 
hours and twenty minutes, he captured the French 
frigate La Pomone, of 44 guns and 322 men. In 
October 1815, Captain Maxwell, at the particular 
request of Loi*d Amherst, who was then about to 
proceed on his celebrated embassy to China, was 
appointed to convey him in the Alccsti;, which 
sailed from Spithead Fobniary 9, 1816, and land- 
ed his lordship at the mouth of the Peiho river, 
on the 9th of August. During Lord Amhersfs 
absence at Pekin, the Alceste, accompanied by 
the Lyra brig and General Hewitt, East India- 
man, was employed in a 8ur\'ey of the coasts, in 
the course of which cruise considerable accessions 
wero made to the knowledge of the hydrographcr. 
Captain Basil Hall, who commanded the Lyra, 
published, on his return to England, a very inter- 
esting narrative of the 'Voyage to Corca and 








the IsUnd of Loo Clioo,* dedicating the volume to 
Sir Murray Maxwell, " to whose abilitj in con- 
ducting the voyage, zeal in giving encouragement 
to every inquiry, sagacity in discovering the dis- 
poeitton of the natives, and address in gaining 
their oonfidenco' and good-will," he attributes 
whatever may be found interesting in his pages. 

From this survey Captain Maxwell returned at 
the beginning of li^ovembei*, and immediately ap- 
plied to the Chinese authorities for a pass for the 
Alccstc to proceed up the Hgi'is, to undergo some 
needful repairs. His request was treated with 
evasion and delay, and on his attempt to sail 
without the requisite permission, an inferior 
mandarin went on board, and desii*ed the ship 
to be brought to anchor, or the batteries would 
fire and sink her. Instead of complying with 
this insolent demand, Captain Maxwell at once 
detained the mandarin as his prisoner, and 
issued orders that the Alceste should be steered 
under the principal fort of the Bocca. On her 
approach, the batteries, and about eighteen war- 
junks, opened upon her a heavy, though ill-direct- 
ed fire ; bnt the return of a single shot silenced 
the flotilla, and one determined broadside put an 
end to the ineffectual attack from the batteries. 
The Alceste proceeded without farther molesta- 
tion to Whampoa, where she remained until the 
return of Lord Amherst in January 1817. In 
consequence of Captain Maxwell's spirited con- 
duct, it was publicly announced by the Chinese, 
with their usual dissimulation, that the affair at 
the Bocca Tigris was nothing more than a friend- 
ly salute ! 

On her homewai*d bound voyage, the Alceste 
had proceeded as far as the Straits of Caspar, 
when, on the 18th Februar}-, she struck on a 
sanken and unknown rock, three miles distant 
from Pnlo I^at. A landing having been eiTcctcd 
on that barren island. Lord Amhei-st and his suite 
proceeded in the barge and cutter to Batavia, a 
distance of 200 miles ; and after a passage of four 
Bights and three days, in which they suffered 
much from the scarcity of water and provisions, 
they happily arrived at their destination. The 
Company's cruiser Temate was immediately dis- 
patched to Captain Maxwell, and those who re- 
mained with bun ; but in consequence of contrary 

currents, she did not aiTive for a fortnight. Tlicir 
situation in tlie meantime had attracted the notice 
of the Malay proas, or pirate boats, who had 
obliged Lieutenant Hinckman and his detachment 
to quit the wreck, which they had burnt to the 
water's edge. These boats having inci-eased to 
about sixty in number, each containing from 
eight to twelve men, completely blockaded the 
shipwrecked crew; but on the approach of the 
Temate they speedily disappeared. For some 
days Captain Maxwell had been actively employ- 
ed in fortifying a hill, and providing his party 
with ammunition ; and so well prepared were they 
for an attack, that at length they rather wished 
than dreaded it. Mr. Ellis, the third commissioner 
of the embassy, who had returned from Batavia in 
the Temate, in his published 'Joumal,* says, 
^' My expectations of the security of the position 
were more than realized when I ascended the hill ; 
and many an assulant must have fallen before an 
entrance could have been effected. Participation 
of privation, and equal distribution of comfort, 
had lightened the weight of suffering to all ; and 
I found the universal sentiment to be, an enthu- 
siastic admiration of the temper, energy, and ar- 
rangements of Captain Maxwell." 

On his retm*n to England he was tried by a 
court-martial at Portsmouth in August 181 7, for the 
loss of the Alceste, but was most honourably ac- 
quitted, the court at the same time declaring that 
^^ his coolness, self-collection, and exertions, were 
highly conspicuous.'* He received the honour of 
knighthood May 27, 1818; and May 20, 1819, he 
was presented by the East India Company with 
the sum of £1,500 for the services rendered by 
him to the embassy, and as a remuneration for 
the loss he had sustained on his return from Chi- 
na. He was appohited to the Bulwark, a third- 
rate, in June 1821, was removed to the Briton 
frigate, November 28, 1822, and was afterwards 
employed on the South American station. In 
May 1831 he was appointed lieutenant-governor 
of Prince Edward's Island, and was preparing for 
his departure, when he died, after a short illness, 
June 26 of that year. 

His portrait, which fonned the frontispiece to 
one of the volumes of the once celebrated Percy 
Anecdotes, is given on the following page : 


MAYSE, .Ions, auUior of "ITif Siller Gi 
aiiil utiici' ]ii>ciiis, was bom iu Dumfries, 2 
Jlnvj;h 17r>3, auil received his education at 

to two ciuitos, mild tlien to tbreei ud became ao 
popular tliat it was Kvcml times reprinted. In 
1608 it was publislicd in Tour caotoe, witb notes 
and a glogsaiy. Another clcgnut edition, enlarged 
to five cantos, was pablislied by subscription In 
1636. It exiiibils taanj exquisitely painted scenes 
and skctclicB of clinracler, dmwn from life, aud 
described witti the case aud vigour of a tmc poet. 
For some tinio after its first pnblication, Mr. 
JIaj-ne contiibuted various pieces to Ruddiman's 
^Veckly MugoEiue, nuioug tlie cliief of wliicii waa 
\m ' llallow-ecu.' He alM rxchnnged versea in 
[iriiit wiih Telford, tlie cdtliratcd engineer, like 
liiinself n native <>f Dumfries, wlio, iu liis j^onth, 
n-aa much attnclied to the rustic ninsc. 

While he resided at Glasgow, lie passed through 
■A regular tcnn of «en-iec with tiio Messrs. Fonlis, 
the printers, of the Glasgow University press, 
wjih wlioni he remained from 1782 to 1787; on 
Uic expiry of wliicli lie proceeded to London, 
whi'Tii he was for many years the printer, editor, 
niid joint proprietor of the Star evening paper, in 
which not a few of hh beautiful ballads were first 
pnblislied. lie nl^o contributed lyrical pieces to 
various of the Slagnziiies, particularly to the Gen- 

111* fiitlicv's f;iinily, Hho went to reside on a pro- 
l>eriy they had acqiiirod at llio lieud of (lio Green, 
near that city, ^^']li^e yet a ineii; joutli, " ere 
eai'c was bom," he liegiin to court the imises, and 
he had earned a repnt.ition before tliu 
publication of tlic [Ktoins of Itnnis, wlio, to a littli- 
piece of Mayue's, entitled ' Ilallow-ccn,' is under- 
stood to have been indebted for the suljeet of his 
iuimituble poem under the same name. 

In 1777 the original of 'The SiHer Gun' nan 
written, witli the object of dcscriliing the celehra- 
lion of an ancient custom, revived in that year, of 
^booting for n small silver gun at Dnuifiics on the 
king's birth-dny. 11ie poem consisted at first of 
, printed ot Dumfries on a 
It was shortly nflcr extended 

only twelve s 
imall quarto page 

Graiiiuiai' school of that town, under the learned llenian's ^^agnKine, from 1807 to 1817. His only 

Dr. CliHinnan, whose memory ho bos eulogised in other poem of any length is one of considerable 

tlic tliii'd canto of iii^ principal poem. On merit, entitled 'Glasgow,' illustrated with notes, 

li'aving seliool, lie was sent nt an early agu which appeared in 1800, and has gone through 

to learn tlie luisiiiess of a printer, ond was for several editions. In the same year he printed 

some time in Ilie office of tbc Dumfries .Tour- 'English, Peotii, and Irishmen,' a patriotic ad- 

ii)d. lie nflerwanU ivnioved to Glasgow, with dress to tite inhahilants of the united kingdom. 

excelled principally in ballad poetry, ond lis 
' Logan llrae^,' and ' IIiTen of KirkconncU Lea,' 
are inferior to no pocnu of their kind in the lan- 
guage. In private life Mr. Mayno was very nn- 
assuming. Ciinninglinm snys of Iiim, that 
" a better or wnnncr-hearled man never existed." 
lie died at Ixindon, nt nn advanced age, March 
14, 18.tC. He left a sun, W. H. Mnyne, who 
held an official situation in the India house. 

MBi.ranT, enri of, ■ titlg in tlto ScottlHli pecnge, «Mir«iTed 
in \CM, on ihc Iton. John Dnimmond, ucond »n of th« 
tliii'd viirl at I'erth. Id IfiKO li« liiil been uppuintcd genenl 
ufthc ordnuin, .nnd deputj garomor uf Kdinlrai^li caitla, in 
1G82 (rciuanr dtputt, (md in ScplembR 1631 OM of tha 
priiKipiil wcn'tnrin of itnlc for ScotLind, in office wliirh fa« 
lidil dnring llic liut peiHcutinG Tcan of tlioGtniuti. On 
tlic nUMbion of Junei Vlt,, be viu, lllli April IC6S, en- 
ntu J vLKOunt of ilelfoit in Ar^lnliin, put of tlw tailaUi 





>f the earl of Ai^le, with tlie tecondwrj title of Lord 
lond of GUstoQD. He had married, first, 80th April, 
Sophia, daughter and heiress of Margaret Lundin of 
, Fifeshire, bj the Hon. Robert Maitland, brotlier of 
■JB of Laaderdale, and by her had three sons and tliree 
in. He married, secondly, Knphemia, daughter of 
omas Wallace of Crnigie, a lord of session and lord- 
deifc, and bj her had six sons and five daughters. 
I created eari of Melfort, viscount of Forth, Jjord 
lood of Rickertoon, Castlemains, and Gilstoun, 12th 

1686, the patents of his honours being taken to him 
I heirs male of his body of his second marriage, wliich 

to the heirs male whatever of his body. The reason 
issue of his first marriage being thus passed over was 
was frustrated by the Lundin family, who were zeal- 
»tC8tant8, in his attempt to educate his sons by that 
;e in the Romish faith, to which he had become n 

hit re\'ival of the order of the Thistle in 1687, Lord 

was constituted one of the knights eompsnions 

At the Revolution he repaired to the abdicated 

France, and in 1690 attended him to Ireland. By 

len monarch he was invested with the order of the 

Not returning to Scotland within the time limited 

he was outlawed by the high court of justiciary, 23d 

S94, and attainted by act of parliament, 2d July 1695. 

Ill clause, however, provided that his forfeiture should 

ivs affect or tnint the blood of the children of his first 

;e with Sophia Lundin. He was created duke de 

and count de Lnssan in France in 1701, and had the 

Iministration at St. Germains for several years. He 

ere in January 1714. His second wife lived to be 

M) years of age, and supported herself in her latter 

y keeping one of the two faro tables authorized by 


sidest son of the second marri.nge, John, second duke 
nt, died in 1752. Thomas, the second son, an officer 
•ervice of Charles VL, emperor of Germany, died 
led, in 1715; William, the third son, abbe-prirol of 
lied in Spain in 1712; Andrew, the fourth son, a col- 
horse in the French sen*ice, married a lady named 
me Silria de St. Ilermione, described as n 
in the French arniy. (^Dmujlat' Peerage^ vol. i. p. 
ood's c<'.ition.) By her he had a son, designed Count 
brt, a major- genernl in the same service. The sixth 
ilip, also an officer in the French nrmy, ilicJ of wonnds 
1 in the wars of Louis XIV. 

second duke of Melfort nianied the widow of Henry 
les, duke of Albemarle, natural son of James VII., 
I three sons : Thomas, his heir ; I.«wis, major-general 
Fn-nch service and colonel of the regiment of royal 
fu the reduction of which corps he got a pension from 
irt of France ; and John, lieutenant of the guards of 
I of Poland, elector of Saxony, with the rank of ma- 


las, the eldest son, third duke of Melfort, had a con- 
e estate in Lowor I^nguedoc. By a lady of the name 
r de Bcrcnger, he had four sons and two daughters, 
i«^m8 not to have married her till afler some of them 
tm. In 1805, Charles Edward Drummond, styling 
liuke of Melfort, the second but eldest surviving son, 
A dnim for tlie estate of Perth. He stated himself 
been bom 1st January 1752, although his father was 
lied to Mary de Berenger till 2Gth July 1755. His 
t brother, Leon Maurice Drummond, residing in Lon- 
rth son of the third duke, took a j^rotest that he was 

great-grandson and lawM heir of John dake of Melfort. He 
married Lace Elizabeth de Longoemarre, and with two daugh- 
ters had a son, George, bom in London, 6th May 1807. 
This Gooi^, diiko of Melfort, soceecded his nnde in the 
French honoors in 1840, and in 1841 petitioned the queen 
for the restoration of the Scottish attainted titles of Perth. 
In 1848 he proved his descent before the committee of privi- 
leges of the house of lords, and was restored in blood by act 
of parliament in 1853. The same year he was re-invested in 
the earldom of Perth. (See Perth, earl of.) 

Melgum, viscount of, a title, now extinct, in the peerage 
of Scotland, conferred on I/>rd John Gordon, second son ol 
the first marquis of Huntly, by Charles I. in 1627, with the 
secondary title of Lord Aboyne. He was burnt to death in 
the castle of Frendranght, 18th October, 1630 (see vol. ii. p. 
271). He had married Lady Sophia Hay, fifth daughter of 
Frauds, ninth earl of Errol, and had an only daughter, llie 
ballad called * The Burning of Frendranght,* thus describes 
her anguish on receiving, by his servant, the intelligence of 
her lord^s fate : 

*' be to you, Geoi^^ Gordon ; 
An ill death may you dee. 
Sac safe and sound as ye stand there, 
And my lord bereaved from me. 

* I bade him lonp, I bade him come, 
I bade him lonp to me ; 
rd catch him in my armis two, 
A foot I should not flee. 

He threw me rings from his white fingers, 

Which were so long and small, 
To give to you his lady fair. 

Where you sat in your hall.* 

Sophia Hay, Sophia Hay, 

bonnie Sophie was her name ; 
ller waiting maid put on her clothes. 

But I wat she tore them off again." 

The courtesy title of Viscount Melgum is held by the eld- 
est son of the earl of Minto, a peerage of the united kingdom, 
of the creation of 1813, (see vol. ii. p. 132). 

Mklrose, carl of, a title in the peerage of Scotland, con- 
ferred, 20th March 1619, on Sir Thomas Hamilton of Drum- 
cairn, an eminent advocate and lord of session. After hold- 
ing it for eight years he exchanged it fur that of earl of 
Haddington, (see vol. ii. p. 394). Baron Melros, in the peer- 
age of the united kingdom, is the title by which the carls of 
Haddington have sat in the house of lords since 1827. 

Melviij.e, a surname of .nncient standing in Scotland, 
derived from lands of that name in 2ilid Lothian. Before the 
middle of the 12th century, a baron of Anglo-Norman line- 
age, named ^lale, settled, under David I., on the lands refer- 
red to, and called his manor, after himself, Maleville, 
whence the surname of Melville. Galfrid de Maleville, the 
first of the family, was vicccomes of Edinburgh castle under 
Malcolm IV., and justidary under William the IJon. The 
family remained in possession of their andent manor 
till the reign of Robert II. The original stock then 
terminating in an heiress, Agnes, she married Sir John 
Ross of Halkhead, and their descendant was, by James 








1 1 

IVm crented liord Itoss, in wboM famiijr the barony of Blel- 
▼illti I'tinaincd till 1705. 

• WM much noticed at the oonrt of France, and obtained an 
hoooarable emplojment nnder Henry II. In 1569 he re- 
tained to ScotUnd, and waa lent to England with Ifaitland 
of Ijethington, to solicit the asnitance of Qnean Kh'aibeth for 
the lorda cf the congregation. In 1562 he was awora a privy 
conncillor. After the ** Chase-abont Baid," in 1665, he was 
employed by the eari of Moray, one of the prindpnl nobles 
who opposed Mary*s marriage to Damley, to intcitedo for his 
pardon with the queen. Shortly after he was sent to Eng- 
land as ambassador, und on his retam he sidlfiilly nnramUsd 
to his mijttms the crooked policy of £Iiiabeth and bar niitti- 
sten. {SIdtiUe'9 Ifemoirg.') After the *TirntfinBtiim cf 
Damley he was reappointed ambassador to England, and 
again after the marriage of Mary to Bothwell. 

"When MhiT was confined in Jjochleren castle, he was sent 
to her by the earl of Athole and the lairds of Tnllibaidin and 
Lethlngton, her principal connallors, with a ring which she 
knew to be theirs, advising lier to subscribe the rengnation 
of the crown, as it would be held null, being extorted from 
her by fears of her life. He also conveyed to her a writing 
from Sir Nicholas 'iliroginorton, the Engliah ambassador, de- 
siring her to subscribe whatever they required, as what she 
signed in her captivity could not be held valid, and assuring 
her of Queen KUubeth's protection. This afterwards fonned 
the chief ground of Mnry's ill-founded reliance on her oon- 
sin*8 promises. On Mar\-*s escape from I/>clileven he joined 
her nt Hamilton, and publicly avowed the restmint nnder 
which she had acted in resi^iing the crown. 

In the dvil war which followed the assassination of the r- 
gent Mnmy, he adheretl to the queen's party, and with Kiik- 
aldy of Grange and Maitlnnd of Lethington held ont the 
castle of Edinburgh till its surrender in 1578. He would 
have shared the fate of Kirkaldy but for the interceasioo of 
Killigrcw, the English ambassador. During the remainder of 
the earl of Morton*s regency, he appears to hare lived in re- 
tirement, and in 1579 the benefit of the pacification of Perth 
was extended to him. 

In August 1582, he was appointed treasurer-depute, and 
in October of the same year knighted. In December 1586, 
he was sent by James VI., with the master of Gray, to Eng- 
land to entreat Queen Elizabeth for his mother's liife. This 
duty he performed with fidelity and zeal. According to hti 
brother s account, *" be spok brave and stout language to the 
consaill of England, sa that thequen herself hoisted him of his 
lyf ;" and he would have been afterwards detained prisoner, 
but for the interest of the master of Gray. {IfMOe*$ Jfe- 
moirSy p. 357.) In 1589, when James sailed for Norway, to 
bring over his queen, Sir Robert Melville was made vice- 
chancellor of the kingdom, and he received the gratefol 
thanks of his mnjcsty, on his return, for the way in which he 
had managed mntters in his absence. On 7th June 1693, he 
was again sent ambassador to England. On lltb Jnoe 1694, 
he was admitted an extraordinary lord of session, and took 
his seat on the bencli as Ijord Murdocaimie. The king^s 
letter of nomination states that his majesfy had *'ezperienco 
of the fnitliFul ser%'icc done to us at all tymes" by Sir Robert, 
" and how willing he is to dischaige his dewtie therein to our 
honour and wiell of our realm and lieges thereof." (Booli ^ 
Sederunt.) He resigned his office of treasurer- depute in Jan- 
uary 159G, in consequence of the appointment of tlie Octavi- 
ans, as the eight commissionen of the treasury were called, 
at which time the king was largely in his debt In 1597, an 
act was passed by which his majesty, with advice of tbt 
Estates, promised to pay the bahince due, and prohibited any 
diligence being executed at the instance of his croditors 

Mklviixe, eari of, a title in the peerage of Scotland, con- 
joined since 1704 with that of earl of I^even, and conferred, 
in 1690, on George, fourth Lord Melville, descended from Sir 
John de Melrille of Raitli, in Fife, who swore fealty to Ed- 
ward I. in 1296. Sir John Melville of Raith, the ninth in 
descent from this baron, was a favoorito with James V., by 
whom he was appointed master-general of the ordnance and 
captain of the castle of Dunbar. In 1536, and again in 1542, 
he*obtaine<l chartora to himself and Helen Napier his wife, of 
the king's lands of Murdocairnie in Fife. He early joined the 
party of the Reformation in Scotland, and after sufiering 
from the animosity of Cardinal Bethune, at length fell a ric- 
tim to lii5 successor in the primacy. Archbishop Hamilton. 
In 1550 he was tried for high treason, and executed. Cal- 
derwood (IIimL of Kirk of Scotland, p. 262) says, " Joline 
Melville, laird of Raith in Fife, an aged man, and of great 
nccompt with King James the Fyft, was belieaded for writing 
ti letter to an Englishman, in favour of a captive, his friend, 
with whome he was keeped as prisoner. Although there was 
not the least siispicioun of anie fault, yitt lost he his head, 
becaus he was knowne to be one that unfaincdlie favoured 
the truthe, and was a great friend to those that were in the 
castle of Sanct Andrews, (the conspiraton against Cardinal 
Bcthunc). The letter, as was alledged, was found in the 
house of Ormiston. Howsoever it was, the cruel beasts, tlin 
bishop of Sanct Andrews and the abbot of Dunfermline, 
ceased not till his head was strickin frome him. They were 
not content of his death, till he was forfaulted also, and his 
patrimonic bestowed upon Haniiltoun, the governor's young- 
est son." With a daughter, Janet, married to Sir James 
Kirkaldy of Grange, knight, he had six sons, five of whom 
wore eminent during the reign of Queen Mary and the rvgen- 
cics which followed her resignation of the crown. 

The eldest son, John Melville of Raith, was restored to his 
father's estate by the queen regent about 1553, at the special 
request of Henry II. of France. He was one of the barons 
wlio, in July 1567, subscribed the articles p.nssed in the Gen- 
eral Assembly for the support of the Reformed religion and 
the putting down of poperr. The second son. Sir Robert 
Alelvillo of Murdi>cainiie, was the first I/>rd Melville, of wliom 
afterwards. Of Sir James Melville of Hallhill, the third son, 
an eminent courtier and statesman, a memoir is subsequently 
given in larger type. William Melville, the fourth son, coin- 
mendator of Tongland and Kilwinning, was appointed an or- 
dinary lord of session, 14th August, 1587, when he took the 
title of liOrd Tongland. Soon after, he was sent by James 
VI. to the court of Navarre, to see and report upon the prin- 
cess, as a wife for the king, and Returned with a portrait of 
the lady, and *' a good report of her rare qualities.** The 
marriage, however, did not take place. He was frequently 
employed as one of the lords commissioners for opening the 
Scots parliament, and is supposed to have died in the autumn 
of 1613. He is said, by his brother, in his Memoin (p. 365), 
to have l»een a good scholar, and to have been able to speidc 
perfectly "the I.itin, the Dutche, the Flemyn, and the 
Frcnclie tongue." Sir Andrew Melville of Garvock, the filth 
son, was master of the household to Queen Mary, and at- 
tended her in her last momento at Fotheringay. He was 
also master of the household to James VI. Darid Melville 
of Nevrmill, the sixth son, wss a captain in the army. 

To ratum to the second son. Sir Robert 3Ielville, first Lord 
^felrille, — he was a very eminent character during the reigns 
of Mary and James. Having gone abroad in his youth, he | against him, until he should be so paid. (^Act. Part roi It. 





I ■! 

! t 

I I' 


p^ 147.) On Seth Febmary 1601, he reugned his seat on 
the bench in faTour of his son, and in 1604 he was appointed 
CM of the oommissionen for the projected union between the 
tvo kingdomsL He was raised to the peerage bj the title of 
Loid MdvUIe of Monimail, 80th April 1616, and died in 
1621, at the advanced age of 94. 

His onlj son, Robert, second I^rd Melville, was a privy 
cooDcillor to King Jamea, bj whom he was knighted, and in 
FebniarT 160!, on the resignation of his father, he was ap- 
pointed an eitraordinary lord of session, by the title of I^rd 
Bvntishind. He was removed in Febmaxy 1626, wlien nn 
CBtire change of the extraordinary lords took place. He was 
liw a privy councillor to Charles I., and one of tlie roy»I 
commissionen to open the pariiament of Scotland, 18th June 
16S8. In that assembly he eneigetically, though unsuccess- 
fally, q^posed the act for conferring on the king the power 
of regulating ecclesiastical habits, and addressing the king, 
tben present, he exdaimed aloud, " I have sworn with your 
fither and the whole kingdom to the Confession of Faith, in 
vUcfa the innovations intended by these articles were so- 
iemoly abjured.** He died at Edinburgh, without issue, 9th 
Uardi 1686, and was succeeded by his coanin, John Melville 
of Baith, third Lord Melville, whose brother, Thomas Mel- 
TiUe, aequired from him the lands of Murdocaimie, and was 
tBcestor of the Mdvilles of Murdocaimie. 

Ihe thbd Lord Melville died in 1643. HU elder son 
Gcoige, fbnrth knrd, and first earl of Melville, in consequence 
of his known liberal principles, found it necessary to retire to 
tbe continent on the detection of the Ryehonse plot in 1683, 
iltfaougfa he had no connexion with that conspiracy. In 
Jine 1685, he accompanied the duke of Monmouth when he 
landed at Lyme from Holland, and on the failure of his nt- 
tmpi to ovortum the government of his uncle James VII., 
Lord Melville again escaped to the continent. Hb estates 
were forfdted by act of attainder the same year. 

Id 1688 he came over to England with William, prince of 
Oi«^ and, inunediately after, his forfeiture was rescinded. 
On 8th April 1690, he was created earl of Melville, viscount 
of Kirkcaldy, Lord Raith, l^Ionimail, and Balwearie. Tlie 
iMM year he was appointed sole secrctniy of state for Scot- 
knd, and ooostitnted high commissioner to the Scots parlia- 
ment. As high commisaoner also to the parliament which 
met in September following, he gave the royal assent to the 
act for abofishing patronage. In 1691 he resigned the office 
of sccrstaiy of state, and was fippointed keeper of the privy 
leal, an oflBoe which he held till 1696, when he became presi- 
dent of the coonciL He died in 1707. By his countess, 
GathsriDe, daughter of Alexander, I^rd Balgonie, son of the 
iCBOwocd military commander, Alexander Leslie, first earl of 
Leven, he had three sons and one daughter. His eldest son, 
Alexander, Lord Raith, a nobleman of considemble talent, 
was appointed treasurer depute of Scotland in 1689, and died, 
without iasne, before his father in 1698. 

The second son, David, second eari of Melville, succeeded, 
ea the death of his mother in 1718, to the earldom of Leven. 
(See Lktek, eari of.) The titles were thenceforth conjoined. 

MELvnxB, viscount of, a title in the peerage of the united 
kingdom, co nfe r r e d , with the secondary title of baron Dnnira, 
m tht county of Perth, December 21st, 1802, on tlie Right 
Ben. Heniy Dundas, a distinguished statesman, a memoir of 
whom is ipven at vol ii. page 97. By his first wife, Eliza- 
beth, daiai^ttT of David Rennie, Esq., who had purchased 
MelviOa Castle. Mid Lothian, which he bestowed, with his 
dai^ter, on his soii-in-law, he had one son and three dangh- 
A leeond maniags was without isMie. 

His son, Robert, second Viscount Melville, was bom in 1771, 
He was educated at the High school of Edinburgh, and Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge. One of his school companions 
at the former was Sir Walter Scott, neither of them being 
then titled, his friendship with whom was strengthened by 
their subsequent service together in the Mid Lothian yeo- 
manry. In 1802 he was chosen M.P. for ^lid Lothian, for 
which he was subsequently five times re-elected. The ques- 
tion of his father's impeachment caused him to take a fre- 
quent part in the debates in parliament in 1805 and 1806. 
On the change of ministry in Marcli 1807, when the duke of 
Portland becime premier, Mr. Dundas entered office as presi- 
dent of the board of control, and wns sworn a member of the 
pri\7 connciL In 1809, when Sir Arthur Wellcsley, after- 
wards the duke of Wellington, was called from the Irish chief 
secretaiyship to take the command of the British armies in 
Spain, Mr. Dundas was appointed his successor, and was en- 
rolled in the privy council of Irehmd. In January 1810, soon 
after the formation of Mr. Spencer Pemval's admiuistration, 
he returned to the presidency of the board of control. 

Tlie sudden death of his father, on 29th May 1811, gave 
him a place in the house of peers. The same year he was 
appointed keeper of the privy seal of Scotland, a sinecure 
office which expired with him. On the formation of a new 
ministry, having the enri of Liverpool at its head, in the sum- 
mer of 1812, the office of first lord of the admiralty, with a 
seat in the cabinet, was assigned to Viscount Melville, and he 
continued at tlic head of thut department for fifteen years. 
In 1814 he was elected chancellor of the universitv of St. 
Andrews. Nominated in 1821 one of the four exira knights 
of the Thistle, on the enlaigemcnt of the order in 1827 he 
was enrolled one of the ordinary knights. On the accession 
of Mr. Canning to power in the latter year, his lordship re- 
tired from office, declining a sent in the cabinet. When the 
duke of Wellington formed his administration in January 
1828, Viscount Melville resumed his place at the head of the 
admiralty. With the dissolution of the Wellington ministry 
in November 1830, his lordship's official career terminated. 
He was a member of the royal commission of 1826-80 for the 
visitation of the Scottish universities ; in 1843-4, of the royal 
commission for inquiry into the operation of the poor-law in 
Scotland, and in 1817, of the prison board for Scotland. He 
was also keeper of the signet, a deputy-lieutenant of the 
counties of Edinburgh and Linlithgow, one of the commis< 
sioners of the board of trustees for manufactures in Scotland, 
one of the commissioners for the custody of the Scottish re^ 
galia, a lieutenant-general of the royal company of archers in 
Scotland, an elder brother of the Trinity house, governor of 
the Bank of Scotland, &c. He died at Melville castle. Mid 
Lothian, 10th June, 1851, in his 80th year. 

His lordship married, in August 1796, Anne, daughter and 
co-heiress of Richard Huck Saunders, &I.D., grand-niece of 
Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, K.B. On his man-iuge he 
assumed the name of Saunders before his own. lie had four 
sons and two daughters. 

The eldest son, Henry, third Viscount Melville, bom in 
1801, entered the .vmy in 1819, and became a mnjor-generul 
in 1854. He commanded the 83d foot during the insurrec- 
tion in Upper Canada in 1837-8, and was for a short time 
aide-de-camp to the queen. At the battle of Gujerat in In- 
dia, he commamled a brigade, and fur his services he received 
the order of the Bath and the thanks of parliament and of the 
East India Company. In 1853 he was appointed to com- 
mand the Sirhind division of the Indian army, and from 1854 
to 1860 was commander-in-chief of the forces in Scotland ; 
colonel of 100th regiment of foot ; unmarried. 


I ' 

1 1 
1 1 




The 2d son, Vice-admiral the Hon. Uichaxd Saaoden I>uii- 
das, C.B., sacoeeded Admiral Sir Charles Napier in the com- 
mand of tlie naltic fleet, in the war with Russia, in 18o5; 
nnd commanded at the bombardment of Sweaborg, Aug. 9 of 
tlint jear. Bom Jane 11, 1802, he entered the navy June 
15, 1817, as a volunteer on board the Ganymede, 26 guns, 
nnd remained midshipman of that sliip and of the Owen 
(jlendower until Dec. 1820, on the lileditemmenn and South 
American stations. He became lieutenant 18th June, 1821, 
:ind post-captain 17tli July, 1824. In the MeWille, 72, he 
t<)«)k part in the campaign in China. During this service he 
i*cceivod the warm thanks of Sir Gordon Bremer for his con- 
duct At the capture of Ty-cock-tow, as well as at that of the 
forts of the Bocca Tigris. In 1828-29-80 he was private 
secretary to his father, tlien first lord of the admiralty. In 1845 
lie held the same ofKce under the earl of Haddington, the first 
lord of that period. In 1841 the military companionship of 
the Bath was conferred upon hun for liis services in China. 
In 1851 he was appointed superintendent of Deptford dock- 
vard. Rear-admiral of the bine 1853 ; rear-admiral of the 
white 1855', in 1858hebecamc vice-admiral of the blue; one 
of the lords of the admiralty from 1852 to 1855. He died 
suddenly, June 3, 1861. The 3d son, the Hon. Robert Dun- 
das, boru in 1803, storekeeper -general of the navy. The 4th 
son, the Hon. and Rev. Charles Dundas, rector of Epwortli, 
born Sept. 10, 1806, married, in 1833, I^uisa Claris, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Boothhy, issue, 3 sons and 7 daughter*. 

MKLVILLE, Sir James, an eminent courtier, 
son of Sir John Melville of Raith, was bom in 
Fifesliire about 1535. At tbe age of 14 lie was sent 
to Paris by the queen-mother, under the protec- 
tion of the French ambassador, to be a page of 
honour to the youthful Mary, queen of Scots, then 
the consort of the dauphin of France. In May 
lo').*), by the permission of his royal mistress, he 
entered the service of the constable of France, and 
was present at the siege of St. Qucntin, where the 
constable was wounded and taken prisoner, and 
he seems to have attended him in his captivity. 
After the peace he visited his native countiy in 
1559, on a sort of secret mission, to ascertain the 
state of parties in Scotland. He afterwards tra- 
velled on the continent, and remained three years 
at the court of the elector palatine, who employed 
him in various negotiations with the German 
princes. In May 1564 he returned to Scotland, 
having been recalled by Mary, by whom he was 
appointed gentleman of the bedchamber, and no- 
minated one of her privy councillors. Soon after 
he was sent on an embassy to Elizabeth, relative 
to Clary's proposed marriage with Daniley, and 
in June 1566 he was again dL^patched to the Eng- 
lish court with the intelligence of the birth of the 
prince, afterwards James VI. He maintained a 
correspondence in England in favour of Mail's 

Buccession to the crown of tliat kingdom; bnt Yen- 
taring to remonBtrate with ber on lier onhapiiy 
partiality for Bothwell, the queen oommonieated 
bis admonitions to tbe latter, and tbe faithful 
Melville was, in consequence, obliged for some 
time to retire from conrt. He was, however, pre* 
sent at th^ ill-starred nuptials of Mary to that 
nobleman, and be continued her confidential aer- 
vant as long as she remained in Scotland. He 
appears to have bad a high idea of bis own im- 
portance, and occasionally in bis Memoirs blames 
himself for the unfortunate propensity, which he 
says he possessed, of finding fault with the pro- 
ceedings of the great. 

By James YI., to whom he was recommended 
by his unfortunate mother, and who continued 
him in his offices of privy councillor and gentle- 
man of the bedchamber to his queen, Anne of 
Denmark, he was intrusted with various honoura- 
ble employments. On the accession of King 
James to the English throne, he declined to ac- 
company him to England, but afterwards paid his 
majesty a visit of duty, when he was graciously 
received. On account of his age he retired from 
the public service, and occupied bis remaining 
yeai*s in writing the ^Memours* of bis life for the 
use of his son. He died November 1, 1607. His 
manuscript, accidentally found in the castle of 
Edinburgh in 1660, and which affords minute and 
curious descriptions of the manners of the times, 
was published in 1683, by Mr. George Scott, uu- 
der the title of ^ Mcmoii's of Sir James Melvil of 
Ilallhill, containing au impartial Account of the 
most remai'kablc Affaii*s of State during the last 
Age, not mentioned by other Historians ;* repub- 
lished in 1735. He had acquired the estate of 
Hallhill, in the parish of Collessie, Fifeshhx^ from 
the celebrated Henr}' Balnaves, (see vol. i. pago 
229). It remained the property of his descend- 
ants till the reign of Charles II., when it was pur- 
chased by Lord Melville. 

MELVILLE, Andrew, one of the most ilins- 
trious of the Scottish Reformers, whose name is 
second only to that of John Knox, was the young- 
est of nine sons of Richai'd Melville of Baldov}% 
near Montrose, where he was bom August 1, 
1545. His father lost bis life in the battle of Pin- 
kie, when Andrew was only two years old, and 






his motiier dying soon after, he ivas brought np 
under the care of hla eldest brother, afterwards 
minister of Maryton, who, at a proper age, sent 
him to the grammar school of Montroee. Having 
acquired there a thorough linowledge of the clas- 
sics, he was, in 1669, remored to the university 
of St. Andrews, where his great proficiency, espe- 
cially in the Greek language, excited the aston- 
ishment of liis teachers. On completing the nsual 
academical course he left college with the cbnrac- 
ter of being " the best philosopher, poet, and Gre- 
dan, of any young master in the land." In 1564 
he went to France, and remained for two years nt 
the university of Paris. He next proceeded to 
Poictiers, for the purpose of studying the civil 
law, and was elected regent or professor in the 
college of St. Marceon. After continuing there 
for three years, he repaired to Geneva on foot, 
carrying only a Hebrew Bible at his belt, and the 
lame of his great attainments having preceded 
him, by the influence of Beza lie obtained the hu- 
manity chair in the academy, at that time vacant. 
In July 1574 he returned to Scotland, after an 
absence of ten years. Beza, in his letter to the 
General Assembly, wrote that the greatest token of 
affection the kirk of Geneva could show to Scot- 
land was that they had suffei'ed themselves to be 
qiolled of Mr. Andrew Melville, that thereby the 
kirk of Scotland might be enriched. On his ar- 
rival in Edinburgh, he was invited by the Regent 
Morton to enter his family as a domestic tntor, 
but he preferred an academic life to a residence at 
court, and declined the invitation. Shortly after- 
wards he was appointed by the General Assembly 
piiucipal of the university of Glasgow, which, un- 
der his charge, from the improved plan of study 
and disdpline introdaced by him, speedily acquired 
a high reputation as a seat of learning. Besides 
his duties in the university, he ofilciated as minis- 
ter of the church of Govan, in the vicinity. As a 
member of the General Assembly, he took a pro- 
minent part in all the measures of that body 
against episcopacy ; and as he was unflinching in 
his opposition to that form of church government, 
he received the name of ^^ Episcopomastix,*^ or 
'The Scourge of Bishops.' A remarkable in- 
stance of his intrepidity occurred at an interview, 
which took place in October 1577, between him 

and the Regent Moi-ton, when the latter, irritated 
at the proceedings o( the Assembly, exclaimed, 
** There will never be quietness in this conntr}' 
till half a dozen of you be hanged or banished 1 " 
"Hark! Sur," said Melville, "threaten your 
courtiers after that manner! It is the same to 
me whether I rot in the air, or in the ground. 
The earth is the Lord's. Patrui est ubicunque est 
bene. I have been ready to give up my life where 
it would not have been half so well wared, at the 
pleasure of my God. I have lived out of your 
country ten years, as well as in it. Let God be 
glorified, it will not be in your power to hang or 
exile his truth." This bold language Morton did 
not venture to resent. 

Melville was moderator of the General Assem- 
bly which met at Edinburgh 24th April 1578, in 
which the second Book of Discipline was approved 
of. The attention of the Assembly was about this 
time du*ected to the reformation and improvement 
of the universities, and Melville was, in December 
1580, removed from Glasgow, and installed prin- 
cipal of St. Mary's college, St. Andrews. Here, 
besides giving lectures in divinity, he tanght the 
Hebrew, Chaldce, Syiiac, and Rabbinical lan- 
guages, and his prelections were attended, not 
only by young students in unusual numbers, but 
also by some of the masters of the other colleges. 
He was moderator of the Assembly which met at 
St. Andrews 24th April 1582, and also of an ex- 
traordinary meeting of the Assembly, convened at 
Edinburgh 27th June thereafter, in consequence 
of the arbitrary measures of the court, in relation 
particularly to the case of Robert Montgomery, 
the excommunicated archbishop of Glasgow. He 
opened the proceedings with a sennon, in which 
he boldly inveighed against tlic absolute autiiority 
claimed by the government in ecclesiastical mat- 
ters. A spirited remonstrance being agi-ecd to by 
the Assembly, Melville and others were appointed 
to present it to the king, then with the court at 
Perth. When the remonstrance was read before 
his majesty in council, the king's unworthy favour- 
ite, the earl of Arran, menacingly exclaimed, 
" AVho dare subscribe these treasonable articles ?" 
" We dare," said the undaunted Melville, and tak- 
ing a pen, immediately signed his name. His 
example was followed by the other commission- 






era, and so mucli were LeiiDOx and Airan over- 
awed by tlicir intrepidity, tliat they dismissed 
them peaceably. 

For about three years Melvillo had preached, 
assisted by his nephew, in the parish church of 
St. Andrews. In February 1584 he was cited 
before the privy council, to answer a charge of 
treason, founded on some seditious expressions, 
which it was alleged he had made use of in a ser- 
mon ou tlic 4th chapter of Daniel, on the occasion 
of a fast kept during the preceding month ; par- 
ticularly that ho had compared the kiog^s motlicr 
to Nebuchadnezzar, who was banished from the 
kingdom, and would bo restored again. At his ap- 
pearance, he denied using these words, entered in- 
to a full defence of those ho had actually used, and 
presented a protest and declinature, claiming to be 
tried by the ecclesiastical court. When brought be- 
fore the king and council, he boldly told them that 
they 1ia<l exceeded their jurisdiction in judging of 
tlie doctrine, or Ctilling to account any of the ambas- 
sadors or messengers of a king and council greater 
than tiicy, and far above them. Tiien loosing a 
little Hebrew bible from his belt, and throwing it 
on tlie table before them, he said, ^^ That you may 
sec your weakness, oversight, and rashness, in 
taking upon you that which neitlier you ought nor 
can do, there aix! my instructions and warrant. Lot 
me sec wliich of you can judge of them or control 
me therein, that I liavo pas.<cd by my injunc- 
tions." Arran, finding the book in Hebrew, put 
it into the kiii;,'*s hand.*;, sayinj;, *^ Sir, he seonis 
your majesty and council." ** No, my lord, " re- 
plied Melville, " I sconi not, but with all earnest- 
ness, zeal, and gravity, I stand for the cause of 
Jesus Christ and his chin-cli." Not being able to 
prove the charge against him, and unwii]in<; to 
let liini go, the council declared him guilty of de- 
clining tiicir jurisdiction, and of behaving irrever- 
ently before them, and sentenced him to be impri- 
soned in the castle of Edinburgh, and to be further 
punished in his person and goods at the pleasure 
of the king. Before, however, being charged to 
enter him^^el^ in ward, his of continement 
was ordered to be changed to Blackness castle, 
wliich was kept by a dependant of Arran. While 
at dinner the king^s macer was admitted and gave 
him the chai^ to enter witliin 24 hours ; but he 

avoided being sent there by secretly withdrawing 
from Edinburgh. After staying some time at 
Berwick, he proceeded to London, and in the en- 
suing July visited the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, at both of which he was received in a 
manner becoming his learning and reputation. 

On the disgrace of the earl of Arran, Melville 
returned to Scotland with the banished lords, In 
November 1585. Having assisted in re-organix- 
ing the college of Glasgow, he resumed, in the 
following March, his duties at St. Andrews. The 
synod of Fife, which met in April, proceeded to 
excommunicate Adamson, archbishop of St. An- 
drews, for his attempts to overturn the presbyte- 
rian form of government In the church ; and, in 
return, that prelate Issued a sentence of cxoom- 
raunication against l^Ielville, and his nephew, 
James Melville, with others of their brethren. Tn 
consequence of this difference with the archbishop, 
Melville received a written mandate from the 
king to confine his residence to the north of the 
Tay, and he was not restored to his office In the 
university till the following August. Some time 
after, when Adamson had been deprived of his 
archbishopric, and was reduced to great povcrti*, 
finding himself deserted by the king, he addressed 
a letter to his former antagonist, l^Ielville, expres- 
sing regi'ct for his past conduct, and soliciting his 
assistance. Melville hastened to visit him, and 
not only procured contributions for his relief 
among his friends, but continued for several 
months to support him from his own resources. 

In June 1587, Melville was again elected mode- 
rator of the Assembly, and nominated one of the 
commissioners for attending to the proceedings in 
parliament. He was present at the coronation of 
the queon, May 17, 1590, and recited a Latin po- 
em composed for the occasion, which was imme- 
diately published at the desire of the king. In 
the same year he was elected rector of the univer- 
sity of ot. Andrews, an office which, for a series 
of veal's, he continued to hold bv re-election. In 
May 1594 he was again elected moderator of the 
Assembly. Shortly after, ho appeared on behalf 
of the church before the lonls of the articles, and 
urged the forfeiture of the po])ish lords, and along 
with his nephew and two other ministers, he ac- 
companied the kin«r, at his express request, on his 






1 1 





ezpedilioo iigaiost them. In tlie following year, 
when it was proposed to recall the popish nobles 
fhmi exile, he went with some other ministers to 
the eoorention of estates at St. Andrews, to re- 
monstrate agjdnst the design, but was ordered by 
the Idng to withdraw, which he did, after a most 
resolnte reply. The commission of the Assembly 
baring met at Cupnr in Fife, they sent Melville 
and some other members to expostulate with the 
lung. Being admitted to a private andicnce, 
James Melville began to address his majesty with 
great mildness and respect ; but the king bccom- 
hig impatient, charged them with sedition, on 
which Andrew took him by the sleeve, and calling 
him *' God's silly vassal,'' said, '' Tliis is not a 
time to flatter, bnt to speak plainly, for our com- 
mission is iW>m the living God, to^vhom the king 
is subject. We will always humbly reverence 
year majesty in public, bnt having opportunity of 
bdng with your majesty in private, wc must dis- 
charge onr dnty, or else be enemies to Clirist : 
And now, Shre, I must tell yon that there are two 
khigdoms — the kingdom of Christ, whicli is the 
church, whose subject King James VI. is, and of 
whose kingdom he is not a head, nor a lord, but a 
member; and they whom Clirist hath called, and 
eommaoded to watch over his church, and govern 
his spiritual kingdom, have snfficient power and 
aotbority from him so to do, which no Cliristian 
king nor prince should control or discharge, but 
A8»ist and support, otherwise they are not faithful 
subjects to Christ." Tlie king listened patiently 
to this bold admonition, and dismissed tlicm with 
many fair promises which ho never intended to 
fnlftl. For several years following King James 
mide repeated attempts to control the church, nc- 
cording to liis own arbitraiy notions, but he inva- 
riibly encountered a strenuous opponent in An- 
drew Melville ; and he had recourse at last to one 
ef those stratagems wliich he thought the very 
essence of ** king-craft," to secure tlic removal of 
this champion of presbjterianism from Scotland 
altogether. In May 1606, Melville, with his ne- 
phew, and six of their brethren, were called to 
Undon by a letter from the king, on the specious 
pretext that his majesty wished to consult them 
18 to the affairs of the church. Soon after their 
arrival they attended the famous conference held 

September 23, in presence of the kmg at Hamp- 
ton Court, at which Melville spoke at great lengtli, 
and with a boldness which astonished the English 
nobility and clergy. On St Michael's day, Mel- 
ville and his brethren were commanded to attend 
the royal chapel, when, scandalized at the popish 
character of the service, on his return to his lodg- 
ing he vented his indignation in a Latin epigram,* 
for which, a copy having been conveyed to the 
'king, he was brought before the council at White- 
hall. Being by them found guilty of ^* scandalnm 
magnatnm," he was committed first to the custody 
of the dean of St. Paul's, and afterwards to the 
charge of the bishop of Winchester; but was ulti- 
mately sent to the Tower, wlicro he remained a 
prisoner for fonr years. 

At first he was treated with the ntmost rigour, 
and denied even the use of pen, ink, and paper ; 
but his spirit remained unsubdued, and he be- 
guiled his solitary hours by composing Latin ver- 
ses, which, with the tongue of his shoe buckle, he 
engraved on his prison walls. By the interfterence 
of some friends at court, his confinement was, af- 
ter the lapse of nearly ten months, rendered less 
severe. About the end of 1607 the ))rotestants of 
Rochelle endeavoured to obtain his sen*ices as 
professor of divinity in their college, but^the king 
wonld not consent to his liberation. At length, 
in February 1611, at the intercession of the duke 
of Bouillon, he was released from confinement, on 
condition of his becoming professor of theology in 
the protcstant univei*sity of Sedan, in France, 
where he spent the remainder of his life, and died 
there in 1622, at the advanced age of 77. 

• Tlic following Is the epigram : 

Ciir btnnt clntisi AnglU libri duo ro^in in nra^ 

Lumina caeca dno, pollubra sicca dao? 
Num sensuni cultiunqne Dei tenet Anglia clanmm, 

Lnmine ca?cn suo, sorde sepnltn raa? 
Romnno nn rltu, dum regalein instrnit aram, 

Piirpuream pingit religiosa Inpam ? 

Thus rendered in an old translation : 

Why stand there on tbe altnr high 
Two closed books, blind lights, two basins dry? 
Doth England hold God*s mind ond worahip close. 
Blind of lier sight, and buried in her dross? 
Doth she, with chapel put in Romish dress, 
The purple whore religiously express? 

And fur this Melville was sent to the Tower ! 


■ I 






His biogi'ApluT, Dr. M*Crie, says that Andrew 
lilelvillo "was the first Scotsinnii who added a 
taste for elegant literature to an extensive ac- 
quaintance with theology." Although he sustain- 
ed a conspicuous part in all the important public 
transactions of his time, he neither was nor af- 
fected to be the lQA<ler of a party. In private he 
was an agreeable companion, remarkable for his 
cheerruluess and kindliness of disposition. He 
was never married. Beyond the statement that 
he was of low stature there is no description of his 
pei-sonal appearance extant, nor is there any 
known portrait of him. 

The greater part of his writings consists of Lat- 
in poems. Dr. M'Crie, whose Life of Andrew 
Melville was published in 1821, in 2 vols. 8vo, has 
given the names of all his works, printed and left 
in manuscript, and there is none of any great ex- 
tent among them. The subjoined list has been 
made up from his account. 

Cannon Mosls, — Andrea Molvino 5H*<itn Awtorc. Basil- 
eir. 1573, Svo. 'Dii.*, liis earliest puMic.ition, ^n>i5ted of 
a ]>octical p.iraplirose of the Sung of Mosca, nnd a chapter of 
tlie Book of Job, with .several sm.iU poems, nil in Ijatiii. 

STK*ANI5K10N. Ad ScotisD Rogem, habitnm in Coro- 
nationc Kegina*. Edinbrrgi, lo90. 4to. 

Cannina ex DoctiMiinis Poctia Selocta, inter quos, ipur- 
dtim Ceo. Buchanam et And. Mehuni insenoitiir. l.'iOO. 8vo. 

PrincipisSroti-Britannorvni Natalia. Kdinbvrgi. loM. 4to. 

TliofiM Tl>e<»log"u'a.' do libero arbitriu. Kdiiiburgi, 1 '>1>7. 4to. 
Tbcitp, Dr. M'Cric thinks, miglit be the Thc$€S of some of his 

Schola^tica Diatriba du Kebv8 Divinis ad Anquin^ndain et 
inveniendani veritatem, a candidatis 8. Theol. liabenda (Deo 
voleiite) ad d. xxvi. I't xxvii. .Tidij in Sch<>li:i Theolr»gicis 
Acad. Andreana?, Spirit u Sancto Praside. D. And. Melvino 
S. Tl:tH>1. D. et iHi>-s facul talis Decano ^vXfrr.wt* inoderante. 
Kdinbvrgi, Excudebat Robert :is Waldegrauc Tvpograplnis 
PiCgiiis 1 J99. Iti^. pp. 10. 

(latlu'ln.", bCii Frapneiitnin do orijlno Cientin Sw)toriini. 
This pfK-ni was fir^t ])rinted along with ••Tni stoni Inscriptio- 
iics Ili^torica* Rfguni Scotoruin.' Anl^tel. 1(502. 

Pro .supplici Evangelicoruni Ministrorum in Aiiglia — A]>o- 
lugia, t»ivc Anti-Taini-Caini-Categoria. IGOl. A petition 
had been prcsontal to the king bv the Engli:ih Puritan?, 
connnonlv calle<1, from the umnbcr of names attached to it, 
tjjc miiitnary ]ttfitiont for redress of their grit-vaiice?, whicli 
was oppi>scd by the nniversities of Canibridge and Oxfi)rJ. 
TIil?> ."atirical jxH'ai, .ittacking the resolutions of the universi- 
ties, was written by Melville, in defence of the (ictitioners, and 
ciivulated extensively in Eiigland. 

Sflcct P^^ahn» turned into Latin verse, and printed (pro- at I^mdon while he was in the Tower) in 1C09. 

Kescimus Qvid Vesper Scrvs Vehat. Satyr.i Mcnippxa 
Vinciiitii Lilicrii Holl.indii. 1G19. 4to. Another edition 
1G20. Ascribed to Melville. 

Viri Clarissiini A. ^lelvini M\'sa* et P. Adanisoni Vita et 
Pdliuodia et OIhd oommiHionis — dcscriptio. 1620, 4to, pp. 

07. John Adamaon, aflerwards prindpal of the college of 
Edinburgh, was einplmed in collecting Helnlle's fiigitire 
poems, but it is uncert;iin whether he or Caldenrood was tlie 
publisher of the 3fuMt. Melville himself was not oomflltcd 
in the publication of them, nor was he, kitb Dr. M'Crie, the 
ttutlior, as has often been InaccnrateW stated, of the tracts 
added to them. 

Do Adiaphoris. Scoti t«v T0;^«i>Ttr AphoriainL Anno 
Domini 1G22. 12ino, pp. 20. 

Andreni Melvini Scotia TopogrnphuL This poem is pre- 
fixed to the Theatrwa Scotite in liUau*9 Atiat. 

Melville contributed loxgelj to a collection of poems, bj 
Scotchmen and Zealanders, * In Obitvm Jofaannis WaUasii 
Scoto Belgflp. Lndg. Batar. 1G03.' 4to. Tliere are two 
poems by him in John Johnston's * Sidera Veteris J^ti,' p. 
33. Salmurii, IGU. He has also rersea prefixed to * Com- 
ment, in A post. Acta )f. Joannis Malcohni Scoti. — Middlch.' 

Among his works in MS. Dr. M'Crie enmnemteii the fid- 

D. Andrea* Melvini epi»to!ip Ix>ndino e turn carceris ad 
Jacobuni Alelviimm Nouocastri exuluntem scripts, cnm ejns- 
dem Jacobi nonnoUis ad cundem. Annia snpm millestmfl sex- 
centestfimo octavo, nono, deciino, nndecimo. Item Ecclesis 
Scoticann* Oratio Apologetica ad Regem An. 1610, mense 
Aprilis. This vulunic is in the librarr of the nnirenity of 
Edinburgh. It brings down the correspondence between 
Mflville and his nephew, Mr. James Melville, till the end of 
the vear 1G13. 


Six I.etters from Andi-ew Melville to Robert Diiry at Lcy- 
den. In Rib). Jurid. Edin. M. 6. 9. nnm. 42. 

Flon-tnm Archiepiscopale ; id est, errores Pontlficli, as- 
sertiones temerari:p, et hyperbolical intcrprvtatbnes. lUd. 
num. 47. Tliey arc extracted from Archbishop Adamson's 
academical prelections at St. Andrews, in Melville's liand- 
writing, and subscribed by him. 

Paniphm.sis £pi;<ti>la> ad Hebra'os Andresc Blelvini (Harl. 
)!SS. num. G947-9'^: a metrical paraphrase of the epistle to 
the Hebrews. 

A. Melvinus in cap. 4 Danielis. In Ribl. Col. S. Trinit. 

There arc verses by him, in his own handwriUng, among 
tlie Sempill papers, and in a collection of letters from Ijeam- 
cd Men to James VI. His biographer says that copies of 
Melville's largo * Answer to Downham*s Sermon* were at one 
time not uncomnion. Four letters from Melville to David 
Hume of Ci«Hlscn>ft arc prefi-xed to the ' Lusua Poetlci* of the 

Tlio manuscript of * Coinmcntarius in Divinam Panli Epis- 
tolani ad Romanos, auctoro Andrea Mel vino Scoto,* in posses- 
sion of Mr. David Laing, Librarian to the Writers to the 
Signet, was published for the lirsl time, with an EngKvli 
tranhlation, in one of tiiO volumes ixyued by the Wodrow 
Sociefy, under the editorial rare of the Rev. David Dickson, 
D.D., minister of St. Cuthliert's, Edinbnrgh. 

MELVILLK, Jamks, an eminent divine and 
scholar, nephew of the preceding, was the son of 
Richard Melville of Baldovy, minister of Mary- 
ton, Forfarshire, by his sponse, Tsalwl Scrimgeonr, 
and was bom July 25, ir>riG. After receiving his 
school education at Logic and Montrose, he was, 
in November 1571, sent to St. I^onard*8 college, 






I I 


prcsbytcriaii cbiiix'Ii, aud exliortcil the 61*61111*00 
to cut ofT so corrnpt a member from among them. 
The archbishop was in consequence excommuni- 
cated, but he retaliated by excommunicating botli 
Andrew and James Alelville, and other obnoxious 
ministers, in return. For their share in this 
trniisaction, uiiclc and nephew were summoned 
before the king, who commanded the funner to 
confine himself beyond the Tay, and the latter to 
remain within his college. 

In July 1586, James Melville became, at the 
solicitation of the people, minister of Anstruthcr, 
to which were conjoined the adjoining parishes of 
Pittenwcem, Abcrcrombie, and Kilreniiy. Hav- 
ing some time after succeeded in procuring a dis- 
junction of these panshes, and pi-ovlded a minister 
for each of them, he undertook the charge of Kii- 
rcniiy alone, where, besides building a manse, he 
purchased the right to the vicarage and tithe-fish, 
fur the support of himself and his successors, and 
paid the salary of a schoolmaster. He likewise 
maintained an assistant to perform the duties of 
the parish, as he was frequently engaged in the 
public nffaire of the church. Some years after- 
wards he printed for the use of his jwople a cate- 
chism, which cost him five hundred inerks. 

In 1588 lie was the means of affoixling shelter 
and relief to a number of distressed Spaniards wlio 
had belonged to the Armada destined for the in- 
vasion of England, but whose division of tiie 
sqiindron, after being driven to the northward, 
had been wi*ecked on the Fair Isle, whei*e thoy 
had sutTered the extremities of hunger and fatigue, 
and had at last taken refuge oft* the harbour of 

At the opening of the General Assembly at 
Edinburgh, in August 1590, he preached a sermon 
from 1 Tliess. v. 12, 13. in which, after insisting 
on the necessity of maintaining the strictest disci- 
pline, ho exhorted his hearers to a more zealous 
support of the presbyteiian establishment, and re- 
commended a supplication to the king for a full 
and free assembly. 

In the spring of 1694 he was unjustly suspected 
at court of having furnished the turbulent earl of 
Bothwell with money collected for the pi-otestants 
of Geneva, and at the meeting of the Assembly in 
May of that year, some of the brethren thought that 

as he was a suspected person he should not be scut 
as one of the commissioners from the church to the 
king as usual ; on which he stood up and Mid thtt 
he had often been employed on commissiotiB iigiiinBt 
his will, but now, even for the reason alleged,vlie 
would request it as a benefit from the brethren 
that his name should be on the list, that he might 
have an opportunity of clearing himself, and If 
they declined sending him, he was determined to 
go to court himself, to sec if any one had aught to 
say against him. He was accordingly Included 
among the coniniissionei's. On their arrival at 
Stirling, where the king was, they were most gra« 
ciously received. After they had executed theur 
business with the king, James Melville 8tep|)cd 
forward and requested to be informed if his ma* 
jesty had anything to lay to his charge? The 
king replied that he had nothing to say against 
him more than against the rest, except that he 
found his name on every commission. lie an- 
swered that he thanked God that this was the 
case, for therein he was serving God, his kirk, and 
the king publicly, and as for any private, unlaw- 
ful, or uiidutiful practice, if there were any that 
had traduced him to his majesty as being guilty ol 
such, he reciuested that they should bo made to 
show their faces when he was there to answer for 
himself. But no reply was made. After this the 
king took him into his cabinet, and having dis- 
missed his attendants, conversed with him alone 
on a variety of topics with the greatest affability 
and familiarity. He sent his special commenda- 
tions to his uncle, ^Ir. Andrew Melville, and de- 
clared that he looked n]X)n both of them as fiiitli- 
ful and trusty subjects. ** So," says James Mel- 
ville, *• of the strange working of God, I that came 
to Stirling the traitor, returned to Edinburgh a 
great courtier, yea, « c^abinet councillor." (Jbimy^ 
p. 212.) 

AVith his uncle and two other ministers he ac- 
companied the king, in October 1594, in his expe- 
dition to the north, against the popish lords, and 
when the royal forees were about to disperse, for 
want of pay, James Melville was sent to Edin- 
burgh and other principal towns, with letters from 
the king and the ministers, to raise contributions for 
then* aid. In this service be was snocesafnL For 
ten years subsequently, the life of James Melville 








wad principally distinguished by I1I3 zealous aud 
unwearied opposition to the desigus of the court 
for the re-establishment of episcopacy, which he 
earijiiad the discernment to detect. 

He went with bis nncle to Loudon in Scptcuibcr 
1606, when, with six other ministei-s, they wci*c 
mrited thither to confer with the king, as was the 
pfetext, as to the measores best calculated to pro- 
note the tranquillity of the church. After the 
eommittal of Andrew Melville to the tower, (sec 
page I209) James was ordered to leave London 
in six days and confine himself to Newcastle- 
opon-Tyne, and ten miles round it. PrcYious to 
his departure he made an unsuccessful attempt to 
obtain some relaxation of his uncle's confinement. 
He kft London 2d July 1607, aud went by sea to 
Newcastle, and daring his resideuce in that town 
sereral attempts were made to gain him over to 
the support of the kiug*s views ; but neither pro- 
mises nor threats could shake his attachment to 
presbjrterianism. lie even rejected a bishopric, 
which was offered to him by Sii' William, or, as 
Dr. M^Crie calls him. Sir John Anstruther, in the 
name of the king. Having been a widower for 
ibont two years, he took for his second wife, 
while in exile at Newcastle, the daughter of the 
vicar of Berwick. lie was afterwards ordered to 
ranoTe to Carlisle, and subsequently to Berwick, 
where he wrote his *Apolog}' for the Chui-ch of 
Scotland/ which was not published till thirty- one 
rears after his death, under the title of *• Ecclcsia; 
ScoticansB libelliis snpplex Apologeticus.* 

Althoogh many efforts were made for his re- 
lease, it was not till 1614 that he obtained leave 
to retnm to Scotland, but he had not proceeded 
far on liis way home when he was taken suddenly 
ill, aud ho was with difficulty convoyed back to 
Berwick, where he died the same year. 

His works, a list of which is given in one of the 
notes to Dr. M^Crie*s Life of Andrew Melville, 
may be mentioned as follows : 

In 159S, as he mjn faitnaelf, he " first put in priut sum of 
lus poesie ; to wit, the Description of the SpainjArts Nata- 
nD, oQt of Julius Scaliger, with sum Exbortationes for warn- 
Bg of Idrk and coontrej.** 

His Catechism was published under the title of " A Spii^ 
itndl Propine of a Pastour to his People. Heb. 5. 12.** Ed- 
iabor^ 1598, 4to. Pp. 127. 

A Poem, called 'The Black Bastill, or a lamentation of 
the Kifk of Scotland, compiled by Mr. James Melville, some- 

time minister at Anstmtiicr, and now confyncd in England,' 
wns printed in 1611. 

EcclesiK ScoticanoB libellus snpplex an'sX^ynrtHss »au 
iXt^ocrtifs Auctore Jocubo Melrino Verbi Dei Ministix), Do- 
mini Andreas Melvini r«v iravv nepote. Londini, 1G45, 8ro. 

His * Diarj,' printed for the Bannstjne Club in 1829, one 
vol. 4to, contains much curious informstion relative to tlie 
ecclesiastical and literary history of Scotland between tbe 
years 1555 and 1600. The l\S. is preserved in the Advo- 
cates* library. New and improved edition, published by the 
Wodrow Society, with Supplement, &c 

A MS. volume in the Advocates* library, deposited by the 
Kev. William Blackie, minister of Yetholm, contains poems 
in the Sootlish language by James Melville, in the handwrit- 
ing of tlie autlior. They appear, says Dr. M'Crie, to have 
been all written during his banishment. The greater part of 
them are expressive of his feelings on the overthrow of the 
liberties of the dmrch of Scotland, and the hnprisonment and 
banishment of his uncle. 

Dr. M'Crie thinks that another MS. in the same Iibrar>', 
entitled * History of the Declining Age of the Church of 
Scotland,* bringing down the history of that period till 1610, 
was also composed by James Melville. 

The letters which passed between Andrew Melville and his 
nephew, from 1608 to 1613, as stated in the account of the 
MSS. nf the former, are preserved in the Library of the Col- 
lege of Edinburgh. 

MELVILLE, RoBEnT, an eminent militar/ 
officer and antiquarian, was the son of the mini- 
ster of the parish of Monimail, Fifeshire, where he 
was bom October 12, 1728. In 1744 he entered 
the armj, and served in Flanders till the peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748. Li 1756 he obtained 
the rank of major in the 38th regiment, then in 
Antigua, and soon after he was employed in ac- 
tive seiTiec, particularly in the invasion of Gua- 
daloupe, for which ho was created lieutenant- 
colonel ; and in 1760 was appointed governor of 
that i:(land. Shortly after, he proceeded as sec- 
ond in command with Lord RoUo to the capture 
of Dominica. In 1762 he contributed much to 
the taking of Martiuico, which was followed by 
the sun'cnder of the other French islands; and 
Colonel Melville, now promoted to the rank of 
brigadier-general, was made govemor-in-chief of 
all the captured possessions in the West Indies. 
After the general peace he travelled over Europe, 
and made numerous observations to ascertain the 
passage of Hannibal over the Alps. He also 
traced the sites of many Roman camps in Britain, 
and applied his antiquarian knowledge to the im- 
provement of the modem art of war in several in- 
ventions. He was a fellow of the royal and anti- 
quarian societies, and had the degree of LL.D. 
conferred on him by the university of Edinburgh. 

Il- - 




A treatise of his, * On nn Ancient Sword/ is in- 
serted iu tlic 7tli volume of the Archaeologia. In 
1 798 he was nppoiuteil a full general, and died, 
unmarried, iu 1809. 

Mkntkitii, tlio proper spelling of whicli is MsimTrii, a 
local sumnine, dcriveil from tlio district of Monteitli, in the 
Kouth-wcst of Pertlwhire, through which tiie river Teitli nins, 
and is coinponiided ofmcWj a vuUey, and Tcith. 

MKNTEirifi earl of, a title of verj ancient date in Scotland. 
Murdoch, the first recorded earl of Menteith, is mentioned in 
the chartularj of Dnnfennline, in the beginning of the reign 
of David I., who ascended the throne in 1124. Gilclirist, 
second earl of Menteith, mentioned in a charter of donation 
to the monastery of Scone by Malcolm IV., was witness to 
Kcvcral charters of Willi.nm the T.Ion. His successor, ^lanri- 
tins, third carl, vicecomcs of Stirling, lived in the end of the 
R-ign of the latter monarch and beginning of the reign of 
Alexander II. He had two daughters, but their names have 
iiot been transmitted. The elder married, before 3d Febru- 
ary, 1231, Walter Comyn, second son of William, earl of 
nuchan (see vol. L p. 453). In his wife's riglit, ho became 
funrth carl of Menteith. He first appeared, with his fathcr 
and other nobles, nt the marn.-i.<;e of the princess Joan of 
England to Alexander If. at Yoik iu 1221, and in 1230 he 
acquired from that monarch a grant of the extensive district 
uf I*adcnoch, in Inverness-shire, then in tlic crown (see vol. 
i. p. 223). He was one of the Scots nobles who swore to 
maintain the agreement betwixt his own sovereign and Hen- 
17 III. at York in September 1237. On the death of his 
father he became the most influential man in Scotland, and 
acted a conspicuous part in the early part of the reign of Al- 
exander III. (see vol. i. p. 79), l>eing at the head of the na- 
tional party, in opposition to the Eoglish faction. He was 
one of the regents of the kingdom at the time of liis death iu 
1 238. His only child, a daughter, m.trried his grand-nephew, 
Wi'iiiam Comyn. His widow married Sir John Russell, an 
English knight, and they were both imprisoned on suspicion 
of having poisoned her first husband (see vol. i. p. 8G), but 
afterwards allowed to le.ive the kingdom. 

Walter Stewart, called Dcuiloch^ or the frecklctl, third son 
of the third high stewiuxl of Scotland, having m:uTied the 
countess* younger sister, laid claim to the earldom in right of 
his wife, and by favour of the Estates of the realm, obtained 
it in 1258, and kept it. He diiftlnguished himself at tlie 
battle of I^irgs in 1263, under his brother Alexander, the 
high steward. He witnessed the marriage contract of 
the princess Margaret with Eric, king of Norway, in 1281, 
and, with his countess, accompanied her to her husband's 
kingdom. He was one of the nobles who, in the parliament 
of Scone, Feb. 5, 1283-4, swore to acknowledge ilar- 
garet, the Maiden of Norway, as their sox'ereign, in the 
event of the death of Alexander III. He w;is also one of 
the assembly at Brighara in March 12G0, where the mar- 
riage of Queen ^largaret to Prince Edward of England was 
agreed upon. In 1292 he one of the nominees on the 
part of Ilmce, the competitor for the Scottish crown. He 
sworo fealty to Edward I., 13th Juno that year, and was 
present when Baliol did liomage to Edward, 20th Kor. fol- 
lowing. He was summoned to attend the English king into 
France, Sept. 1, 1294, and died soon after. He had 2 sons, 
who assumed the name of Menteith, although they ret;uned 
the Stewart anns; Alexander, Cth carl, and Sir John de 
Menteith of Ruskie, whose name appears in history as the ( 

llttnijer of Sir William Wallace. He altered the Stewart 
Jute into a bend, and the colours to table and aryeiiL 

On 9tli August, 1297, Sir John Menteith was leleaaed 
from an English prison, on condition of aerring with tlieEng^ 
lish against the Firench. In 1805 he was, bj King Edvanl, 
appointed keeper of Dumbarton castle, and, the same year, 
according to tradition, he treacherously delivered over the 
heroic Wallace into the hands of the KngliJi. From this 
charge, howe\'er, he has been vindicated by Ijotd Hailcs. Ho 
held the cistle of Dumbarton for the English till 1809, and 
is said, but upon very doubtful authority, to hare fooglit 
valiantly at the battle of Dannockbnm on the side of Bruce, 
notwithstanding that Edward II. had caused his banner to be 
displayed in the English army. {Foi-dun^ b. ii. p. 2-13.) He 
was etutot comitatut of Menteith in 1820, when he signed 
the famous letter of the Scots nobles to the Pope, .nsserting 
the independence of Scothuid. In June 1323, he was one of 
the commissioners and consen'ators of the treaty of Berwick, 
and dii-d soon after. He had three sons and three danditen. 
one of whom, Joanna, married Malise, eurl of Strathearu; 
another became the wife of Sur Archibald Campbell of Ix>ch- 
ow, and a third was the wife of Maurice Buchanan of Bn- 
clianau. His eldest son. Sir Waiter Menteith, was killed 
in one of the feuds of tlie pcrioil, by John and Maurice Drum- 
mond, and his eldest son. Sir Alexander Menteith of Ruskie, 
was father of Sir Robert Menteith of Ruskie, who married, in 
1392, I-ndy Margaret Lennox, a younger daughter of Dun- 
can, eighth earl of I/ennox (see vol. ii. pp. 630, 631). 

Sir John >Ientcith of Arran, 2d son of Sir John Menteith, 
the supposed betrayer of Wallace, married the Lady Eh*ne, 
daughter of Gratney, seventh earl of Mar (see p. 108 of this 
voluiuf), and through his gnmddaughter, the wife of Sir 
Thomas Erskine, the earidom of M:u- ultimately came into 
the Ei*bkine family (sec p. 110). 

Alexander, Cth earl of .Menteith, elder sou of W:dter Stew- 
art, DaiUocft, was one of the rtuujnatet Scotia who, in the par- 
liament of Scone, Fel). 5, 1283-81, engaged to support the 
succession of Margaret of Norw.ny to the throne of Scotland, 
He swore fealty to Edward I. at Norham, June 12, 1292, .md 
appears to have succeeded his father in 1295. He was one 
of the leaders of the Scottish anny which invaded Cumber- 
land in March 1290. Taken prisoner by the English at the 
battle of Dunbar, 28th April following, he was released on 
engaging to serve Edward in his foreign wars. Ho died be- 
fore 1320, in which year the earldom of Menteith was under 
the charge of his brother, Sir John, during the minority uf 
his sou, Alan, 7lli carl. 

The latter joined Robert the Bnicc when he asserted his 
title to the throne of Scotland in 130C. TukeA prisoner the 
same year, he w:is forfeited, and died in England, leaving a 
son, who died without issue, and a daughter, Mary, countess 
of Menteith in her own right. The eighth carl of Menteith, 
Murdoch by name, is supposed to have been the brother of 
Earl Alan, but this is uncertain. It would seem that, in 
1330, ho made an agreement with Mary, daughter of Eari 
Alan, for the possession of the earldom. He was killed 19th 
July, 1333, at the battle of Holidouhill, whero he was one of 
the commanders of the second divi>ion of the Scots armr. 

Mary, countess of Menteitli, married Sir John Graham, 
who, iu her right, became 9th earl of Menteith. He was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Duriiam, 17th October, 1346, and 
having renounced the fealty which he had formerly sworn to 
Edward III., he was put to death as a traitor in Febmaiy 
13 J 7. By his countess he had one daughter, Margaret, 
countess of Menteith, who married Robert Stewart, thiitl son 
of Robert II., earl of Menteith in his wife*s riglit^ duke of 

,'.J*- • .4 



<■• » 

-. 1 \ • 

. f 

<iy ■■ 



! I 

( ■ 







82). 'Ilse p:irinh of AJuTfojIf in IVrtlisliIre, Hub Hny'ji coun- 
try, J'.riK-rly the iir-perty uf the eaiis ut" Mentcilli, nine 
ti:uK into the poitjiession of thu Montrose family. The enrl*!! 
^lll«•r xinter, Manr, ntrled I^dy Marr Grnh.ini, inarried, 8lh 
«)it..hrr, 1«G2, Sir John AlUrdicc of Allardic*', 
Thri:- di'scfinditnt, Jainefl Allardice of Allurdice, born 'i9lh 
.T:i:!ijry 1727, murried !n 1756, Anne, daughter r»f . Limes 
Hjirrijiy, banker, I^ndon, and by her had an only child, Sa- 
rali Anne AlUrdice, hU 8«iie luircss, who mrinlt'd in 1776, 
IloL-rt iJjirday of Urie, Kinciniiueshire, and thoir son, Ko- 
boi I Hart'Iay Allardice uf Urie, well known in his day as Cap- 
tain Itarelay, the peilentrian, claimed the titles of Airth, 
Mriitfith, and Strathern, but died in 1855, when his cLiiin 
was Ijcfure the Houm of I<«>r.l}'. lie left a daughter, who 
married a person of the name uf Ritchie, a!id had a son. (See 
Tol. i. p. 241.) 

The second earl's younger sii>W\\ EiJ7,:il)Cth, itile nf Sir 
William Graham of (Jartinore. rerlhshin*, luirfniet, had a 
mm. Sir John Gmham, and a d.iuglit*'r. The fiirmer diid 
12lli July 1708, without is.Mio. The latter, by lu-r husband, 
Janit's Hodge of Gladsmuir, advocate, Iiad one daughter, 
^lary I[o<1ge, married, in her Itth year, to William Graham, 
iM);i of John Graham of Callingad. Tlicy had a son, William 
Graham, b<;rn iu 1720, who as.sumcd the title of earl of Mra- 
teith, and voted as such at the general election of the sixteen 
Sj^ts representative peers, 5th May 1701, but his vote was 
diitallowed by the house of peer*, 2d March, 1702. He died 
without issue in 1787. 

The family of Stuart Mcntcth of Ciusebum, Dumlrios- 
shiro, an p.statc K»liith they puriii:i.-ed from its old po.-^scs- 
h"r.<, ihi* Kiikpatricks, descend from .Sir John Mcnteth, tlrrt 
of lh«! Meutetlis of KarNS, livin;* in t!ic reijrn of David II., 
Kcomd sun of Sir W'allcr Mcnteth of Kusky, sl:iin by the 
Diutnmoud.M, (soc p 118 of this volume"). A baronetcy of 
N'iiva Seut!a was conferred in 18."»S on Sir Charles Granvillu 
Stu.nrt Mcnteth of Closebum, who died in December 1847. 
His eldest son. Sir James Stuart Mentelh, bi»rn in 1792. 
was educntod at IJuiiby, and is author of a work on the ;:eo- 
l«>j:y iif the Snowdon ran«jr». Heir presumptive, his nephew. 
.Mcnteth of Closebum claims to be chief of the ancient house 
of Montetli, but his right to that distinction is disputed by 
Dalyell of Dinnx, as descended from Magdalen, elder daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Dalyell, the second baronet of that family. 
This lady married, in 1688, James Mentcith of Auldcathy, 
heir-malif and rrprcsentativc of the earls of Meiiteith. Their 
eldcKt hon, James Menteith, succeeding as the thiid baronet 
of Binns, as.sumed ihc nantc of Dalyell, (sec vol. ii. p. lo). 

Munzii:j<, a surname ori-^inally MengUM, or Minj:Io.s (pn)- 
nounced Mcenics,) was one of the fir^t adopted in Scotland, 
al)out the time of Malcolm Canmorc. From the annorial 
lK*arings of the Mcnzieses it has been conjectured that the 
first who settled in Scotland of this surname was a branch of 
the Angl«)-Nonnan family of Meyners, by corruption Man- 
ners. But this supposition does not seem to be well-founded. 

The family of Menzies obtained a footing in Alhol at a 
very early period, as appears from a charter granted by Robert 
de Meyners in the reign of Alexander II. This Robert de 
Meyners, ki.ight, on the accession of Alexander III. (1249) 
was appointed lord high chamberlain of Scothmd. His son, 
Alexander de Meynei.«, i>o<;.sf.ised the lands of Weem and 
Abcrfeldy in Athol, and Gleiidocliart in Breadalbane, bcbides 
his original seat of Durnsdeer in Xithsdale, and was succeed- 
ed by his eldest son, Robert, in tlie est.ntcs of Weem, Abcr- 

feldy, and Dnrrisdeer, whilst his second ion, Thomas, obtain- 
ed the lands of FurtiMg:il. 

From the fumier of theM is descended the fiimily of lleo- 
sies of Castle Meniies bot that of Menzieti of Fortingal ter- 
minated in an liciress, by whose marriage with Janrn Stewart, 
a natural son of the Wolf of Badenoch, tlio property was 
tninsferred to the Stewarta. 

In 1487, Sir RuWrt de Mengiie.*. knight, obtained from the 
crjwn, in consequence uf the dcstniction of his mansioo-houae 
by fire, a grant of the w hole lands and estate erected into a free 
barony, under the title of the barony of ^lenzies. From this 
Sir Robert lineally descended Sir Alexander Menxiei of Gai- 
tle Mcuzies, wlio was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 2d 
Septemlwr 1«»65. 

Sir Roiiert. Men7.:e% the seventh baronet, wlio socoeoded 
his father 20th August 1814. is the 27th of tbe family in 
regular descent; married, with isaae. Seats: Ca&lle Men- 
zif.i. Ranr.och I^dge, and Fos-i House, Perthshire. The an- 
ciei.t de^ignatif»n of the family was Menzies of Weem, their 
omimon ^tyle in old writings. In 1423 "DaTid Menziea of 
Weem (dti Wimo) ** was appointetl governor of Orkney and 
Shetland. ** under the most clement lord and lady, Krio and 
riiilippa. king and (jnecn of Denmark, Swcdland,and Nonray.** 

1'lie i-laii .M>.>n7.ic?>. the .ladge of which is a species of heath 
railed the Menzies heath, like ihe Frasers, the Stewarts, and 
til." Chisli'-hns, i.s not originally Celtic, though long ostab- 
lished in the Highlands. The Gaelic appellation of tbe dan 
is ,]felnnarich, a tenn, by way of distinction, also applied to 
the cliief. Of the eighteen clans who fought under Robert 
Tiruci' at Bannocklurn, the Mcnzieses were one. 

The "Mcsiy esses** of Athol and Appin Dull are named in 
the parliamentary rolU of 1587, as among " tbe dans that 
have cajitain.% chiefs, and chieftains.*" Castle Mcnxiea, the 
principal modem seat of the chief, stands to the east of Loch 
Ta y, in the parish and near to the dinrdi of Weem, in Perth- 
shire. Weem castle, the old mansion, is picturesquely dtuated, 
tmder a rock called Craig Uamh, hence its name. In 1502, 
it w:ls Irunit by Nicl Stuart uf Furtingal, in consequence of a 
di>pute respecting the lands of Rannoch. 

In 1644, when the marquis of Montrose .ippeared in anns 
for Charles I., and had commenced his march from Athol to- 
wanls Strathern, he sent forward a trumpeter, with a friend- 
ly notice, to the Mcnzieses, that it w.ns his intention to pass 
through their country. His messenger, unhappily, w.ns nud- 
treated, and as f.ovnc writers say, slain by them, llier also 
harassed the rear of his anny, which so exasperated M<m- 
trosc that ho ordered his men to plunder and l.ny waste their 
lands and bum their houi-e?. 

During the rebellion of 1715, ;«vcral gentlemen of the dan 
Menzies were taken prisoners at the liattlc of Dunblane. One 
of them, Menzies of Culdarcs, li.tving been pardoned for his 
share in the rebellion, felt himself bound not to join in that of 
1745. He sent, hovrcver, a valuable home as a present to 
Prince Charles, but his s^'r^-ant who h.nd it in charge, was 
^icized and executed, nobly refusing to di^-ulge his master's 
name, though oflered his life if he would do so. In the lat- 
ter rebellion, Menzies of Shian took out the clan, and held 
the rank of colonel, though the chief remained at home. Tlie 
effective force of the dan in 1745 was 300. 

The old family of Menzies of Pitfo<ldels in Aberdeenshire, 
is now extinct. Gilbert Menzies of this family, canying the 
royal standanl at the last battle of ilontrose, in 1650, re- 
peatedly refused qnarter, and fell rather than give up Ids chargcw 
The last laird, John Menzies of Pilfoddeh, never mnrried, and 






JtfoUri the p«ater part of bis htrgfi estate to tbe eudowinent 
of a Romuu Catbolic college, lie died in 1843. 

MERCER, Hugh, brigadier - general in the 
American ReYolntionary army, was born in Scot- 
laud in 1721. Having stndied medicine, lie acted 
u a 8nrgeon*3 assistant in tlie memorable battle 
of Culloden, bnt on which side he served is not 
mentioned. Not long after he emigrated to Fenn- 
el vnnia, but removed to Virginia, where he set- 
tled and married. lie was engaged with Wash- 
ington in the Indian wars of 1755 and following 
ye^rs, and fur his good conduct in an expedition 
a<,'aiust an Indian settlement, condncted by Colonel 
Amidtrong, in September 175G, he was presented 
Ttith a medal by the corporation of the city of 
Philadelphia. In one of the engagements with 
the Indians he was wounded in the right Mrist, 
and being separated from his party, on the ap- 
proach of some hostile Indians, he took refuge in 
tlie hollow tmnk of a large tree, where he remain- 
ed till they disappeared. lie then pm*sucd his 
course throngh a trackless wild of about one hun- 
dred miles, until he reached Fort Cumberland, 
subsisting by the way on the body of a rattlesnake 
which he met and killed. When the war broke 
out between the colonists and the mother conntr}', 
he relinqnished an extensive medical practice, and 
immediately joined the standard of Independence. 
Under Washington he soon reached the rank of 
brigadier-general, and particularly distinguished 
hunself in the battles of Trenton and Princeton, 
m tbe winter of 1776-7. In the latter engage- 
ment he commanded the van of the American 
army, and after exerting the utmost valour and 
activity, had his horse killed under him. Being 
tbns dismounted, he was suiTOuuded by some 
British soldiers, with whom, on being refused 
qnnrter, he fought desperately, until he was com- 
pletely overpowered, and after being severely 
wonuded, was left for dead on the field of battle. 
He died about a week after in the ai'ms of Major 
George Lewis, the nephew of General AVashing- 
ton, whom his uncle had commissioned to attend 
bun. Another American officer. General Wilkin- 
son, in his 'Memoirs,' observes, "In General 
Mercer we lost, at Princeton, a chief who, for 
education, talents, disposition, integrity, and pa- 
triotism, was second to no man but the com- 

mander-in-chief, and was qualified to fill the 
highest trusts in the country." 

FIERCER, James, the friend of Seattle, and 
himself a poet of some consideration, was born at 
Aberdeen, February 27, 1734, and received his 
education at the grammar school and Marischal 
college of that city. He was the eldest of two 
sons of Thomas Mercer, a gentleman of fortune in 
Aberdeenshire, who, in 1745, took arms for the 
Pretender, and for his share in the rebellion was 
obliged to retire to France. At the commence- 
ment of the Seven Years' war, James Mei-cer, 
who had resided with his father for several years 
in Paris, came to England, and joined the expedi- 
tion against Cherbourg as a volnnteer. He after- 
wards proceeded to Gennany, and in a short time 
was promoted to an ensigncy in one of the English 
regiments sending with the allied army. He sub- 
sequently received a lieutenant's commission in a 
battalion of Highlanders, then newly raised by 
Lieutenant - colonel Campbell. During several 
years arduous service in the field, he distinguished 
himself by his bravery and skill, and at the battle 
of Mindcn in 1-759, his regiment was one of the 
six whose gallantry on that occasion saved the 
reputation of the allied arms. 

Shortly before the peace of 1763, General 
Gramme, a relation of Mr. Mercer, presented him 
with a company in a regiment which he had un- 
dertaken to raise, and which was afterwards called 
the Queen's. On his return to Britain he took up 
his residence at Aberdeen, where he enjoyed the 
society of Dr. Bcattie, Dr. Reid, Dr. Campbell, 
and other eminent men, and where, in the summer 
of 1763, he married a daughter of Mr. Douglas 
of Fechil, the sister of Lord Glenbervie. Tlie 
" Queen's," with other new corps, being reduced 
at the peace. Captain Mercer purchased a com- 
pany in the 49th regiment, and removed with it 
to Ireland, where he served for nearly ten years. 
The majority of his regiment becoming vacant, he 
succeeded to it by purchase. In 1772 he conclud- 
ed a treaty with the lieutenant-colonel for becom- 
ing his successor; bnt the commission being given 
to another, induced him to sell out of the army, 
when he retired with his family to a small cottage 
in the vicinity of Aberdeen. In 1776-7 the duke 
of Gordon raised a regiment of Fencibles, the ma- 






1 1 

1 1 

jority of which he conferred on Mercer, who held 
it dtirin*; tlic Amcrienn war. On the retimi of 
peace, the major ngntn settled with his family in 
the neighbonrhood of Aberdeen, where ho died 
November 18, 1803. In 1797 a small vohimo of 
his * Lyric Poems* was published anonymously. A 
second edition, with seven new pieces, appeared 
early In 1804 with his name. To a tliinl edition 
an account of his life was prefixed, by Jjonl Glen- 
bervie. Major Mercer was not only an elegant 
and accomplished schohir, but possessed much 
original genius as a poet, conjoined with a high 
feeling of refined modesty, which led him to con- 
ceal, even fi-om his intimate friends, the poems 
which he wrote for his own amusement. Tliere 
are some interesting notices of him hi Sir William 
Forbes' Life of Dr. Beat tie. 

His daughter. Miss Mercer of Aldic, in Terth- 
sliire, an ancient barony at one time possessed by 
the ^lereera of Meiklour, in the same county, be- 
came the wife of Ailmiral Ix)rd Viscount Keith, 
and the mother of Baroness Keith, Countess 
Flahaut. (Sec vol. ii. \}, HO). 

MESTON, William, a bmiescpic poet, tlie son 
of a blacksmith, was born in the parish of Mid- 
mar, in Aberdeenshire, in 1G88. After completing 
his studies at the Marischal college of Abenlcen, 
he became one of the teachers in the grammar 
school of that city. He was subsequently for 
some time tutor to the young Earl Marischal and 
his brother, afterwards ^larslial Keith ; and in 
171-1, by the intercsit of the countess, was ap- 
])ointed jirofessor of philosophy in the Marischal 
college. On the breaking out of the rebellion in 
1715, he e.<[M)used the cause of the Pretender, and 
was by the Earl Marischal made governor of 
Dunottar castle. After the defeat of the rebels at 
SherilFnniir, he was forci'd to fiec for refuge to the 
mountains, where, till the passing of the act of 
indemnity, he lurked with a few fugitives like 
himself, for whose amusement he composed seve- 
ral pieces in rhyme, which he styled 'Alother 
(Srim's Tale.*.' lie subsequently chiefly resided 
in the family of the countess of Marischal, till the 
death of that lady ; and some years aftci'i^ai'ds, in 
conjunction with his brother Samuel, ho com- 
menced an academy in Elgin, which, however, did 
not ultimately succeed, lie then successively 

settled at TurrifT, Montrose, and Perth, and finally 
became preceptor in the family of Mr. Oliphant of 
Gask. His health beginning to decline, for the 
benefit of the mineral waters, lie removed to 
retcrhcad, where he was principally supported 
by the bounty of the conntess of Enrol. Subse- 
quently he removed to Abenlcen, where he died 
in the spring of 1740. He is said to have been a 
superior classical scholar, and by no means a con- 
temptible i)hilosopher and mathematician. lie 
was much addicted to convivialitv, and is stated 
to have had a lively wit, and no small share of 
humour. Ills i)oems, however, are very coarse 
productions. The fii'st of them printed, called 
^Tlie Knight,' appeared in 1723. It is a scur- 
rilous description of Presbyterianism, after the 
manner of Butler, of whom he was a professed 
imitator. Afterwards was published the first de- 
cade of 'Mother Grim's Tales;' and next the 
second decade, by lodocis, her grandson; and 
some years after, the piece called ^Mob contra 
Mob.' Tlie whole, collected into a small volume, 
appeared at Edinburgh in 1767, with a short ac- 
count of his life prefixed. Some Latin poems are 
included in the second decade, but these are of 
inferior merit. 

Mktiivkx, Lord, n title in tlio pcemge of ScotLnnd, eon- 
fonvd in 1528, bv James V., on Henrv Stewart, second son 
of AiiilrcTr, I^rd Kvaiidnle, .nftcnrards Ix>rd Ochiltree, a de- 
£!cend:ii)t of Kobei*t, duke of A]b.nnr, son of King Robert II. 
He owed his peerage and success in life to tbo favour of the 
(|uecn-inother, Margnrct, sister of Heni^' VIII. of Knglaud, 
and widow of James IV. In 1524, previous to her diroite 
from the earl of Angus, her second linsband, she raised Stewart 
first to the ofiicc of treasurer, and afterwards to that of chan- 
cellor, intrusting to his inexperienced hands the chief guid- 
ance of public affairs. In the following ye.v, on the divorce 
being granted, she married him. Thclordship of Methren, 
in rerthshire, was part of the dowry lands nauallr appropri- 
ated for the maintenance of the qnccn-dowager of Scotland, 
t»;;etlior with the lordsiiip and castle of Stiriing and the lands 
of lialquhidder, &c., and when Margaret procured the peer- 
age for her third husband, the barony of Methven was dis- 
solved fi-om the crown, and ei-ected into a lordsliip, in favour 
of Henry Stewart, and liis Iieirs male, on the queen*s rengn- 
ing her jointure of the lordship of Stirling. 

Subsequently, when Angus held the supremo power, an 
attempt on liis part to obtain forcible poasesuon of the 
queiMi's dowry lands, so alarmed Slargaret and 3Iethven, 
that, in their terror, they took rcfngo in the castle of Kdin- 
burgli. That fortress, however, was soon delivered up tn 
Angus, when he ordered Slethven to a temporarr imprison- 
ment. The queen aftenvarda endeavoured to obtain a divorce 
from Mcthvcn, but her son, the young king, put a stop to 
the proceedings. By I>ord Mcthvcn the queen had a daugh- 
ter, who died in infancy. Her own death took pbice at the 





CMtle of Methrm in 1540. Lord Methvon nftenrards married 
Jnnet Ste\rait, dangliter of tlie earl of Atbol, by whom he 
hml a son, Heniy, second Lord Methven. 

The second I.ord Methven married Jean, daughter of Pa- 
trick fiOfd RntbTen, and was killed at Bronghton, in the vi- 
cinity of Edinburgh, bj a cannon-ball shot from the oastle of 
tliat dtj daring the siege thereof, 3d March 1672. He lefl 
a son, Henry, third f.ord Alethven, trho ^ed without heurs 
inale in 1694, when the title became extinct. 

The kfdship of Methven was porchased in 1G64, bj Patrick 
Smvthe of Braoo, whose great-grandson, David Smvthe of 
Methven, was a lord of session from 1793 to 1806, under 
the title of Lord Blethvcn. 

MICKIJB, WiixiAM Julius, translator of * The 
Lnsjad,' was born at Langholm, Dumfries-sbire, 
September 29, 1734. He was the third sou of the 
Rev. Alexander Mlcklc or Mciklo, minister of 
Langholm, >vho, during lils residence in London, 
previons to his obtaining that living, superintend- 
ed the translation of Bayle's Dictionary, to which 
he is said to have contributed the greater part of 
the additional notes. Ills son William received 
the early part of his education at tlie gi-ammar 
school of his native parish, and on the removal of 
his father, in his old ago, to Edinburgh, was sent 
to the High school of that city, where he acquired 
a competent knowledge of the Latin and Greek 
langnages. His father having, on the death of 
Mr. Myrtle, his bi*otlier-in-law, a brewer in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, purchased the busi- 
ness for his eldest son, the poet was, in his six- 
teenth year, taken from school to be employed as 
a clerk in tho counting-house, and five years af- 
tcnvards the breweiy was transferred to him. 
Before lie was eighteen he had written several 
pieces, and some of his poems appeared in the 
* Scots Magazine ;'* two of which, one ^On passing 
through the Parliament Close at Midnight ;* and 
the other, entitled 'Knowledge, an Ode,' were 
reprinted in Donaldson's Collection. In 1762 he 
sent to l-iondon an ethic poem, entitled 'Provi- 
dence,' which was published anonymously, but did 
not meet with much success. Having sustained 
considerable losses in business, which led to his 
bankruptcy, he quitted Edinburgh hastily, in April 
1763, and on the 8th of May arrived in London. 
He had previously written a letter to Lord Lyt- 
tleton, to whom he submitted some of his pieces, 
but without producing any other result than a 
complimentary correspondence. He had hoped to 
have obtained through his lordship's interest some 

civil or commercial appointment, either in the 
West Indies or at home ; but in this he was dis- 
appointed, and hearing that the humble situation 
of corrector to the Clarendon press, at Oxford, 
was vacant, he offered himself as a candidate, and 
being sncccssfhl in his application, he entered up- 
on his duties in 1765. During the same year he 
published » PoUio, an Elegiac Ode,' and In 1767 
appeared ' The Concubine,' a poem, in two cantos, 
in the manner of Sj^enser. Tlie former did not 
attract much notice, but the latter was most fa- 
vourably received, and after it had gone through 
three editions, the title, to prevent misapprehen- 
sion, was changed to ' Sir Martyn.' 

In 1771 Mickle issued proposals for printing by 
subscription a translation of the *Lusiad,' by 
Camoens, to qualify himself for which he leanit 
the Portuguese language. He published the first 
book as a specimen, and from the encouragement 
he received, he was induced to resign his situation 
at the Clarendon press, with the view of devoting 
his whole time to the work, when he took up his 
residence at a farm-house at FoiTst-hill, about five 
miles from Oxford. During the progress of the 
translation he edited Pearch's Collection of Poems, 
in which he inserted several of his own, particn- 
larly ' Ilengist and Mey,' a ballad, an ' Elegy on 
Maiy Queen of Scots.' To Evans' Collect ion Jie also 
contributed his beautiful ballad of ' Cnmnor Hall,' 
founded on the tragic stoiy of the lady of the enrl 
of I^icester, the favourite of Queen Elizabeth. 
His translation was finished in 1775, and publish- 
ed in a quarto volume, under the title of ' The 
Lusiad, or the Discovery of India,' to which he 
prefixed an Introduction, containing a defence of 
commerce and civilization, in reply to the misre- 
presentations of Rousseau, and other visionary 
philosophers; a History of the Portuguese con- 
quests in India ; a Life of Camoens ; and a Dis- 
sertation on the Lusiad, and Observations on 
Epic Poetij. The work obtained for him a high 
reputation, and so rapid was its sale, that a second 
edition was called for in June 1778. By the two 
editions he is said to have realized about £1,000. 
Previously to its publication he had written a 
Tragedy, entitled the 'Siege of Marseilles," which 
was rejected by Gamck, and afterwards by Mr. 
Harris, and was never acted. 









In Miiy 1779 he wns, by Commodore John- 
stone, a distant relation of his o>vn, appointed his 
secretar}', and he sailed on 1)onrd of tlic Roniucy, 
man-of-war, with a small squadron, destined for 
the Tiip^ns. In the ensuing November he arrived 
at, where, as the translator of the national 
poet of Portuj^l, he received many flattering 
marks of attention from the nobility, gentry, and 
literati of that country, and was admitted a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy, at it.s opening. While 
in tliat capital he wrote his poem of ^ Almada Hill, 
an Kpistlc from Lisbon,* published in 1781, but 
without adding to his reputation. In 1780 the 
squadron returned to England, and ^licklo re- 
mained for a time at Tendon, as joint t\<;o\\t for 
tlie disposal uf some valuable prizes taken during 
the expedition. lie had acquired considerable 
wealth, and in 178.'> he married Mi.<s Mary Tom- 
kins, the daughter of the fanner with whom he 
had resided at Foresthill, and with this lady he 
received a handsome dower. He now went to re- 
side at Wheatley, near Oxford, where he employ- 
ed his leisui*e in writing some occasional pieco?, in 
revising his published poems, and in contributing 
n series of Essays, entitled *The Fragments of 
1-1^0,' and some other articles, to the European 
]VIagazinc. He died, after a short illness, October 
liS, 1788. He left one son, for whose benefit a 
volume of his collected poems w;is published by 
subscription in 1795. — His works are : 

Provi(lcnc<», or Araniliis and KniiA; a IVm. lA>:ii]un, 

The Concubine. 170.3. 2*1 islitlon, iindor tlic tiile ot' Sir 
Martyn; a l*oem, in the niaisncr of Spcnsier. I.«)n«lon. 1778, 

TIic first book of the I.n5i:i(] ; publi«1ieil ua a s|K'oinK>n of 
« Tnin»lation of that celebrated Kpic Poem. 0.\f. 1771, 8vo. 

The Lasiad, or the Discovery of India ; an Kpic room. 
From the original Portngiicso of Camocus. Oxf. 1775, 4to. 
2d clii;. 1778, 4to. Also in 2 vols. 8vo. 

\ Candid Examination of the Kcnsnns for dopriviiij; tlic 
East India Company of its Charter. 177i>, tto. This pam- 
phlet is written in defence of the Company. 

'ihe Siege of Marseilles ; a Tragedy. 

Almada Hill; an Epistle from Lisbon. Lond. 1781, Ito. 

The Prophecy of Queen Emma ; a Ballad. 1782. 

A Letter to Dr. Harwood, whereby some of his fvasivc 
glosses, fidse translations, and blundering criticisms, in sup- 
port of the Arian Heresy, cont:iined in his liberal tnmhhitiun 
of the New Testament, are pointed out and confuted. 

Voltaire in the Shades; or, Dialogues on the Deistical 

Poems, and a Tragedy. I^nd. 1791, -Ito. This contains 
an acconntof bislife, hj Mr. Ireland. 

A more ftUI and correct collectioii of his poems ajqpeared in 
1807, with a Life, by the Ber. John Sim. 

Mii)iii.KTt)2C, earl of, a title, now extinct, in the peenge af 
Scotland, conferred in 16G0, on John MiddleCon, the cklcr 
MMi of John Middleton of Caldhame, KincanUiiesbire, who 
was killed sitting in bis chair, by Montrose's soMien in 1645 
He was a descendant of Malcolm the son of Kenneth, wlio 
got a charter from Willuim the lion of the lands of Middle- 
ton in that county, confirming a donation of King Doqcan of 
the same, and in consequence asirtimed tho name. 

The first rarl was from his youth bred to arms. He st 
first "trailed a pike** in Hepburn's regiment in France, but 
in the civil wars of 1012, he entered into tlie service of the 
parliament of England as commander of a troop of Iiorse, and 
lientcnant-giuieral under Sir William \VuIIer. He afterwards 
n*tunied tu Scotland, and got a command in fxslie*s 
army. At the b.ittle of Philiphangh, I3th September 1643. 
he omtributed so much to the defeat of }iIontnwe, that the 
Kst:iti'.s viited him a gift of 2j.0'MI marks. When Moutms^, 
wMin alter, ^.it down before lMven»es.s, General Middletun, 
with a small brigade, was detached from Cenend liCsUe's 
army and sent north to watch his motions. In the beginning 
ot May IGIO, he Inft Alionlonn, with a force of GOO horse and 
^'M0 fiMit, and arrived in the neighbouriiood of Inverness, on 
tilt; Otli of that month. Montrose hnmediately withdrew to 
a jiosiiion at some distance from the town, but soon quitted 
it. Two n'gimeiits of cavalry, despatched by Middleton 
aftor him, attacked his rear, cut off some of his mm, and 
ciptured two pieces of cinnon, and part of his baggage. 
Kftrc;itiiig into Itiss-shire, he was pursued by Middleton, 
who. as Montrose avoided an engagement, laid aiegc to the 
castle of the carl of Seafurth in the chanonnr of Boss. After 
a siege of four days he took it, but immediately restored it to 
the countess of Seaforth, who was witliin the castle ut the 

I.t>aming that the marquis of Huntly had seised upon 
AlM'rJccn, Middleton retraced his steps, and re-crossing the 
Spn*, made him retire into Mar. He then returned to Aber- 
iK-en. When Montrose received orders from the king to dis- 
hainl his forces, Middleton was intrusted hy the committee 
uf Est.ite8 with ample powers to negotiate with bim, and in 
order to discuss the conditions offered to the former, a oon- 
iVrencc was held between them on 22d July 1646, on a mea- 
dow, near the river Hay in Angu:*, where they ** conferred 
for the space of two hours, there being none near them but 
o::e man for each of them to hold his horse." (^Guik/y* 
}[fmolr9^ p. 179). The conditions were that his fcdlowers, 
oil making tluur submission, should be pardoned, and that 
Montrose and a few others of the principal leaders slioold 
liTtve the kingdom. 

Thr following year, Middleton was occupied in pursuing 
the nianpiis of Huntly, who ha>l nppe.ircd in arms for the 
king, tl'rough (lienmoriston, Dadencch, and other places in 
tho north, till he was captured by I jeutenant -colonel Men- 
zics in Strathdon. Some Irish taken at the s.'imc time were 
shut by MiiidK'tonV orders in Strathbitgie. In 1G18, when 
the " Engag«»:iicnt*' was fonned for the rescue of the kuig, 
he w:is appointed lieutenant-general of the cavalry in the 
anny ordered to bo levied by tlic Scots Estates for tluit pnr- 
IM)se. The levy being opposed by a large body of Covenant- 
ers and others at Maucliline in Ayrshire, on the 12th June, 
.Middleton charged them, and put the whole to the ront^ with 
the loss of eighty killed and a great many taken priswiers, 
among whom were some ministers. Ho also disperse*! some 
gatherings of the western (.^jvenantcrs at Carsphaim and 





; ! 


J I 




tHhn- places. He behaved with great gnlhintrx nt the battle 
of IVntMi in EngUnd, 17th Aognst the same jtnr^ bat his 
hnrvf bcini; shot under him, he iras taken prisoner and sent 
to Newcastk. He scon made his escape, however, and witli 
Lfltd Ogilvj attempted a riiung in Athol in favour of the 
king. The party being Aspersed by a force under the ordere 
of General David I^ie, Middleton was allowed, on giving 
sMurity to keep the peace, to return to his home. 

When Charles II., in 1650, arrived in Scotland, General 
^li^ldlcton immediately repaired to him. Many small bodies 
uf men were raised for the defence of the king in the north, 
and it was at one Ume proposed to have placed General Mid- 
dlrtnn, who comnundcd a small division of tlie army, at tlio 
hcid of all the loyal forces that could be collected for the 
purpose of oppo^ng Oromirell, but this was never carried 
into effect. For his conduct in support of the king the com- 
niiAsion of the church summarily excommunicated hitn on 
the motion of James Guthrie, who pronounced tlie sentence 
from his pulpit at Stirling. 

To compel the northern royalists to lay down their arms. 

General Iwc^lie, by order of the committee of Estates, cn»ssed 

the Tsy on the 24th October with a force of 3.000 cavalrj', 

«ith the intention of proceeding to Dundee and scouring An- 

pis. At this time Middleton was lying at Forfar, and, on 

hearing of I^Ie*s advance, he sent him a letter, enclu^tllg a 

copy of » " bond and oath of engagement " which li:id been 

PT'tered into by Huntly, Athol, Seaforth, and himself, with 

oiliers, by which they ])ledged tliemselves not to lay dotvn 

tl:eir arms without a consent^ and promised and sworc 

that they would maintain the true religion as then estab- 

l4»lied in Scothtnd, the national covenant, and the mjlemn 

k^j^ne and covenant; and defend the person of the king, lils 

prerogative, greatness and authority, the privileges of parlia- 

iiienf, and the freedom of tlie subject. Middleton stated 

that Leslie woukl perceive, from the terms of the document 

*i-nt, that the only aim of himself and friends was to unite 

Scotsmen in deFencc of their common rights, and he proposed 

N> j<Mn I^ie, and put himself under his command, as their 

objects appeared to be precisely the same. The negotiation 

«as fin.illy Cimclnded on 4lh November at Strathbogic, when 

•t treaty was agreed to between Leslie and the chief royalist?, 

by vhich the latter acce^>ted an indemnity and laid down 

their arms. 

On the 12lh .Tannnry 1651, Middleton was relaxed fmm 
bit excommuniv-ntion, and did penance in sackcloth in tlie 
I>ariali church of Dnndce. He commanded the horse in the 
rm-al armv that marched into En<;land on the 31st Julv: and 
at the battle of Worcester, 3d September, the chief rpj*istanco 
was m.ide by hint. He charged the enemy so vigorously that 
lie forced them to recoil, but being severely wounJetl, he was 
taken priiomer after the battle, and sent to the Tower uf 
I»ndAn. Cromwell was so incensed against him that he de- 
«<^rd to grt him tried fur his life, as having formerly served 
in the parlLnmentary army, but he contrived to make his 
ejvnpe. After remaining for some time concealed in Ix)ndon 
le rrtired to Franco, and juined Charles II. at Paris. In 
ISio he was sent home with a commission from the king, 
appointing him generalNsimo of all the royal forces in Scut- 
Isnd, and took the command of the troops at Dornoch. 
Mi«idIeton soon fonnd himself sorely pressed by General 
Monk, who had advanced into the Highlands with a large 
•rmy. In an attempt to elude his pursuers he was surprised 
in a defile near I<ochgnrry, 2Cth .luly 1654, when his men 
vere either slain or dispersed, and he himself escaped with 
girat difficulty. After lurking for some months in the coun- 
tnr, 3Iiddlcton again got over to the king, who was then at 

Cologne, and was excepted by Cromwell from pardon in his 
act of grace and indemnity tlio same year. 

At tlte Restoration, he' accompanied King Charies 11. to 
England, and was created earl of Middleton and Lord Cler- 
mont and Fetterc'iuni, by patent, dated 1st October 1G60, to 
him and his heii-s male, having the name and arms of Mid- 
dleton. He was aUio appointed commander-in-chief of tlie 
forces in Scotl.nnd, governor of Edinburgh castle, and lord 
high commissioner to the Scots parluimont. On the Slat 
December he arrived at Holyrood-liouse, having been escort- 
ed from Musselburgh by the nobility and gentry then in the 
capital, attended by a thousand horse. He was allowed 900 
mcrks per day for his table, and he lived in « style of great 
magnificence. He opened parliament l»t January 1661, with 
a splendour to which the Scots people had long been unac- 
cnsttuncd. In this '* terrible pariiament,*' as it is well named 
'iiy Kirkton, the king's prerogative was restored in its fullest 
extent, and a gener.d act rescissory of the parliaments from 
1633 was passed. Various other acts of a most unconstitn-' 
liunal natiure also bccime law. On the rising of parliament 
in the following July, Middleton hastened to I/>ndon, to lay 
an account of its proceedings before the king. On his arriv.ol 
at court, he assured his majesty and the Scottish privy coun- 
cil in London, that the majority of the Scottish nation de- 
Kii'ed the establishment of episcopacy, and it accordingly 
agreed that " as the government of the state was monarchy, 
so that cf tlie church should be prelacy.*^ 3iIiddleton*s ob- 
ject in thus recommending the establishment of the episcopal 
church in Scotland was that ho might strengthen his own 
anthority by that of the bishops, and thwart Lauderdale 
whom he hated, and who at that time was favourable to pres- 

He was again appointed lord high commissioner to the 
Swts parliament, which met 6th May 1662, and on loth 
July following, he was nominated an extraordinary lord of 
session. In September of the s.ime year, Middleton and the 
privy council made a progreitp through the west of Scotland, 
and when at Glasgow, under the influence of drink, as Bur- 
net s.nys, passed the act for depriving the covenanting minis- 
ters of their benefices, by which more than 200 were thrown 
out. After proceeding through Ayrshire to Dumfries, they 
returned to Edinburgh. Having procured the passing of the 
famous act of billeting, by which I«auderdale and his friends 
were incapacitated, that unprincipled nobleman resolved upon 
his overthrow. He misrepresented all his actions to the king, 
and so prejudiced the royal mind against him that Middleton 
in 1663 was ordered up to London to give an account of his 
administration in Scotland. When the council met, I^auder- 
dalo accused him of many misciniages in his great office, 
and particularly of having accepted bribes from many of the 
prchbyterians, to exclude them from the list of fines. Mid- 
dleton was defended by Clarendon, Archbishop Sheldon, and 
Munk, duke of Albemarle. The Scottish prelates also wrote 
in his favour, and in vindication of his general policy. Their 
interposition, however, was in vain. He was declared guilty 
of arbitrary conduct as commissioner, and deprived of all his 
ofKccs, to the great joy of the Scottish people, whom he had 
disgusted by the oppressive character of his measures, as well 
as by his open debauchery and intemperance, being, accord- 
ins to Burnet and VVodrow, most ostentatious in his vices. 
The former s-iys that he was " perpetually drunk." 

After his disgrace he retirctl to the friary near Guildford, to 
the house of a Scotsman named Dalmahoy, who had been 
gentleman of the horse to William duke of Hamilton, killed 
at the battle of Worcester, and who had married that noble- 
mairs widow. Tliere he built a bridge over the river which 







: I 

ran tlirough Dalmahoy'f esUte, and Mrns called Bliddleton's 
Bridge nfter bim. He afterwards, as a kind of decent exile, 
received the appointment of governor of Tangier, a seaport 
town of Fei in Africa, which made part of tho dowiy of the 
princess Catherine of Portngal, whom Charies II. married 
soon after the Restoration. Ho died there in 1G73, having 
fallen in going down stairs, which in that hot climate pro- 
duced inflammation. 

His only son, Charles, second and Inst earl of Middleton, 
was M.P. for >Yinchel8ca, in the long parliament. He was 
bred in the conrt of Charles II., by whom he was appointed 
envoy extraordinary to the court of Vienna. On his return 
home he was constituted one of the principal secretaries of 
state for Scotland, 2Cth September 1C82. On 11th July 
1C84 he was sworn a privy councillor of England, on the 15tli 
of the same month was admitted an extrnordinary lord of 
session in Scotland, and on 2:3th August same year appoint- 
ed one of the principal secretaries of btate for England. His 
seat on tho bench, however, he resigned in February 1686, 
in favour of his brother-in-law, the carl of Stratlimore. 

At the Revolution, though he had opposed the violent 
measures of King James, he adhered to him steadily. He 
refused all the offers made to him by King, and af- 
ter being frequently imprisoned in England, he followed James 
to France, and was, in consequence, outlawed by the high 
court of justiciary, 23d July 1694, and forfeited by act of 
parliiunent, 2d July 1695. IJefore the Revolution, we are told, 
lie firmly stooil in the gap, to stop the torrent of some priests 
who were driving King James to his niin, and had so mean 
an opinion of converts that he used to say a new light never 
eame into the house but by a crack in the tilting. Yet this 
man, who had withstood all the temptations of James* reign, 
and all the endeavours of that prince to bring him over, to 
the surprise of all who knew him declared himself a Roman 
Catholic on tho king's death, and obtained the entire mnn- 
agoment of the exiled court at St. Germains. (Mncl-t/'g 
Memoirs^ p. 238.) He is described as having been a black 
man, of middle stature, with a sanguine complexion. He 
had two sons and three daughters. Lady Elizabeth, the eld- 
e.vt daughter, w.ns the wife of Edwaixi Drummond, son of 
James, earl of I*ertn, high-chancellor of Scotland. She was 
stvled duche«s of Perth, and died at Paris after 1773. The 
sons, I.ord Clermont and the Hon. Charles Middleton, were 
taken at sea by Admiral Byng, coming with French troops 
to invade Scotland, in 1708, and committed to the Tower of 
London. Thev were soon relcasetl, when tliev i-elnmed to 

MILL, James, the liLstorinn of British Lidia, 
was born in the panj?h of Logic-Pert, Forfarshire, 
April C, 1773. The early part of liis etlncation he 
received nt the grammar school of Montrose, on 
leaving which, throwgli the patronage of Sir John 
Stuart, baronet, of Fottercairn, one of tlic baron.s 
of the exchequer in Scotland, on whose estate his 
father occupied a small farm, lie was sent to the 
university of Edinburgh to study for the church. 
In 1800, after being licensed as a preacher, he 
went to Ix)ndon as tutor in Sir John Stuart's fam- 
ily, and, settling in the metropolis, he devoted 
himself to literar}* and philosophical pursuits. By 

his powerful and original prodactiona, as well as 
by the force of his personal character, he soon 
earned for himself a high reputation as a writer. 
During the first years of the Edinburgh Review, 
he contributed to it many articles on Jnrispni- 
denco and Education, and he was also the antlior 
of a number of masterly papers in tho Westmin- 
ster, the I>ondon, tho British, tho Eclectic, and 
Monthly Reviews. Li politics he belonged to the 
Radical pai*ty, and among other articles which lie 
wi-ote for the Westminster Review were the cele- 
brated ones * On the Formation of Opinions,* in 
No. 11, and ' On the Ballot,' in No. 25. 

About 1806 he commenced his * History of 
British India,' which occupied a considerable por- 
tion of his time for more than ten years, and was 
published about the end of 1817, in three volumes 
4to. The information contained in this valuable 
work, with the author's enlarged views on all 
matters connected with India, tended greatly to 
the improvement of the administration of our em- 
pire in the East, and induced the East India Com- 
pany to appoint him in 1819 to the second situa- 
tion in the examiner*.s office, or land revenue 
branch of the administration, at the India House. 
On the retirement of Mr. William M^CuUoch, he 
became head of the department of correspondence 
with India. In 1821 Mr. Mill published his 'Ele- 
ments of Political Economy,' containing a clear 
summary of the leading principles of that science. 
In 1829 appeared, in two vols. 8vo, his 'Analysis 
of the Phenomena of the Human Mind,' a work 
on which lie bestowed extraordinary labour, and 
which displayed much philosophical acuteness. 
Besides these works ho contributed various valua- 
ble articles to the Supplement of the Encyclopic- 
dia Britannica, principally on Government, I-K^gis- 
lation, Education, Jurisprudence, Law of Nations, 
Liberty of the Press, Colonies, and Prison Disci- 
pline, which were also published as separate trea- 
tises. In 1835 he produced, without his name, 
his * Fragment on Mackintosh,' in which he se- 
verelv criticises Sir James Mackintosh's 'Disser- 
tation on the History of Ethical Philosophy.' Mr. 
Mill died of consumption, June 23, 1836, and was 
buried at Kensington, where ho had resided for 
the last ?i^(i years of his life. He left a widow 
and nine children. 




MILL.\R, Jame8, M.D., a learned and indns- 
trious compiler, was -educated chiefly at the uui- 
Tersity of Glasgow, where he acquired an exten- 
sive and accurate knowledge of the classics, and 
enrly evinced a taste for the varied departments 
of natural history. He took his medical degree 
at Edinburgh, where he settled. In 1807 he pub- 
]i:<hcd, in connection with William Vazio, Esq., 
an 8vo pamphlet, entitled * Observations on the 
Advantages and Practicability of making Tunnels 
under Navigable Rivers, particularly applicable to 
the proposed Tunnel under the Forth.* He was 
the ori^nal projector and editor of the ' Encyclo- 
pedia Edinensis, or Dictionary of Aiis, Sciences, 
and ^iiscellaneons Literature.' He was also cho- 
8CU to superintend the fourth edition of the Eucy- 
cIopoHlia Britannica, to the improvement and in- 
terests of which he devoted a large portion of his 
time. Some of his essays and larger treatises 
written for these works, when published sepa- 
rately, were ^ery favourably received by the pub- 
lic. He likewise contributed largely to several of 
Uic periodical journals both of London and Edin- 
burgh. In 1819 he published, in 12mo, with col- 
oured engravings, ' A Guide to Botany, or a Fa- 
miliar Illustration of the Linna?an Classification 
of Plants.' Dr. Millar was one of the physicians 
to the Dispensary at Edinburgh, and in that ca- 
pacity, while attending to the usual duties, he 
caught a fever, of which he died in July 1827. 

MILLAR, John, an eminent lecturer on law, 
^vas bom June 22, 17:]5, at the manse of Sliotts, 
I^narkshiro, of which parish his father, who was 
afterwards translated to Hamilton, was minister, 
lie studied at the university of Glasgow, and was 
at first intended for the church, but subsequently 
preferred the bar. On leaving college he was for 
two years tutor to the eldest son of Ix^rd Kames, 
dnring which time he became acquainted with 
David Hume, whose metaphysical opinions he 
adopted. He was admitted advocate in 1760, and, 
in the following year, was api)ointed to the chair 
of civil law in the university of Glasgow, which 
Ijc filled for nearly forty years with signal success. 
His lectures on the difTerent branches of jurispru- 
dence, and on the general principles of govern - 
ment, excited much interest at the period ; they 
were attended by many who afterwards distin- 

guished themselves in public life, oud from him 
Lord Brougham, I^ord Jeffrey, Lord Chief Com- 
missioner Adam, the earl of Lauderdale, and some 
other eminent Whigs, received theur first lessons 
in political science. In 1771 he published * Ob- 
servations concerning the Distinction of Ranks in 
Society,' which passed through several editions, 
and was translated into French. In 1787 he pub- 
lished ^ Elements of the Law relating to Insur- 
ances.' The same yeai* appeared his more 
elaborate work, entitled, ^An Historical View 
of the English Goveimment, from the Settle- 
ment of the Saxons in Britain to the Acces- 
sion of the House of Stuart,' in which he follows 
the path of philosophical speculation, as to the 
origin of the laws and institutions of nations, 
which had l>ecn previously traced out by Lonl 
Kames and Dr. Adam Smith. He afterwards 
brought down the History of the Constitution to 
the Revolution, and the work, with this addition, 
was published in -L vols. 8vo in 1803. Professor 
Millar died May 30, 1801, leaving four sons and 
six daughters. A fouiih edition of his * Origin of 
the Distinction of Ranks' appeared in 1808, with a 
memoir of his life, by his nephew, Mr. John Craig. 

MiLLKn, tlie name of a family possessing a baronetcy of 
Great Biitnin, confori-ed hi 1788 on Sir Thomas Miller of 
Bniskimming in Ayrshire, and Glenlee in Galloway, a distin- 
guished liiwyer and judge, second son of Mr. William Miller, 
writer to the signet. He whs born 3d November 1717, and 
admitted advocate at the Scotti>h bar, 21st February 1742. 
In 1748 lie \ri\A nominated sheriff of the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, and the same year was elected joint principal clerk 
of the city of Glasgow. These offices he resigned in 1755 on 
being appointed holicitor to the excise in Scotland. On 17th 
March 1759 he became solicitor-general, and on 30tli April 
1760, he was constituted lord-advocate. The following year 
he was chosen M.I*, for Dumfries. In November 17C2 he 
was elected rector of the university of Glasgow, and on 14th 
June 17CC, on the death of Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto, ap- 
pointed lord-justice-clerk. On 15lh January 1788, he suc- 
ceeded Robert Dundas of Arniston as president of the court 
of session, and on Tebruary 19 of the same year was created 
a baronet. He died at his seat of Barskimming September 
27, 1789. Ho was twice man-ied, and by his fiivt wife, a 
daughter of John Murdoch, Esq. of Rosebank, lord provost 
of Glasgow, he Inid a son and a daughter. Bums, in his 
' Vision,* .alludes to Sir Thomas Miller as "An aged judge 
dispensing good." 

The son, Sir William Miller, second baronet, also an emi- 
nent judge, was admitted advocate, 9th August 1777. At 
the keenly contested election in 1780, he was returned M.l*. 
for the city of Edinburgh, in opposition to Sir Lawrence 
Dundas, and took bis seat in parliament ; but was unseated 
upon a petition, and his opponent declared duly elected. On 






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'JTiid .M:iy, ITU.i, hr un-i .'ipfKiiiiUil :i lunl of vntoioii, irlie:) he 
tiH>U l]:c title I if I.:*:*! (!!i*ii!i.-(». He rc/i^ird his neat in 18 lU, 
liaviii;; brtii a juil^^e (or :i*K>ve forty-five jenrs. BeMJrii 
bi'in;; an aocomplUlied scholar, h^ was ntecmed one of the 
he»t L-iw\urs of his time on the Scottish bcnrh. He died in 
lalu. He WM the senior vice-pn'biJent of the Rojal Society 
of Kuinhnr};1i, and iras frequently viee- president of the So- 
ciety of Scutliyh Aniiquarics, of which he wok the first nd- 
iiiittcd t'vUiW (oi* date 1781), and ohlest member. IIh mar- 
ried Grizel, dau<;hter of George Chnlmerr, K>q.. hy whom he 
li»d G sons and 3 daughters. 

Hid eldest son, Thomnji Miller, K?q.. |>n'iiec(nved his father 
in 1827. r»y hih wile, the younp^t dau;;hter of Sir Alexim- 
der renro>e-Gordon-Cummin{;, baronet, he had five buns. 
The eldest son, Sir William Miller, third baronet, bom in Kd- 
iiihurgh in 1815, m.'irried in 183U the eldest daughter of 
I.ieutonnnt-Gencnil Sir Thomas M'Mahun, bui-unet, K.C.H., 
isrfue, 2 sons and 2 danf^htem. He was educatetl at Eton, 
ar.d n :ui fur some years an officer in the 13th Lancers; ap- 
p«iinteda magistrate for Ayrshire in lh38, succeeded his 
^'nuid.'ather as 3J h:irui:et, May 0, 18lfi, made a kni;;ht cf>m- 
maniler of the order of the Temple in January the Kime year. 

The second son of the second baronet, I.ieutenant-Culoiicl 
William Miller, Ist Foot Guards, was mortally wounded at 
Quatre Br.ix. Jnnc IG, 1815, and dic<I .it Urussels the ('oliow- 
ing day. ** In his last mortal scene,^ sjiys a letter dated 
Brussels, June 23, 1815, published at the time, '' he disjilayi>d 
the soul and the spirit of a hero. On finding himself wuumied, 
lie sent for Colonel Thomas (wlio was killed two days after- 
wards, at Waterloo) — * Thomas,* said he, ' i feel 1 am 
miu'tally wounded ; I am plcabed to tliink that it is my fate 
ntlier than rnnrs, wlnise life is involved in that of vour v(>uii>r 
wife.' After a pnnM*, he said faintly, * 1 should like to see 
the colours of the rf);iment once more before I quit then ffr 
ever.' Thev were brouirht to him. and waved n>und hi.s 
wounded bmly. His cc>untenanre bri^^hteiied, he smiled; niid 
di^elarin'; himself siitisfied, he waa earned fnim the field. In 
ail this you will see the failing of a hero — a delicacy of (senti- 
ment, a belf-devution, and a n■^ignation, whicli have I'.vwv 
I>ei-n surpassed.*' His remains were interivd at Unissols, in 
a cemetery where lie many of the more distinguiahed of the 
jieroes tvho fell at Quatre Hras and WaterltNi. On a monu- 
mental stone erected to his meinon'. with a suitable iiisen|i- 
ti'tn, it is stated that he was thirty-one }ta!> o!d at the time 
of his de:ith. 

MILKKK, Ilrciii,tlic fnv*t of Scottish gcologi.'^t.s 
was born in Cromarty, in the north of Scotland, 
October lOtli, 1802. lli^ fallicr, the owner and 
conimandcr of a nloop in tlie coasting trade, wlio 
had served iu tlic British nav}*, perished in a storm 
in November 1807, wlien Ilujjh was just five years 
of age. lie was descended from a long line of 
seufarinj^ men, and he mentions two uncles of his 
father, sailors, one of wliom had sailed round the 
world with Anson, and tlie other, like himsi'lf, 
perished at sea. The paternal grandfather of 
lliigh, wlien entering the frith of Cromarty, was 
struck overboard durinjj n suddeu gust, by the 
lioom of his vessel, and never rose again, llis 

gri*nt-gniudfnthcr, whose name was John Feddes, 
was one of the last of the buccaneer?. 

Pix*viuU5 to his father's death llngh had bcco 
sent to a dame's school, where he rcraAined a year, 
and was taught to prouonuce his letters in the old 
Scottish mode, a peculiarity wliicli he could ncvei 
get ([uit of. He' was siiUseqnendy transferred to 
the parish grammar school, where lie made some 
progress iu the rudiments of the I^tiu language, 
lie was a great render, and as he read even' book 
that came in his way, he thus came to acquire, 
in course of time, a vast fimd of information. 

Kveu at this early period his tnni for geological 
enquiries began to develop itself. '^ The shores 
of Cromarty," he says, in his ' Schools and Schoid- 
masters,* '' are strewed over with watcr-rolii*d 
fragments of the primary rocks, derived chieHy 
from the west during the ages of the boulder d»y: 
and I soon learned to take a deep interest in 
sauntering over the various pcbblc-bcds when 
shaken up by recent storms, and in Icaniiug to 
distinguish their numerous components.** From 
his uncle Sandy, whom he used frequently to ac- 
company in his evening walks aloug the senshon*, 
he di'rived some insight into natural history*, and 
especially conchology. He subseqtiently extend- 
ed his researches to the Hill of Cromarty and the 
caves in the Cromarty Sutors, and begau to make 
culled ion.<<. Even in his school days he set about 
writing poetiy, so that he soon came to be looked 
upon as a sort of village prodig>*. He was after- 
wards sent to a subscription school which lund 
been opened in his native place, where he only 
remained a few months. On quitting it, which 
he did abruptly, in consequence of a severe drub- 
bing which he had received from the schoolmaster, 
he revenged himself by writing a satirical poem, 
which he styled * The Pedagogue.* 

At the age of 17 he was bound apprentice to an 
unclo-iu-law, a stone mason, tosen'e for the space 
of three yeat?. He was set to work in the quar- 
ries of Cromarty. *' llie quarry," he says, ** iu 
which I commenced my life of labour was a sand- 
stone one, and exhibited in the section of the 
furze-covered bank w hich it presented, a bar of 
deep red stone beneath, aud a bar of pale red clay 
alK>ve. Both deposits belonged to formations 
equally unknown at the time to the geologist. 




i>Avc for tbe wholesome restraint tlint coufiued me 
for day after day to this spot, I shonhl perhaps have 
paid little attention to either. It was the necessity 
which made me a qnarrier that taught me to l>e a 
geologist." Though both a skiifiil and vigorous 
workman, lie never seems to have taken kindly 
to his trade; nor did he eitlier associate or 
sympathize with Ids fellow-masons. He was 
seldom with his fvllow-masons, except wlicn at 
work, and he spent tlie hours, wliich they devoted 
to jollity and drinking, in a close and enthusiastic 
reading of i>oetiy and science. 

After working for some years as a conntry ma- 
son, storing his mind all the time, by reading and 
obser\'ation, with a knowledge of the facts and 
processes of nature, Mr. Miller, on reaching the 
iige of twenty-one, resolved upon going to Eilin- 
burgh, and making his way as a mechanic among 
the stone-cutters of the Scottish capital, perhaps, 
as he says, the most skilful in their profession in 
the world. lie soon got employment from a mas- 
ter-builder, and was engaged to work at a manor 
bouse near the village of Niddry Mill, a few miles 
to the sonth of Edinburgh, at twenty-four shil- 
lings a-wcek wages. On a reduction of the wages 
of I he men to fifteen shillings, a strike took place, 
in which, however, he took no part. 

In 1824 occurred the memorable fires in the 
parliament close and High Street of Edinburgh, 
and a building mania having thereafter sot in, 
which ended disastrously in a year or two, mnsou- 
work was for a time exceedingly plentiful in that 
lity. Mr. Miller, however, finding his lungs af- 
fected, from the dust of the stone which lie had 
been he\\ing for the previous two veal's lodgiug in 
them, instead of taking employment in Edinburgh, 
returned to Ci-omarty to recruit his health. " I 
was,*' he says, ** too palpably sinking in tlesh and 
strength to render it safe for me to encounter the 
consequences of another season of hard work as a 
stone-cutter. From the stage of the malady at 
which I had already arrived, poor workmen, nna- 
Ug to do what I did, throw themselves loose from 
tbdr employment, and sink in six or eight months 
iato the grai'e — some at an earlier, some at a later 
period of life ; but fio general is the affection, that 
few of our Edinburgh stone-cutters pass their for- 
tk^th year onacathed, and not one out of every 

fifty of their number ever reaches his forty- fifth 

On recovering from a long and depressing ill- 
ness, he resolved upon following a higher branch 
of the art than ordinary stone-cutting. Tliis was 
the hewing of oniato dial stones, sculptured ta- 
blets and tombstone inscriptions. It was an ad- 
vantage to him that his new branch of employ- 
ment brought him sometimes for a few days into 
countiy- districts, and among solitary churchyards, 
which presented new fields of obser^'ation, and 
opened up new tracts of inquiry. But of this sort 
of work there was not a superabundance, at least 
in that locality, and about the end of June 1828, 
Mr. Miller found that he had nothing to do, and 
acting on the advice of a friend, who believed that 
his stylo of cutting inscriptions could not fail to 
secure for him a good many little jobs in the 
churcliyai-ds of Inverness, he visited that place, 
and inserted a brief advertisement in one of the 
newspapers, soliciting employment. While wait- 
ing for it, he was accosted one day in the street 
by the recruiting sergeant of a Highland regiment, 
who asked him if he did not belong to the Aird. 
'' No, not to the Aird, to Cromarty," he replied. 
" Ah ! to Cromarty — verj- fine place ! But would 
you not better bid adieu to Cromarty, and come 
along with me? We have a capital gi*enadier 
company ; and in our regiment a stout steady man 
is always sure to get on." Mr. Miller thanked 
him, but of coui*sc declined the invitation. 

While at Inverness he first "rushed into print." 
Selecting some of his best pieces in verse, he got 
them printed in a volume in the office of the In- 
verness Courier, the editor of that pajKr, Mr. 
Robert Carruthoi-s, inserting from time to time 
some of them in his " poet's comer." The volume 
was published without his name. On the title-pnge 
it wns simply intimated that the poems had been 
"written in the leisure hours of a journeyman 
mason," and, thus modestly announced, the book, 
for a first effort, was very favourably received. 
On his return to Cromarty he began to contribute 
a series of letters, on the herring fishery, to the 
newspnper above mentioned. These letters at- 
tracted attention, and were republished, on his 
behalf, by the proprietors of the paper, "in con- 
sequence of the interest they had excited in the 







northern comities.'* His Verses and liid Letters 
i^oon enlarged tlie circle of liis friends, and anion g»t 
01 lien*, Sir Tlioinns Dick Lander, baronet, author 
of the * Wolf of Badenocli,' and other work.*. Miss 
Duiihar of Boath, and Principal Baird of Edin- 
burgh, slioucd him much kindness. The bitter 
urged htm to rjuit the north and proceed to Edin- 
bnrgli, as tlic pri;]K.'r tield for a literar}' man in 
Scotland, but as lie did not think that he could 
enjoy equal o))i>ortunities of acquainting himself 
witli the occult and the new in natural science, as 
xvlien plying his labours in the provinces as a me- 
ihanic, he determined to continue for some years 
more in the country. At the principal's dcsiiv, 
however, he wrote for him an autobiogrn)>hic 
sketch of liis life, to his return from Edinburgh to 
Cromarty in lb'2'j. 

Mr. Miller next set himself to record, in his 
leisure hours, the traditions of his native place and 
the :furroundiug district, mid a bulky manuscript 
vulumc soon grew up under bis hands. All this 
liuic he lost no opi)ort unity of contiuuiug his geo- 
lo;^ncal researches, and, gradually advancing in 
discoveries, in course of time he came to have a 
thorough knowledge of the extinct organisms of 
the inimitivc world. Many of his friends wished 
to fix him down to literature as his proper walk, 
but he himself thought that his special vocation 
was science, and he accordingly devoted his mind 
I') it with an ardour that soon enabled him to at- 
tain to jjurpassing excellence even as a literary 
man. Aftor the p.issing of the Ueform Bill, he 
was elected a member of the town council of Cro- 
marty, but he never attended but one meeting of 
the council. 

It was in his working attire that he lirst met 
the lady who was destined to become his wife. 
He had been hewing, he tells us, in the upper 
part of his uncle's garden, and had just closed his 
work for the evening, when three ladies made 
their appearance to sec a curious old dial stone 
which he had dug out of the earth long before. 
With the youngest of the three he afterwards had 
many opportunities of meeting, and at length the}' 
came to a mutual underatauding. It was ngi'ccd 
between them that if in the course of three years 
no suitable field of exertion should open for him 
ut home, they should mairy and emigrate to the 

United States. Two years of the time agreed 
upon had passed, and lie was still an operative 
mason, wlicu in 1834 a branch of tlio Commercial 
Bank of Scotland being cstablislied in Cromarty, 
the office of accountant was oflered to him by Mr. 
Ross tiic agent. lie was at this time thirty-two 
years of age, and although afraid that he would 
make but an indifferent accountant, never having 
had any experience in fignres, he was yet induced 
to accept the appointment. He was accordingly 
sent to the parent bank at Edinburgh, to acquire 
the necessary instructions to fit him for his new 

On his arrival, he was ordered to the Commer- 
cial Bank branch at J^inlithgow, to be initiated 
into the proper system of book-keeping. Being, 
as he says himself, ** altogether deficient in the 
cleverness that can promptly master isolated de- 
tails, when in ignoranco of their bearing on the 
general scheme to which they belong," lie was at 
first rather at a loss, and was looked upon b}' the 
local agent as particularly stupid. But as soon 
as ho came to comprehend the central principle 
by which the system was governed, he at once 
showed his competence to manage the business of 
the bank. In the arena of science this law ruled 
his genius with a necessity not less inexorable 
than in the commercial field. From tlic centre of 
any science, when once he was able to master it, 
he could proceed with the utmost case, but he in- 
variably found that when he attempted to np- 
proacli as if from the outside, the details baffled 
and repulsed him. 

After two months* probation in the branch bank 
at Linlithgow, he returned to Cromarty, and 
straightway commenced his new course as an ac- 
countant, at a salary of £S0 a-year. When fairly 
seated at the desk he felt, he says, as if liis latter 
days were destined to difi'er from his eai'lier ones, 
well nigli as much as those of Peter of old, who, 
when he was ^^ young, gli-ded himself, and walked 
whither he would, but who, when old, was girded 
by others, and carried whither he woidd not." A 
sedentary life had at first a depressing effect on 
his intellectual pursuits, and for a time he inter- 
mitted them almost entirely, but as he became 
inured to it, his mind recovered its spring, and, as 
before, he began to occupy his leisure liours in 







liteniy and scientific exertions. The publication, 
in 18S5, of his * Scenes and Legends of the North 
of Scotland,* made his name known in literary 
drcles. With a few exceptions, the book was 
highly commended by the critics. He relates, with 
ftTery natural feeling of satisfaction, that *^ Leigh 
Hut gave it a kind and genial notice in his Jour- 
wd; it was characterized by Robert Cliambers 
not less farourably in hi$; and Dr. Hetherington, 
the future historian of the Chnrch of Scotland and 
of the Westminster Assembly of Divines — at that 
tine a licentiate of the church — made it the sub- 
ject of an elaborate aud very friendly critique in 
the ^ Presbyterian Review.' Nor was I less grat- 
ified," he continues, *^ by the terms in which it 
wu spoken of by the late Baron Hume, the ne- 
phew and realduar}* legatee of the historian— him- 
self Ytrj much a critic of the old school — in a 
note to a north country friend. Ho described it 
u a work * written in au English style which * he 
' bid begun to regard as one of the lost arts.* '* 
The workf however, from the local nature of the 
subjects, attained to no great popularity, but as 
the anthor^s reputation increased, its later editions 
hsve sold better than the first. 

After a courtship of five years, he married the 
joong lady formerly mentioned, Lydia Fraser, 
who was then residing with her mother in Cro- 
>uuty, engaged in teaching. Aflter their mar- 
riage, his wife continued to take a few pupils, and 
ftt this time, he tells us, the united earnings of the 
household did not much exceed a hundred pounds 
a-jear. He, therefore, began to add to his in- 
cone by writing for the periodicals. To Wilson *s 
'Border Tales,* commenced in 18;);'), he contri- 
bited, after the death of Mr. John Mackay AVil- 
UQ of Berwick-npon-Tweed, their originator, 
Mveral stories, for which he got £25 in all, being 
It the rate of three guineas n-picce, the stipulated 
vages for filling a weekly number. For supplying 
the same space with a tale weekly, which he did 
for three or four weeks, the writer of this got five 
pounds each story from the proprietors of the 
Dew * Tales of the Borders,' published in Glasgow 
is 1848. 

Finding that some of his stories were rejected 
bf the editor, Mr. Miller ceased to write for the 
'Border Tales.* He then made an offer of his 


services to Mr. Robert Chambers, by whom they 
were accepted, and for the two following years he 
occasionally contributed papers to Chambers* 
Journal, with his name attached to his several 

He still continued his researches among the 
rocks in the neighbourhood of Cromarty, in deter- 
mining the true relations of their various beds aud 
the character of their organisms. To enable him 
to examine the best sections of the Sutors and 
the adjacent hills, with their associated deposits, 
which cannot be reached without a boat, he pur- 
chased a light little yawl, furnished with mist and 
sail, and that rowed four oars, to enable him to 
carry out his explorations. At this time a letter 
of his on a local subject, inserted in one of the dis- 
trict papers, procui*ed him the offer of a newspa- 
per editorship, which, not deeming hunself quali- 
fied for it, he at once declined. 

Amongst his other occupations at this busy 
period of his life was writing the memoir of a 
deceased townsman, Mr. William Forsyth of Cro- 
marty, at the request of his relative and son-in- 
law, Mr. Isaac Forsyth, bookseller, Elgin. This 
little work was not intended for publication, being 
pi'iiitcd for private circulation among Mr. For- 
syth's friends. His career hitherto had been pros- 
perous for a person iu his condition in life. From 
the humble and obscure position of a journeyman 
stone-mason he had attained to that of an ac- 
countant in a bank. He was known as an author 
and respected as an explorer in geological science. 
In private he had made *^ troops of friends," and 
altogether he had ^^ got on " in the world better 
than in his early days he could have had any rea- 
son to expect. He was now to be removed to a 
higher sphere, and to be placed in circumstances 
more favourable for the full development of his 
genius, and the complete display of his extraordi- 
nar}' attainments, than any that even his wildest 
ambition conld have hoped for a few years before. 

He had taken very little interest in the Volun- 
tary controversy, bnt when the Non-intrusion 
question came to be agitated, he deemed it time 
to buckle on his armour, in other words, to take 
np his pen manfully in behalf of the rights of the 
church when assailed by the civil conrts. The 
famous Auchteranlcr case was the occasion of his 

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rtrst Appearance as a writoi* in tlie field of ecclet<i- 
afftical controvcrs}', In which lie was destined to 
take sncli a pi-ominent and influential part. The 
campaign was a prolonged one, and ended, as 
every body knows, in the disruption of the Estiib- 
Uslicd ChuR'h of Scotland. At no time of his life 
did he exhibit greater energy of intellect than as- 
the champion of the non-intrui*ion and Free church 
party in the church, although it must be confessed 
that, sometimes led away alike by prejudice and 
zeal, lie proved himself less the judicious and dis- 
criminating advocate than the bitter and uncom- 
promising ecclesiastical pailiznii. 

The struggle began in 18o4, with the passing of 
the celebrated "Veto Act," founded on the early 
principle of the church, that ministci's should not 
be Intruded on parishes contraiy to the consent of 
the parishioners. As the church thus considered 
the acceptability of a pi-esentec a necessar}* quali- 
fication, the object of the act wns to instruct nil 
presbyteries to reject presentees to whom a nmjo- 
rity of male heads of families, communicants, ob- 
jected. In the case of the Auchterarder presen- 
tation, when this was acted upon, the presentee 
brought an action in the court of session, to de- 
clare it an undue interference with his civil rights. 
The church, in reply, contended that the matter 
wns purely ecclesiastical, and altogether beyond 
the jurisdiction of the civil courts. The court of 
session thought otherwise, and, in March 18'>8. 
decided that as patronage had been constituted 
property by act of parliament, the obnoxious pre- 
sentee, Mr. Young, was entitled to be "intruded 
upon '^ the reclaiming ]iaririh, ns the rights of the 
patron must bo mnliituined. The church appe^iled 
to the House of Lords, who, in ^fay 1880, con- 
firmed the judgment of the court of session. The 
General Assembly declined to ini))lement the de- 
cision of the civil tribunals, holding itself iirespon- 
sible to any civil court for its obedience to the 
laws of Christ. 

On reading I^rd Brougham's speech, and the 
decision of the House of Ix)rds, in the Auchternr- 
der case, Mr. Miller felt deeply the peril of the 
church. That night, he tells us, he slept none, 
and in the morning, determined u]>on taking the 
])opnlar view of the question, he commenced his 
famous * Letter from one of the Si'Ottish People to 

tho Right Hon. I/)rd Broogham and Vaox, on the 
opinions expressed by his Lordship in tlie Auch- 
terarder case.* That letter had an Important and 
decisive cflfect on his after life. On finishing it, 
he despatched the manuscript to the manager of 
the Commercial Bank at Edinburgh, Mr. Robert > 
Paul, from whom he had already cxperieneed 
some kindness, and who, in the great ecclesiasti- 
cal struggle, took a decided part with the cbnrcfa. 
Tliat gentleman, after reading it, hastened with 
it to his minister, the Rev. Mr. afterwards Dr. 
Candlish of St. George's, who, recognising tho 
ability it displayed and its popular charicter, 
urged its iinme<1iate publication. It was accord- 
ingly put into the hands of Mr. John Johnstone, 
the then well-known Church bookseller. The 
evangelical paiiy in the church had been for some 
time anxious to establish an ecclesiastical news- 
])nper in Edinburgh for the support of their prin- 
ciplos, and a meeting of ministers and elders had 
bo(Mi held in that city, shortly before, to take 
measures for the purpose. A properly qualified 
editor was wanted, and on i*eading the manuscript 
of Mr. Miller's * Letter to Lord Brougham,* Dr. 
C'andlish instnntly fixed uiK)n its writer as the 
very pei*son they had been looking for to fill that 

Meanwhile the * Letter* was published in the 
fonn of a pamphlet, and was at once sncccssfuL 
It ran rapidly through four editions of a thousand 
coj)ies each, and was ivad pretty extensively by 
men who were not Non-intrusionists. '^ Among 
these,"' says its author, " thero were several mem- 
bers of the ministry of the time, including Lord 
Melbounie, who at first regarded it, as I have 
been informed, as the composition, under a popn* 
lar form and a nom-de-guerre^ of some of the Non- 
intrusionist leaders in Edinburgh; and by Mr. 


Daniel O'Conneli, who had no such suspicions, 
and who, though he lacked sympathy, as ho said, 
with the ecclesiastical views which it advocated, 
enjoj-ed what he tenned its ' racy English,' and 
the position in which it placed the noble lord to 
w horn it was addressed.'* Mr. W. £. Gladstone, too, 
in his elaborate work on * Church Principles Con- 
sidered in their Results,* noticed it very favoura- 
bly. His words arc: ^^Over and above the judi- 
cial arguments in the reports of the Auchterarder 




and I^tlicudy cases, the Oliitrcli question has been 
iliscnsaed in a great varietj' of pamphlets, some of 
them yery long and veiy able, others of them VC17 
long withont being particularly able, and one of 
them particularly able without being long ; I mean 
the elegant and masculine production of Hugh 
Miller, entitled ' A Letter to Lord Brougham/ " 

Almost immediately after its publication, ^fr. 
Miller received a letter from Edinburgh, request- 
ing him to meet there with the leading non-intrn- 
Monists. lie accordingly proceeded to the cnpitnl, 
and agreed to undertake the editorship of their 
projected newspaper, the Witness. lie tlicn re- 
turned to Cromarty to make arrangements for 
filially quitting tliat place. He closed his con- 
nexion with the bank, and devoted a few weeks 
very sedulously to geology, and was fortunate 
i'uoogli to find specimens on which Agsissiz found- 
ed two of his fossil species. On leaving his native 
town ho was presented witli an elegant breakfast 
service of plate from a numerous circle of friends, 
of all shades of politics and both sides of the 
church, and was entertained at a public dinner. 
After being fifteen years a journeyman stone-ma- 
son, and fi\e years a bank accountant, he was now 
at last placed in his true position, and was ena- 
hled to giro those wonderful works to the press 
vliich hftve procured for him a world-wide repu- 

The Witness commenced at tlie beginning of 
1840. During the first twelvemonth, he wrote for 
its columns a series of geological chapters, which 
attracted the notice of the geologists of the British 
Aiksociation, assembled that year at Glasgow. In 
the collected fonn they were afterwards jniblislied, 
luidcr the title of ' The Old Ued Sandstone ; or, 
Xcw Walks in an Old fiohl.' Of this work the 
Westminster Keview said: "The geological for- 
mation known as the Old Red Sandstone was long 
»ui>iK)sed to be peculiarly barren of fossils. Tlie 
researches of geologists, especially those of Mr. 
Miller, have, however, shown that formation to 
Itc us rich in organic remains as any that has been 
explored. Mr. Miller's exceedingly Interesting 
liook on this formation is just the sort of work to 
render any subject popular. Jc is written in a 
ii'iuarkably pleasing style, and contains a wonder- 
ful amount of information." The Witness, in the 

meantime, under his editorship rose rapidly in 
circulation. Tliat paper, indeed, owed its success 
to his able articles, literary, ecclesiastical, and geo- 
logical, and during the course of tho first three 
years his employers raised his salary to £400. Tie 
had published another pamphlet on the church 
question, entitled 'The Whigg^m of the Old 
School, as exemplified by the past histor}* and 
present condition of the Church of Scotland,' 
which soon reached a second edition. 

As the cnsjs of the church's fate approached, 
Mr. Miller's consummately able articles in tho 
Witness greatly aided in enlightening the public 
mind on those principles on which the Free church 
was formed, and he may be said to have exercised 
an influence among the supporters of the spiritual 
independence of the church as great as that even 
of Dr. Chalmers himself. His mastery of tho 
English language was complete, and to this he 
added a singular felicity of reasoning and a won- 
derfid vividness of imagination not usually com- 
bined. Tn originality and appropriateness of illns- 
tration, and graphic force and telling significancy 
of diction, no contemporary could compete with 
him. In the early yeai*s of the Witness, a twice- 
a-week paper, his was indeed a life of strife and 
toil. In the circumstances of the time, when po- 
lemical feeling was carried beyond due bounds on 
both sides, as the editor of the principal, and for 
a while the only, non-intrusion paper in the king- 
dom, it was impossible but that his combative 
spirit would be exerted to the utmost. He had 
to contend with many fierce and unscimpulous 
enemies, as almost the entire newspaper press 
was against him and the principles for which ho 
so ably and fearlessly contended. "For fidl 
twenty years," he says, " I had never been en- 
gaged in a quaiTcl on my own account : all my 
(jnan'ols, either directly or indirectly, were eccle- 
siastical ones ; — I had fought for my minister, or 
for my brother parishioners ; and fain now would 
I have lived at ])cace with all men ; but the edi- 
torship of a non-intritsion paper involved, as a 
portion of its duties, war with all the world." 
This truth he experienced to its fullest extent, 
but he was a match fur all opponents, and at 
length few indeed were the antagonists willing to 
cope with him. From Dr. Chalmers, himself '* the 


1 1 








greatest living Scotsman " of liis day, he obtained 
that proud title, and while in piibiic this self-edu- 
cated and self-reliant workiug-man showed no 
mercy to those who entered the lists against him, 
or assailed the principles of the Free church, in 
private he was a singularly manly, modest, and 
sensitive being, whose demeanour, in itself invari- 
ably respectful, was at all times calculated to win 
the respect of those who came personally in contact 
with him. With his retiring and unassuming 
manners, his life was, for his position, as editor of 
such a paper as the Witness, a remarkably seclud- 
ed one. Besides furnishing those splendid arti- 
cles to its columns which were the admiration of 
all who read them, and most of which have been 
republished in some one or other of bis works, he 
continued to devote himself, with characteristic 
ardour, to the prosccutiou of scientific inquiries, 
and made fi*equent pedestrian excursions, for geo- 
logical purposes, to different parts of the country. 
Being now in circumstances to follow the natural 
bent of his genius and inclination, and develop 
that power of observation and research which he 
had cultivated from his early boyhood, whenever 
opportunity enabled him to put it in practice, he 
became known over the empire as a discoverer in 
science, and as one of the best and most etVectivc 
writers of his time. 

His celebrated work on the ^ Old Red Sand- 
stone* was published in 1811. While it placed 
him in the very front rank of geologists, it charm- 
ed non-scientific i-eaders by its marAcUous powers 
of description and the fascinating graces of its 
style. A succeeding work, *• First Impressions of 
England and its People,* was written after a visit to 
England, which he made in 1847. The principal 
characteristic of this small book was eaniest and 
vigorous thought. In 1849 he produced another 
geological work of even a more profound character 
than his former publications, entitled * Footprints 
of the Creator, gr the Asterolepis of Stromness,* 
which Dr. Buckland, who said that he *^ would 
give his left hand to ik)sscss such powera of de- 
scription as this man had," made one of the text- 
books for his geological lectures at Oxford. Other 
teachers of geology in our universities followed 
his example. It was written chiefly with the 
view of exposing the flimsy sophistries and athe- 

istical tendency of a work published auonymoualy 
shortly before, with the specioua title of ' Vestiges 
of the Natural History of Creation,* and was well 
described as a contribution to natural theology of 
inestimable importance. 

In 1846, on the retirement of lir. Jolinstone 
from the joint proprietorship of the Witness, Mr. 
Miller purchased his share of that prosperous 
and influential jounial. Subsequently he and his 
co-partner, Mr. Fairley, were enabled to pay up 
the sum of one thousand pounds which had been 
advanced at its staiting, by a committee of Non- 
intrusion nunisters and ciders, and which gave 
them a certain control over- its management. 
Thi2> being at last satisfactorily got quit of, 
thenceforward, in the eyes of the public, who were 
ignoraut of what took place behind the scenes, 
the paper assumed a more independent and com- 
manding tone than formerly. 

l^Ir. Miller*s habits of composition were pecu- 
liar. His mind, with all its weight and force, and 
in spite of the rich intullectual stores which he 
possessed, wanted elasticity, and he was in gen- 
eral a slow and cautious writer. Before putting 
pen to paper on any subject, he spent a long time 
in deep thought, an*anging, as it were, all its de- 
tails within himself, meanwhile balancing the 
poker or the tongs in his hands, or gazing mu- 
singly into the fire. The author of this work was 
associated with him for some time as sub-editor of 
the Witness, and had many opportunities of ob- 
serving his characteristics. He was fond of ath- 
letic exercises, and took delight in such acts as 
leaping upon the table, poising a chair by one of 
its hind legs in his right hand, and doing other 
feats of strength, in which no one present could 
compete with him. He also took a pride in snuff- 
ing a candle by the mere wave of his arm, when 
no other arm, though half-a-yard nearer, could 
do it. 

In 1855, he published an autobiographical work, 
entitled * My Schools and Schoolmasters,* giving 
an account of his own self-education and the 
means by which he overcame the difiiculties of his 
position. Although necessarily somewhat egotis- 
tical, it furnishes a very interesting as well as 
most instnictive history of his youth and eariy 
manhood, and describes, in his own characteristi- 






eally attractive style, tbe progress of his aiiassist- 
ed intdlectnal training. 

Recognised as the most eloqncnt Hviug exposi- 
tor of tlte profonndest traths of geology, In the 
latter years of his life he was induced to give a 
series of lectnres on his favonrite science. As a 
kctnrer, however, he did not make the same dis- 
tinguished appearance as a writer. His accent 
was against him/being that of the Cromarty Scot- 
tish, which, with his natural bashfulness and not 
very gracefal address, rendered his delivery bad 
as a lecturer. His lectnres were, therefore, not 
' anfreqnently read for him by others. Neverthe- 
less, his high reputation as a geologist and the 
I pecnliar prestige of his name, rendered them 
highly popular. Whenever he made his appear- 
ance as a lecturer, tlie lecture-room was crowded. 
He began, we thinic, in Portobello, where, at a 
place called Shrub ^fount, he latterly resided. lie 
subsequently lectured in the Edinburgh Philoso- 
pliical Institution, and of the eminent men whom 
that association has engiigcd to deliver lectnres, 
no one commanded such audiences as assembled in 
their hall to listen to his prelections. His lectures 
were also most acceptably and even enthnsiasti- 
eaily received by crowded audiences when he ap- 
peared before the Christian Institutes of Ix)ndon 
and Glasgow. But, as we iiavc said, from the im- 
cnuthness of his pronunciation, and his want of flu- 
ency, his carefully written and elaborately prepared 
lectures were, in these cities, read by others, he 
himself sitting by. II is pen'ices were always 
' cheerfully and readily given, as far as time and 
strength would allow, often, indeed, beyond his 
(Strength, solely from the desire to do good. AVilh 
charactei-istic generosity his lectures were given 
gratuitously, as he invariably refused payment for 
them, being only anxious to be serviceable to the 
I cause of popular education. 

His latest work, * The Testimony of the Rocks,' 
fmbodies his lectures, twelve in number, on geo- 
logical science. A prefatory note informs the 
reader that four of them were delivered before the 
members of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institu- 
tion, one in Exeter Hall, I^ndon, and two in 
Glasgow ; while two others were read before the 
Geological Section of the British Association in 
1855. Of the five others, written mainly to com- 

plete, and impart a character of unity to the 
volume into which they have been Introduced, 
three were addressed, viva voee^ to popular audi- 
ences. Tlie third was published both in this coun- 
try and in America, and translated Into some of 
the continental languages. The rest appeared in 
the volume for the first time. 

Til is, the greatest effort of his genius, proved 
fatal to him. In the preparation of it for the 
press, his intellect exhausted itself. So great was 
the intensity with which he wrote upon it that his 
brain gave way, and he fell a victim to mental 
overwork. Tlie circumstances of his death are 
mournful in the extreme. The statement pub- 
lished by his friends in the Witness, when that 
event took place, relates them so minutely, and 
describes the state of his mind for some time pre- 
viously so fully, that it cannot fail to be adopted, 
in its main points, by every one who narrates the 
story of his life. For months his overtasked in- 
tellect had given evidence of disorder. He be- 
came the prey of false or exaggerated alarms, and 
fancied that, occasionally, for brief intervals, his 
faculties quite failed him. He laboured too close- 
ly on his treatise on the ^Testimony of the Rocks,* 
devoting to it all the day, and often half the night. 
This overtoiling of the brain told so fearfully on 
his mental powers that there can be no doubt that, 
latterl}', his understanding was completely shat- 
tered. To guard against the apprehended attacks 
of robbei*8 he was accustomed, when out of doors 
after nightfall, to carry a loaded pistol with him. 
lie also followed the same practice when travel- 
ling, or when on his pedestrian excursions. It 
was mentioned in one of the local newspapers 
that, once being touched on the shoulder by one 
of his oldest friends from the country in a well- 
frequented street in Edinburgh, that gentleman 
was amazed by his suddenly turning round and 
presenting a pistol at him. This dangerous habit 
of carrying loaded fire-arms he is supposed to 
have acquired when he was accountant in the 
Cromarty branch of the Commercial bank, and 
employed occasionally to convey specie to the other 

In July, 1855, when residing at Portobello, 
about three miles from Edinburgh, he had fur- 
nished himself with a revolver. An impression 


I ■ 

I . 




took i>o;$8CSsIon of Ill's mind thai liis house would 
some uiglit be broken into, and robbed. His mu- 
seum, situated in a separate outer building, was 
especially, he thought, exposed to the depredatioii.< 
of burglars. Connected with this morbid fear of 
thieves was the strange fascination which descrip- 
tions of house robberies in the newspaper had for 
him, and he was haunted with the idea that rob- 
bers and other despemte characters were continu- 
ally prowling about his premises. To guard against 
their assaults, he nightly placed his revolver within 
his reach on going to bed, beside it lay a broad- 
bladed dagger, whiUt behind him, at his bedhead, 
stood a readv clnvmore. 

A week or two before his death, the most nlarm- 
ing indication of his mental malady presented itself, 
in sudden and singular sensations in his head. It 
was only, however, in lengthened intervals that 
they came, and mostly at night, but during the 
short time that they lasted, they were extremely 
violent. Up to Monday, the T2i\ December. 18r>r), 
two days before his death, lie had spoken of them 
to no one, but about ton o\-lock of that day he 
called on Dr. Balfour in lV>rtobeII(>. to consult hiin 
in regard to them. That p:cntlenian, in a commu- 
nication which he afterwards drew up, thus de- 
scribes x^hat took place: — ^' On my asking him 
what was the matter with him, he replied, ^ My 
brain is giving way. I cannot ])nt two thouglits 
together to-day: I have had a dreadful night of it. 
I cannot face another such. I was impressed with 
the idea that my museum was attacked by robbers, 
and that I had got up, put on my clothe?, and 
gone out with a loaded pistol to shoot them. Im- 
mediately after that I became nncon^icious. How 
long that continued I cannot say: but when I 
awoke In the morning I was trembling all over, 
and quite confused in my brain. On rising, I felt 
as if a stiletto was suddenly, and as quickly as an 
electric shock, passed through my brain from front 
to back, and loft a burning i>cnsntion on the top 
of the brain, just below the bone. So thoroughly 
convinced was I that I must have been out through 
the night, that I examined my trousers to see if 
they were wet or covered with mud, but could 
find none.* He further said, * I may state that I 
was somewhat similarly affected through the night 
twice last week, and I cxaniined mv trousers in 

the morning, to i^ee if I had been out. Still, the 
terrible sensations wera'tiot nearly so bad as they 
were last night ; and I may further iuforin you 
that, towards the end of last week, while passing 
through the Kxchauge in Kdiubui^gh, I was seixcd 
with such a giddiness that I staggered, and would, 
I think, have fallen, had I not got into an entry, 
where I leaned against the wall, and became quiic 
unconscious for some seconds.'" Dr. Balfour told 
him that he was ovenvorking his brain, and agreed 
to call on hiin on the following day, to make a 
fuller examination. Mrs. Miller, that same fore- 
noon, went to Edinburgh to consult Professor 
Miller, one of the most eminent surgeons of that 
city, as to her hnsband*s health. What follows 
may be given almost in the words of the narrati^'C 
of his melancholy fate which appeared in the Wit- 
ness newspaper: — " I an-anged," says that gentle- 
man, ^' to meet Dr. Balfour at Shrub Monut, (Mr. 
Hugh Miller s house,) on the aflemoon of next 
day. We met accordingly at half-past three on 
Tuesday. He whs a little annoyed at Mrs. Mil- 
ler's having given me the trouble, as he called it, 
but received me quite in his ordinar}' kind, friendly 
manner. We examined his chest, and found that 
unusually well : but soon we discovered that it 
was head symptoms that made him nneasy. He 
acknowledged having been night after night up till 
veiy late in the morning, working hard and con- 
tinuously at his new book, * which,' with mnch 
satisfaction, he said, *I have finished this dav.' 
He was sensible that his head had suffered in con- 
sequence, as evidenced in two wa^'s: first, occa- 
sionally, ho felt as if a very fine poignard had been 
suddenly passed through and through his brain. 
The pain was intense, and momentarily followed 
by confusion and giddiness, and the sense of being 
^veiy drunk ^ — unable to stand or walk. Ho 
thought that a period of nnconscionsnesa must 
have followed this— a kind of swoon, bnt he had 
never fallen. Second, what annoyed him most, 
however, was a kind of nightmare, which for some 
nights past had i*endered sleep most miserable. It 
was no dream, he said ; he saw no distinct vision, 
and could remember nothing of what had passed 
accurately. It was a sense of vague and yet in- 
tense horror, with a conviction of being abroad in 
the night wind, and dragged througli places as if 




I ' — 










by aonie iiivUiblc power. * Last Diglit,* he said, 
* I felt as if I lind been ridden by a witch for fifty 
miles, and rose far more wearied in mind and body 
than when I lay down.* So strong was his con- 
viction of having been out, that he had difficulty 
in persuading himself to the contrary, by carefully 
examining his clothes in the morning, to sec if they 
were not wet or dirty ; and he looked inquiringly 
and anxiously to his wife, asking if she was sure 
be bad not been out last night, and walking in this 
disturbed trance or dream. His pulse was quiet, 
but tongue foul. The. head was not hot, but he 
could not say it was fi-ee from pani. But I need 
not enter into professional details. Suffice it to 
say, that we came to the conclusion that he wais 
Miffering from an overworked mind disordering his 
digestive organs, enervating his whole frame, and 
threatening serious head affection. We told him 
this, and enjoined absolute discontinuance of work 
—bed at eleven, Ught supper (lie had all his life 
made that a principal meal), thinning the hair of 
the head, a warm sponging-bath at bed-time, &c. 
To all our commands he readily promised obedience, 
not forgetting the discontinuance of ncck-nibbing, 
to which ho had unfortunately been pi*cvailed to 
submit some days before. For fully an hour we 
talked togetlier on these and other subjects, and I 
lefl falm with no apprehension of impending evil, 
and little doubting but that a short time of rest 
and regimen would restore him to his wonted 



After the pi*ofessor*8 departure, as it was near 
the dinner hour, the servant entered the room to 
Uy the cloth. She found Mr. Miller in the room 
alone. Another of the paroxysms was on liiin. 
His face was such a picture of horror, thnt she 
shrunk in teiTor from the sight, lie flung himself 
on the sofa, and buried his head, as if in agony, 
upon the cushion. Again, however, the vision 
flitted by, and left him in perfect health. The 
evening was spent quietly with his family. Dur- 
ing tea he employed himself in reading aloud 
Cowper's/ Castaway,* the * Sonnet on Mary Un- 
win,* and one of his more playful pieces, for the 
special pleasure of his children. Having cori*ected 
some proofs of the forthcoming volume, he went 
op stairs to his study. At the apttointed hour he 
had taken the bath, but unfortunately, his natural 

and peculiar i-epugnance to physic had induced him 
to leave nutaken the medicine that had been pre- 
scribed, lie had retired into a sleeping-room — a 
small apartment opening out of his study, and 
which for some time past, in consideration of the 
delicate state of his wife's health, and the irregu- 
larity of his own hours of study, he occupied at 
night alone — and lain sometime upon the bed. 
The horrible trance, more horrible than ever, must 
have returned. All that can now be known of 
what followed is to be gathered from the facts, 
that next momung his body, half-dressed, was 
found lying lifeless on the floor— the feet upon the 
study rug, the chest pierced with the ball of the 
revolver pistol, which was found lying in the bath 
that stood close by. The deadly bullet had per- 
forated the left lung, grazed the heart, cut through 
the pulmonary artery at its root, and lodged in the 
rib in the right side. Death must have been in- 

On lookmg round the room in which the body 
had been discovered, a folio sheet of paper was 
seen lying on the table. On the centre of the page 
the following lines were written — the last which 
that pen was ever to trace : - 

*' Deabrst Lydia, 

" Mjr brain burns. I mutt havo icalked; and a fenr- 
ful dream rises upon uie. 1 cannot benr tlio horrible tiionjilit. 
God and Fntber of the Ix>rd Jesus Christ have mercj upon 
me. I )cn rrst Ly din, dear children, farewell. BIy brain bums 
as the recollection gi-uws. llj dear dear wife, farewell. 

** Hugh Millkii.** 

A post-mortem examination of the bo<1y was 
made by Professor Miller, and Drs. A. II. Balfour, 
W. T. Gairdner, and A. M. Edwards. The fol- 
lowing is the conclusion to which they came: — 

"Ei>ix»rRr.if, December 2C^ 185C. 

" We hereby certify on soul and conscience, that we have 
this day examined the body of Mr. Hugh Miller, ut Shrub 
MoTint. Portobello. 

** llie canse of death we found to be a pistol-shot tlirough 
the left side of the chest ; and this, we are satisfied, was in- 
flictetl bv his own hand. 

" From tlie diseased appearances found in the brain, taken 
in connection with the history of the case, we have no donbt 
that the net was suicidal, under the impulse of insanity." 

It is impossible to convey any adequate iilea of 
the gloom which pervaded Edinburgh on the par- 
ticulars of Hugh Millcr*s lamentable death being 
known. And this gloom was deepened by the oc- 
cun'ence of another sad tragedy iii connexion with 


ibe fatal revolver witlt whicb ho bad Urininated 
bis life. After the medical inquirf into tlie cauM 
of bis deotli hod liceD completed, Frofeasor Miller 
took tbe revolver to tbo gnnsmitb in Edinborgb 
from whom it had bcou porcbased hy Mr. Miller, 
to ascertain bow many sbols bid been Bred, and how 
manj still remained in tbo cbamber. In llio maa- 
liir'a absence, tlic roi'cman,ThoraiL8 Leslie, received 
the wciipoii from the professor, and iooiicd into the 
tnoXEle, holding the hammer witli hia lingers, while 
be tnmed the cliamlKr round to connt the cliarges. 
Tbe hammer slipped from his fingers, struck the 
cap, and tbe dtarge in the barrel exploded. Tbo 
ciiirge entered his right eye and penetrated the 
bralu, and be fell dead ou tbe floor.— Subjoined in 
Mr. Miller's portrnit: 

Mr. Miller nm bmicd in tlic Giiiiigu ccmctcrj*, 
on the south side of Ediubnrgb, ]jis grave being 
on tbo Bamc Hue, and a few paues distiiiil, from that 
of Dr. Cbolmer^. Tlie atteiidanco of moniiicis 
lit the funeral nns very great, and tbe concourse of 
R|icctatoi-s ciiaally so. At one part of the rontc 
(he procession nns joined by tbe kirk session of 
Free St. Joliu'ij eiiurcli, of which Mr. Miller was a 
deacon, by the members of the Royal Physical 
Society, by the coui|>ositOTS in tbo Witness office, 

8 HUGH. 

and by several hnndreda of geutlwien. Along 
all the streets throngb whicli tbt proceesbin puwd, 
tlie shops were sbat at the reqoat of the ma^ 

In persou Mr. Miller was Urge and muscaliir. 
He had a stalwart form, and a broad and missy 
forebeod, with n lingular conformation of head. 
No one could sea bim williout being coiivioced 
that there was something remarkable about bim, | 
and tho Individuality of his appearancs waa ren- 
dered the more striking by the homely dreos, In- l 
cinding the plaid thrown across the shoulder, lu ; 
nhlch be was accustomed to attire blmnelf. It I 
was emphatically said of liim by tbe dnke of Ar- | 
gy\e, that "Hugh Miller waa not aleomad man. 
lie knew no langungo but his own. He could 
rend notbing but English; and yet, by earefnl 
nnd industrious habits, by spending liia Bptn 
hours on tbe writings of the greatest anthers to { 
whom he could get access, be was enabled to | 
nrile books which bavo attained a classical rank | 
ill the literature of the English language." i 

His townsmen have erected a statne of hiro at ' 
Cromarty. His much-cherished geological collec- 
tion WIS, iu 1858, purchased by government for 
£.')00, to bo preserved in the Mosenm of the oni- i 
vereity of Edinburgh. An additional sum of £600, 
subscribed by various persons, with a view to ita 
private piircbnsc, was paid over to his widow, mak- 
ing ill all £1,100, which the family received for 
(his memento of lier husband's scientific labours. 

The 'Testimony of tlie Rocks' was publiahed 
soon after his deatli, and fi'om tho peculiar circum- 
stances in which it apjiosrcd, as well aa from ita 
oivn extraordinary merits, it .ittracted on nuusttol 
share of public attention. Ita object is to demon- 
stinte tlio bearing whicli geology haa on both na- 
tural and revealed religion, and whatever may be 
tbe opinions entertained of the author's peculiar 
and thoroughly original views na to tbe ereatloa 
nnd deluge, the work mast certainly be eoiiudered 
one of (Ije most remarkable contribntiona to science 
of tlic present century. He bad long projected K 
great work on ''Ilie Geology of Scotland,' as tbe 
completion of his scientific labours, and one on 
which bis reputation was permanently to nat, bat 
his strong Intellect lind run its course, and It never 
shone clearer, aa appears oonsplcnoua on vnrj 





page of his finul volume, than just before it sud- 
denly sunk in darkness, to be relumed no more in 
this world. 

^Ir. Miller left a Tamily of two sons and a 
dangliter. Tlie eldest son was fourteen years old 
flt the time of his father^s death. He himself was 
54 years of ngfi when that event took place. 

Tlie works of Hugh Miller are: 

Poems written in the I^isyre Hours of a Journcjman 
Mason. Inrerness, 1829. 12mo. 

On the Herring Fishery. A pnmplilet. Inverness, 1829. 
Contriboted orif^nidlj in a series of letters to the Inverness 

Ijetter from one of the Scottish People to the Right Hon. 
Ijotd Brougham and Vanx, on the opinions expressed by his 
Ijordship on the Auchtcmrder case. Edinburgh, 1839. 
Foorth edition, 1857. 

Tbo Whiggism of the Old School, as exemplified hy the 
past history and present condition of the Church of Scotland. 
K«linbaigh, 1839. 8vo. Second edition. 

Scenes .ind I.egends of the North of Scotland. Edinburgh, 
1835. Fifth edition, crown 8vo, 1857. 

The Old Red Sandstone ; or New WhIIcs in an Old Field. 

Edinburgh, 1811, crown 8vo, with plntos. 7th edition, 1857. 

The Fosailiferous Deposits of Scotland ; being an address 

to the Bojal Phyiical Society, delivered 22d November 1854. 

Edinburgh, 12mo, 185J. 

The Sites Bill and the Toleration I^iws. Being an Ex- 
amination of the Resolutions of the Kcv. Dr. .\lexan(ler of 
Aq^lc Square Chapel Congregation. Edinburgh, 1848, r2uio. 
First Impressions of Enghuid and its People. Edinburgli, 
1847. Fourth edition, 1857, crown 8vo. 

Footprints of the Creator; or. The Asterolopis of Strom- 
ness. I»ndon, 1849, IGmo. Sixth edition, foolscap 8vo, 
1857, with numerous woodcut illustrations. 

The Two Parties in the Church of Scothmd Exhibited as 
^fusionary and Anti-Missionnrr. Their contendings in these 
I f^Plmtute diameters in the P:tst and their Statistics now. 
' ''•'Jinburgh, 1842, 8vo. Second edition. 

Words of Warning to the People of Scotland on Sir Robert 
'*ecrs Scottish Currency Bill. Edinburgh, 1844, 8vo. 

'My Schools and Schoolmasters ; or. The Story of my Edu- 
^•"^tion. Edinburgh, 1854. 8th edition, crown 8vo, 1857. 

The Testimony of the Rocks; or, Geology in its bearing on 
'■*• Two Theologies — Natural and Revealed. Posthumous. 
*-^sinburgh, 18.>7, post 8vo, profusely illustrated. 

The Cruise «»f the Bctsev ; or, A Summer Ramble among the 
*^o»xliferons Deposits of the Hebrides. With Rambles of a 
^ eulogist; or, Ten Thousand miles over the Fosf»iiiferous 
deposits of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1858. 8vo. Pohthumous. 
He also contributed an account of the geology of the Bass 
^^<)ck to a work, published in 1850, having for its object a 
^Uil description of tiiat once celebrated state prison. 

A Sketch Book of Popular Geology. Posthumous. Edited 
**y his widow. Being Lectures delivered before the PhiloHO- 
Pliical Instilntion of Edinburgh. With an Introductory Pre- 
^^ct. By Mrs. Miller. Edinburgh, 1859, 8vo. 

On Mr. MiIIer*8 widow government settled a 
pension of £70, and on his aged motlier at Crom- 
arty, one of £30. 

MILNE, CouN, LL.D., a writer on botany, 
bom at Aberdeen in 1744. He became tutor to 
Lord Algernon Percy, younger son of the duke 
of Northumberland, and entered Into holy orders. 
He was afterwards rector of North Chapel, in 
Essex, and also obtained the lectureship of Dept- 
ford. He received the degree of LL.D. from Mar- 
ischal college, Aberdeen, and was likewiso D.D. 
and F.L.S. He died in 1815. His works are : 

Botanical Dictionary; or. Elements of Systematic and 
Philosophical Botany. I^ndon, 1770, 8to. 2d edit 1777, 
8vo. A Supplement. 1778, 8ro. 3d edit, revised, corrected, 
and enlarged, 25 plates. I»ndon, 1805, 8vo. 

Institutes of Botany. In two parts. London, 1770-72, 
4 to. Supplement to the same. 1778, 4 to. 

The Boldness and Freedom of Apostolic Evidence ; a Ser- 
mon. 1775, 8vo. 

Sermon preached at the Anniversary Meeting of the Royal 
linnasan Society. 1779, 8vo. 

Sermons. I/>ndon, 1780, 8vo. 

Indigenous Botimy, or Habitations of English Plants. 
Vol. i. I/>nd. 1793, 8vo. In conjunction with Alex. Gordon. 

MILNE, WiLLTAM, D.D., a distinguished mis- 
sionary to the Chinese, was bom of poor parents, 
in the parish of Kinnethmont, Aberdeenshire, in 
April 1785. He received his education at the 
parish scliool, and afterwards resided in one or 
two families in the capacity of a servant. He 
emiy began to entertain religions impressions, and 
having read the Transactions of the London Mis- 
sionary Society, and the Life of David Brainerd 
and of Samuel Pearce, he was induced to offer 
himself to that society as a missionar}'. In con- 
sequence he was called up to England, and put 
under the care of the Rev. David Bogne at Gos- 
port, with whom, having gone through a regular 
course of study, and made great progress both in 
classical and theological knowledge, he was or- 
dained at Portsca, July 16, 1812. 

Soon after he was appointed colleague to Mr. 
Morrison in China, and having married a young 
lady in his native county, he sailed with his wife 
from Portsmouth, September 4, 1812, and arrived 
at Macao, July 4, 1818. He immediately com- 
menced the study of the Chinese language, but 
was soon compelled by the Portuguese authorities 
to proceed to Canton. After remaining there a 
short time, he made a tour throngh the chief set- 
tlements of the Malay Archipelago for the purpose 
of distributing tracts and New Testaments, and 
afterwards returned to China. In April 1815 he 





ciubni'kcd with his family for Mulacca to take 
charge of the missionary' establishment at that 
place, where he also preached once a- week to the 
Dntch protcstants. On application to the gover- 
nor at Penang, a grant was made of ground for 
the erection of missionary buildings, and a free 
press was allowed at Malacca. Having esta- 
blished a school for the instruction of the children 
of the poor, ho composed for his Cliincse scholars 
the Yontirs Catechism, and printe<l various tracts 
for their use. He also translated iuto the Cliiuese 
language a part of the Old Testament, of which 
the Book of Deuteronomy, after being revised by 
Mr. Morrison, was printed in 1816. lu May 1817 
Mr. Milne commenced ^ Tlie Ciiinese Gleaner,* a 
periodical work containing extracts from the cor- 
respondence of the Eastern missionai-ies, with 
miscellaneous notices relative to the philosophy 
and mythology of the Indo-Chinese nations. In 
September 1818 Malacca was by treaty restored 
to the Dutch government, and on November 10 of 
the same year tlie foundation stone was laid of the 
Anglo-Chiuese college, on which occasion both 
the English and Dutch authorities attended. 

Previous to this period, Mr. Milne, along with 
Mr. Moniiion, had received from the univereity of 
Glasgow the degree of D.D., which had been 
granted them December 24, 1817. In March 
1819 he had to mourn the loss of his wife. In 
November of the same year the whole of the Old 
Testament, translated by him and his colleague, 
1 was completed, Dr. Milne having undertaken the 
historical portions, and Dr. Morrison the books of 
Solomon and the Prophets. In 1820 Dr. Milue 
published ^ A Retrospect of the First Ten Years 
of the Protest|int Mission to China,' in which he 
gives an interesting account of the history of that 
country, its manners, its morals, and its religion, 
and of the various attempts to introduce the know- 
ledge of the gospel into that benighted land. Af- 
ter suffering much from the effects of the climate, 
Dr. Milno died at Malacca, 1822, at the age of 
37, leaving four children. 

MiXTo, earl of, a title in the peenif^ of Great Britain oon- 
iiectrd wiih Scotland, see vol. ii. p. 182, article Eixnyc 

MrrcRRLi., a stimame from the Anf;k>-Saxon Blicliel, si^- 
nifyinK gnat ; or it mar be from the German Aitt tekukr, a 
diwipie, literallr " with a mIiooI.** The Daniah Mod-ichiold. 

means oourage-vliield. 'llie crrht of the AlitcheUa is a kaihi 
holding a pen; motto, FavwU deo wt^ptro, 

MITCHELL, Sir David, an eminent naval 
commander, in the reign of William III., was de- 
scended from a respectable family in Scotland, 
where ho was born abont the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. lie early entered the navj, and 
after the intermediate steps he was promoted to 
the command of the Elizabeth, of 70 guns. At 
the battle of Beachy-head he behaved with great 
gallantn-; and in 1693 he was appointed rear- 
admiral of the blue. In 1694 he was knighted, 
and about the same time attained the rank of 
rear-admiral of the red. In 1698, when Peter tlie 
Groat was invited by King William to visit Lon- 
don, Admiral Mitchell was commissioned to brin;; 
him over to England, aud after a stay of three 
months he conveyed him back to the Continent. 
He was subsequently sent to Holland, on a diplo- 
matic commission. He died soon after his retnni 
to England, June 1, 1710. 

MITCHELL, Sir Andkew, an able diploma- 
XUt^ was the only son of the Rev. William Mit- 
chell, originally of Aberdeen, and latterly one of 
the ministers of the High Church of Edinboi^gh. 
The date of his birth is not specified, but ho is 
said to have been married in 1715, when very 
young, to a lady, who died four years after in 
childbirth, aud whose loss he felt so deeply as to 
be obliged to discontinue the study of the law, for 
which his father had designed him, and divert his 
grief by travelling. In 17-11 he was appointed 
secretary to the marquis of Tweeddale, minister 
for the affairs of Scotland, and in 1747 was elect- 
ed M.P. for the Banff district of burghs. On the 
death of Thomson the poet in 1748, he and Lord 
Lyttleton were named his executors. 

In 1751 he was nominated his majesty's repre- 
sentative at Bnissels, where he resided for two 
years. Soon after his return to Ix>ndon in 1753 
he was created a knight of the Bath, aud appoint- 
ed ambassador extraordinary to the court of Prus- 
sia, where, by his abilities and address, he suc- 
ceeded in detaching his Prussian majesty from the 
French interest. At Berlin he was much cele- 
brated for the liveliness of his conversation and 
the readiness of his repartees, and he became so 
much a favourite with the Great Frederick that 




be Qsnally accompaiiled him iu his campai{,nis. In 
consequence of bad health he returned to Eugland 
in 1765, and spent some time at Tnnbridge Wells. 
In the following year he resumed the duties of his 
office at Berlin, where ho died, January 28, 1771. 
The court of Prussia honoured his funeral i^ith 
their presence, and the king himself, from a bal- 
cony, is said to have beheld the procession with 

MITCHELL, JosEPU, a dramatist and third- 
rate poet, was the son of a stone-cutter, and was 
bom about 1684. He received a university edu- 
cation, and is described as " one of a dub of small 
wits who, about 1719, published nt Edinburgh, a 
ver}' poor miscelKiny, to which Dr. Young, the 
wdl-known author of the 'Night Thoughts,* pre- 
fixed a Copy of Vcrecs." He afterwards repaired 
to London, where he was fortunate enough to ob- 
tain the patronage of the earl of Stair and Sir 
Robert Walpolc : on the latter of whom he was 
for a great part of his life almost entirely depend- 
ent, and was styled *'*• Sir Robert Walpole's Poct/^ 
His dissipation and extravagance, however, kept 
him constantly in a state of distress ; and having 
on one occasion applied to Aaron Hill for some 
pecuniary assistance, that gentleman made him n 
present of hb tragedy of 'The Fatal Extniva- 
gance,* which was acted and published in Mit- 
chell's name, and produced him a considerable 
Slim. He was candid enough, however, to inform 
the public who was the real author of the piece, 
and ever after gratefully acknowledged his obli- 
gations to Mr. Hill. A collection of Mitclieirs 
Miscellaneous Foems, in two volumes 8vo, was 
published in 1729; and in 1731 he brought out 
'Tlie Highland Fair, a Ballad Opera,* which was 
his own composition. He died 6th February, 

He was the author of several popular Scottish 
songs, inserted in Jolinson*s Musical Museum, 
particularly * I^ave Kindred and Friends, sweet 
Betty,' adapted to the tune of ^ Blink over the 
Bnm, sweet Betty,' and ' By Pinkie House ofl let 
me walk,' also ^ As Sylvia in a Forest lay.' To 
the air of Pinkie House be also wrote another 
song, beginning * As lovesick Croydon beside a 
nnnnnriiig rivulet lay,' which is printed in Watt's 
Musical Miscellany, vol. v. London, 1731. The 

ballad called the ' Duke of Argyle*s Levee,' usu- 
ally ascribed to I/>rd Binning, was written by 

MITCHELL, Sir Andkeav, a gallant adniirali 
was bom m Scotland about 1767, and received his 
education at Edinburgh. In 1776 he accompanied 
Admiral Sir Edward Vei-non to India as a mid- 
shipman, and during his services in the East, he 
was rapidly advanced to the rank of post-captain. 
At the conclusion of the war, he returned to Eng- 
land with a convoy, and on the breaking out of 
hostilities with the French republic, he was ap- 
pointed to the command, first of the Asui, 64, and 
then of the Impregnable, 90. In 1795 be became 
a rear-admiral; and in 1799, on being promoted 
to the rank of vice-admiral of the White, he 
hoisted his flag on board the Zealand, 64, from 
which ship he removed to tiie Isis, 50, in which 
he joined I^rd Duncan off the coast of Holland. 
At the end of August he entered the Texel, where 
the Dutch fleet surrendered to him without firing 
a shot. For this service he was made a knight of 
the Bath. In 1802 he was appointed commander- 
in-chief on the coast of America. Ho died at 
Bermuda, February 26, 1806. 

MITCHELL, Sir Thomas Livinostonr, 
D.C.L., a distinguishod Australian explorer, w as 
bom in 1792. He was the eldest son of John Mit- 
chell, Esq., of Grangemouth, descoidcd from the 
MitchclU of Cniigeud, oue of the oldest families in 
Stirlingshii-e, whicli took tlie additional name of 
Livingstone. Entering the aimy as lieutenant of 
tlie 95th lliflcs, now the Rifle Brigade, at an early 
age, he passed through the most active period of 
the Pcninsulnr War. After 1815 he was sent into 
Spain and Portugal to survey the different fields 
of battle in those countries. Tiiis service he suc- 
cessfully accomplished, and several of his models 
may be seen in the United Service Institution, 
London. Al)Out 1827 he was, by George IV., 
ap})oiuted surveyor-general of New South Wales. 
To this arduous service he devoted the remaining 
twenty-eight years of his life. He cut all the 
passes which lead through the mountains to the 
interior of the Australian continent ; laid out up- 
wards of 200 towns and villages ; and conducted 
four expeditions of discovery, during one of which 
he conquered from the aborigines, and surveyed, 


■ I 




at the same time, Anstralia Felix, afterwards cel- 
ebrated for its gold fields. He has been deserv- 
edly called ** the Cook of the Australian conti- 
nent.^' In 1839 he was knighted by Qneen Vic- 
toria, on presenting her Majesty with a map of 
his surveys and discoveries. 

In 1838 he published, in 2 vols. 8vo, his ad- 
mirable work, entitled ^ Three Expeditious into 
the Interior of Eastern Australia,' and in 1848 he 
brought out a second work on his Australian dis- 
coveries, being * A Journal of an Expedition into 
the Interior of Tropical Australia, in search of a 
route from Sydney to the Gulf of Carpentaria.' 
Sir Thomas was the author of several other works. 
His * Manual' and ^ Platoon Exercises' long form- 
ed part of the requisite equipment of young oflficcrs 
joining the nrmy, as his plans of battles, drawn at 
the royal military college, have been for many 
years the only studies for militaiy students of the 
senior department at Sandhuret. He prepai-ed 
and published several maps of Australia, a 
beautiful Trigonometrical survey of Port Jackson 
on a large scale, and a translation of the * Lusiad 
of Camocns.' He also invented the boomerang 
propeller, which was patented in Great Britain 
and America, and was adopted in many vessels as 
superior to cvciy other. In 1853 he published a 
pamphlet entitled ^ The Origin, History, and De- 
scription of the Boomerang Propeller.' 

Sir Thomas represented Melbourne for some 
years in the I-KJgislativc Assembly of New South 
Wales, and died at Sydney on Oct. 5, 1855. lie 
was doctor of civil law of the university of Oxford, 
and a fellow of the Royal Geographical and Geo- 
logical Societies, and other learned bodies. He 
was much beloved and respected in the colony of 
Xew South Wales, and was honoured with a public 
funeral. He married in 1818, Mary, eldest daugh- 
ter of General Richard Blunt, colonel of the 66th 
regiment, by whom he had a numerous issue. 
His younger brothers are: J. M. Mitchell, of 
Mayville, merchant and Belgian consul in Leitli, 
knight of the order of I^opold of Belgium, and 
Houston Mitchell of Polmood and Meadowbank. 

On 16th April 1857 Sir Thomas' second daughter, 
Emily, married at Sydney the Right Hon. George 
Edward Thicknesse Touchet, 20tli Lord Audley, 
descended from a family who were barous by 

tenure before the reign of Heuiy III.^ bnt tbe ex- 
isting peerage, created in 1318, dates fttmi tbe 
earliest writ of snmmonfi. Camiila Victorit, Sir 
Thomas' third daughter, was married the sane 
day to J. F. Mann, Esq., son of General Mann. 
Lady Audley died April 1, 186a 

Sir Thomas was chief of tbe familjr of Mitebell 
of Craigend, which, as above mentioned, sssomed 
the name of Livingstone, on a marriage irith the 
heiress of a brother of Lord Viscount Kilsytb, at- 
tainted in 1716. He was chiefly remarkable far 
energy and perseverance in whatever he vnder- 
took, and a determination to do his dncy in all 
circumstances. Wlien sent to the Peniosnia, after 
the battle of Waterioo, in 1815, to sorrej the 
different fields of battle in which onr troops had 
been engaged, although he was there under tlie 
direct auspices of the Duke of Wellington, and al- 
though he had been introduced by Mr. Cannuig, 
then British ambassador at Lisbon, to the imme- 
diate protection of General Ballasteros, tbe Span- 
ish prime minister, his surveys excited a good deal 
of jealousy amongst the Spaniards, and he was ex- 
posed to so much danger that he had freqnentij 
to work wiih the theodolite in one hand and the 
rifle in the other. On his return to Britaui be 
was employed, under Sir Henry Torrens, in draw- 
ing plans for the manoeuvres of the army, accord- 
ing to a design of his own invention, by which 
their accuracy could be tested on mathematical 
principles, and under which test many old erron 
of movement in echelon and wheeling were ex- 
ploded, and new methods of forming squares were 
introduced from his drawings. 

The publication of his work, *^ Plans of the Fields 
of Battle in the Peninsula," which, connected as 
they were with the days of his early service in the 
ai-my, naturally had stronger claims on him, was 
delayed to allow him to publish his '* Throe Ex- 
peditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia," 
undei-taken, as these expeditions were, by order 
of government. The most attractive of his duties, 
as he himself tells us in his preface to his " Tro- 
pical Australia," ever was to explore the interior 
of that country. Australia was then very little 
known to the world, and Sir Thomas Mitchell's 
works on the subject have been of vast use to all 
subsequent explorers. 





MOIR, David Macbeth, an accomplished poet 
and oiJsceUaneona writer, the Delta of Black- 
wood's Magaxine, was bora at Musselburgh, 5th 
Jannaiy 1798, being the second of four children 
which his parents had. He got the rudiments of 
bis edacation at a school of minor note in his 
native place, and was then entered at tlie grammar 
school, where he learned the Latin, Greek, and 
French languages, and the elements of geometry 
and algebra. When thirteen years old, he was 
placed as an apprentice for four years with Dr. 
Stewart, a medical practitioner of Mnsselburgh. 
In the last year of his apprenticeship he began to 
attend the medical classes in the university of 
Edinburgh, and after pui*suing the usual course of 
study, he received his diploma as surgeon in the 
spring of 1816, when he was only eighteen years 
of age. Soon after he joined Dr. Brown of Mus- 
selburgh, as junior partner, in his medical practice, 
which was extensive. 

His first poetical attempt beara date 1812, being 
then in his fifteenth year. He soon after sent two 
sliort prose essays to * Tlie Cheap Magazine,' a 
small Haddington publication. He subsequently 
contributed to the Scots Magazine, and having in 
1817 instituted adebating society in his native place, 
called *^ The Mnsselburgh Forum,** he became its 
secretary, and took an active part in its proceed- 
ings. So pleased were the members with his ser- 
vices tliat at the end of their session they unani- 
mously voted him a silver medal with a suitable 
inscription. Towards the close of the same year 
he ventured to print anonymously a small 
volume entitled ^Tho Bombardment of Algiers 
and other Poems,* which he distributed almost 
entirely among his friends. Having become ac- 
quainted with Mr. Thomas Pringle, the poet, one 
of the editors of Constable*s Edinburgh Magazine, 
he contributed various articles, both in prose and 
verse, to that periodical. 

His fii*st contribution to Blackwood's Magazine 
was some verses, shortly after the starting of that 
[>eriodica1, when he was only nineteen years of 
age. They were sent without any signature, but, 
to distinguish his pieces, ho adopted the subscrip- 
tion of Delta, by which nom-de-plume he was ever 
afterwards known. His earliest poem with that 
subscription, first entitled * Emma,* but subse- 

quently altei-ed to Sur Ethelrcd, appeared in Janu- 
ary 1820. For more than thirty years he conti- 
nued to enrich its pages with the productions of 
his pen. His poems, in particular, were remark- 
able for thehr smoothness and facility of style, and 
evinced a delicate and graceful fancy, with a sweet 
pure vein of tenderness and pathos. 

Towards the dose of 1824, he published in a 
separate volume, * The Legend of Genevieve, with 
other Tales and Poems,* consisting chiefly of 
selections from his contributions to the Magasines, 
with some new pieces. This work was well re- 
ceived, and greatly increased his poetical reputa- 
tion. In October of the same year he began to 
contribute also to Blackwood*s Magazine, one of 
the most laughable as well as lifelike embodiments 
of Scottish humour known to literature, entitled 
^ The Autobiography of Mansie Waugh.' It was 
not concluded till 1828, when it was published 
in a volume by itself, with additions, and in a 
short time ran through several editions. It was 
also reprinted in America and France. That the 
author of the touching * Legend of Genevieve,* and 
the writer of the facetious history of 'Mansie 
Waugh,' the Dalkeith tailor, was one and the 
same person, could scarcely be believed at the 
time. In the literary world the authorship was 
universally assigned to John Gait, then in the ze- 
nith of his fame. But this was not the only hu- 
morous piece which the Magazine received from 
his pen. Among his other jocose papers ftirnished 
to that periodical were * The Eve of St. Jerry,' 
* The Auncient Waggonere,* * Billy Routing,* &c. 
some of which were ascribed to Maginn, then also 
a fi*equent contributor to its pages. 

Mr. Moir wrote likewise for the Edinburgh Lit- 
erary Gazette, and his contributions were prized 
so highly that in the end of July 1829, he was 
presented by the proprietors with a handsome 
silver jug, in token of their gratitude. On 8th 
June of the same year, he had married Miss Char- 
lotte £. Bell of Leith, by whom he had eleven 
children, eight of whom survived him. 

In 1830 he edited the collection called ' Weeds 
and Wildflowers,* a posthumous volume of prose 
and poetry, by Alexander Balfour, published for 
the benefit of his family, and ifvix>te the memoir 
prefixed of Balfour*s life. 






Meantime his profeMional career as a medical 
man had kept pace with his literary success. Dnr- 
iiig the terrible visitation of the cholera in 1882, 
AT nsselbnrgh was one of its first points of attack, 
and Mr. Moir was night and day in attendance on 
! i the sufferers. " Being," sa3'8 his biographer, Mr. 
Ainl, '* medical secrctaiy of the Board of Health 
at Musselburgh, the inquiries which he had to an- 
swer from all parts of the country, as to the pre- 
vention and treatment of the malady, were innu- 
merable, and, Almost in self-defence, in order to 
answer if possible once for all, he hun-iedly tlu-ew 
together his * Practical Observations on Malignant 
Cholera.* A second edition was called for in a 
few days after the publication of the first. He 
followed it up with * Proofs of the Contagion of 
Malignant Cholera.* The second visitation of 
cholera in 1848-9 only confirmed him in his doc- 
trine of contagion.** 

In 1831 he published his ^ Outlines of the An- 
cient History of Medicine, being a view of tlie 
Progress of the Healing Art among the Egyptians, 
Ci reeks, Romans, and Arabians,* a work of great 
research and diversified erudition. He had been 
the same year pi*escnted with the freedom of his 
native place, and being also elected a member of 
the town council, he took an active part in the 
public affairs of the burgh. It may also be men- 
tioned here that in 1844, he was chosen a member 
of the kirk session of Invcresk, and discharged 
the duties of the eldership with cxcmplaiy fiilelit}-, 
and that in 1840 he was appointed to represent 
the burgh of Annan in the General Assembly of 
tliQ church of Scotland, an ofiicc which was con- 
fon-ed upon him every succeeding year, during the 
remainder of his life. 

In the beginning of 1833, Dr. Bro^*n having 
retii*ed from business, Mr. Moir became senior in 
the practice, having admitted a junior partner. 
On the death of Mr. Blackwood, the ])ublislicr, in 
1834, Mr. Moir was named one of the executors 
for his family, the only one who was not a relative, 
a proof of the confidence which was placed in his 
judgment and integiity. 

In 1837, on the death of Dr. M-Nish of Glas- 
gow, Mr. Moir, with whom he had been in habits 
j ! of intimacy and constant cori-cspondence for years, 
collected his fugitive pieces, and published them 

with a life of the anihor. Ho also oonCrilmtcd 
memoirs of Mr. Kennie of Fhantanie, the emment 
agriculturist, and Sir John Sinclair, to the * Jour- 
nal of Agriculture,* and n-rote a biograpldcal 
sketch of Admiral Sir David Milne ; besides edit- 
ing a collected edition of the works of Mn. He- 
mans, with notes. A memoir of Gait, written by 
Mr. Moir, was published in 1841. In the end of 
1843 Mr. Moir published his 'Domestic VcrKS.* 
His last contribution to Black wood*s Magasfaw, 
*Thc Lament of Selim,* was sent In only about a 
fortnight before his death. From first to last he 
contributed in all to its pages 370 articles in prose 
and verse. He was a zealons member of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries of Scotland, and in 1850, at a 
meeting of the Society, he read a paper on the 
Roman antiquities of Musselburgh. 

For the benefit of his health Mr. Moir, on the 
1st of July 1851, set out with Mrs. Mohr, and their 
little boy, John Wilson, to Ayrshire and Dnm- 
frles, to see if a short release from professional 
care and change of scene would do him any good. 
At the latter place he was seized with a severe 
attack of spasms, to which he had been for some 
time subject, and died at the King*s Arms iuu, 
Dumfries, on the Gtli of the same month, in the 
53d year of his age. lie was buried in the church- 
yard of Invcresk. A full length statue of him 
has been erected to his memory in his native 

His poems, with a well-written life of him by 
his friend, Mr. Thomas Aird, were published at 
Edinburgh, in 2 vols, small 8vo, in 1852. 

^lOLYSON, David, a poet of considerable 
lociil reputation in Fifeshu*e, was the eldest son of 
a small shopkeeper, who had been originally a 
tailor, and was born in the village of Monimail, 
May 4, 1789. After receiving the rudiments of 
his education at the parish school, he was removed 
to the school of Collcssie, where he studied IjUin 
and Greek. He was then sent to leani the trade 
of a printer with Mr. Robert TuU is, in Cupar-Hfe. 
His leisure hours he devoted to the classics, 
and without the assistance of a teacher he ob- 
tained a knowledge of the Italian language. By 
an an-angement with his employer he was enabled, 
during his apprenticeship, to attend the nniversity 
of St. Andrews, where he distinguished himself by 







his acqnireinents, and obtained prizes in tlic ma- 
thematical, natural pliilosopliy, and Latin classes. 
Soon after liis rctnrn to Monimail, ho was ap- 
pointed editor of a daily newspaper in Dublin, 
called * Saunders* News-Letter,* wlicre he remaiu- 
e<1 for about two years, when an unfortunate dis- 
agreement with the proprietor caused him to re- 
sign bis situation. During liis residence in the 
Irisli capital, lie acquired a knowledge of the 
Spanish and German languages, and became so 
far master of architecture and drawing, that lie 
once had the intention of going to London and 
following the profession of an architect. 

On leaving Dublin, he returned to Monimail on 
a vi:sit to his parents, and soon after accepted the 
situation of conductor of a private academy in 
KirlEcaldy, of which tlie Rev. John Martin was one 
of the chief mnnagei's. Tliis office, however, he 
only held during a few months. Owing to some 
misunderstanding with one of tlie managers, he 
resigned the appointment, in July 1814, and en- 
listing as a private soldier in the service of the 
East India Company, immediately embarked for 
Bombay. In this capacity he soon .attracted the 
notice of his snperiors. Having drawn up a me- 
morial for one of his comrades, the officci*s were 
stmck with the superior style in which it was 
written, and made inqnlr}' as to the author. Soon 
after, the following circumstance occun-ed. The 
officers of the regiment had been unsuccessfully 
^endeavouring to work some difficult problem in 
engineering, relative to the throwing of shells, 
which they left unsolved on the table of their 
room. Molyson had occasion to see it lying there, 
when lie solved it at once. The ofiicers found it 
next morning, and on inquiry were informed that 
private Molyson was the name of the person who 
had solved the problem which had so much puzzled 
them, on which they promoted him at once to the 
rank of sub-conductor of the ordnance. He had 
also some connection with the post-ofiice, and all 
the letters which came to soldiers who were dead 
fell into his possession. Of some of these he made 
an interesting use afterwards, in a series of arti- 
cles which he wrote for Chambers' Edinburgh 
Jonmal, entitled * The Dead-Letter Box.* 

After a residence of twenty-two months in Bom- 
bay, his health began to fail under an eastern cli- 

mate; and, having obtained his discharge, he 
returned tq Scotland with a broken constitution 
and a small pension of about two shillings a-day. 
He now took up his residence at Monimail, where 
he devoted himself to study, and particulariy to 
poetry. During his stay in India, he had made 
himself thoroughly acquainted with Hindostanee, 
and in Ids retirement he translated a long poem 
from that language, which, on his death, was 
found among his manuscripts. He wrote a great 
many poems for Blackwood*8 Magazine, the prin- 
cipal of which, entitled * Hubert ; an Indian Tale,* 
in blank verse, extended over six or eight pages 
of that periodical. He also contributed largely to 
the Caledonian Magazine, a Dundee publication. 
About 1829 he was appointed editor of the Fife 
Hci-ald, which he conducted with talent and spirit 
during the peculiarly arduous period which fol- 
lowed Earl Grey*s installation into office. Hav- 
ing paid some attention to the Gaelic language, he 
wi-ote several papers for the Herald, showing that 
many places in Fifeshire derive their names fVom 
the Gaelic. In July 1881 bad health obliged him 
to resign his situation, when he returned to his 
native village, where he commenced the business 
of a ]and-sui*veyor. In this profession he obtain- 
ed so much employment as enabled him, with the 
assistance of his pension, not only to support him- 
self, but also to provide for those who remained 
of his father's family. His father died July 80, 
1832 ; and to recruit his own health lie went with 
his brother, for a short time, to the fishing village 
of Buckhaven, an interesting description of which 
he afterwards contributed to Chambers* Journal, 
lie died, unmarried, at Monimail, after a linger- 
ing illness, March 4, 1834. He was of a modest 
and retiring disposition, and much esteemed by all 
who knew him. To him his native village- is in- 
debted for a library, of which lie was the fii*st 
suggcster and president, and a tribute of esteem 
and gi'atitude is recoi*ded in its minutes to his 
MOXnODDO, Lord. See Burnett, James. 

MoNCREiFK, tlio surname of an old family, originallj of 
Pcrthsliiro, the progenitor of which in Scotland is stated to 
have been a Mortimer, of Anglo-Norman lineage, who as- 
sumed the name of Moncreiflf on obtaining the lands of Mon- 
creifT in that county. Ramcrus de Moncreiff, who lived in 
the beginning of tho 12th centur}*, was keeper of the ward- 


I I 




I ; 

• I 


robe to Alexander I. In the Kaginan ISolI, among those who 
■wore fealtj to Edward I. in 1296, u mentioned Johannes de 
Moncrief, cheralier. A charter of the baronr of Moncreiff 
was granted in 1495 to Sir John Moncreiff, whose great- 
grandson, Sir John Moncreiff of Moncreiff, was created a har- 
onet of Nova Scotia, with remainder to his hein-male what- 
soever, 22d April 1626. This baronetcj' is thus one of the 
oldest in Scotland, the order of knight baronet projected hv 
James VI. in 1621, being instituted by Charles I. on 28th 
Maj 1625. 

The first baronet diod in 1630. The second baronet, the 
eldest son of this gentleman, bang embarrassed in liis affairs, 
was compelled, in 1633, to sell the estate of Moncreiff to a 
vounger cadet of the familv, Thomas Moncrciffe, Esq., one 
of the clerks of the Exchequer, who was created a baronet in 
1685. Sur John died, unmarried, in 1G75, when the title de- 
volved upon his brother, Sir David, third baronet, on whose 
death, also unmarried, his younger brother, Sir James Mon- 
creiff, became fourth baronet. With him the direct line of 
the first baronet expired, and the baronetcy reverted to his 
heir-at-law, Sir John Moncreiff of Tippermalloch, fii^h baro- 
net, an eminent physician, descended directly from Ilugh 
Moncreiff, a brother of the first baronet. Sir John married 
Nicholas, daughter of Moncreiff uf Easter Moncreiff, .tud died 
about 1710. 

His only son, Sir Hugh, uxth baronet, died, unmarried, in 
1644, when he bequeathed the estate of Tippermalloch to his 
nephew, Mr. George Moncreiff, the son of his sister. The 
title devolved on his kinsman, the Rev. Sir William Mon- 
creiff, minister of Blackford, in Perthshire, seventli baronet, 
descended from Archibald Moncreiff, uncle of tlie first baru- 
net. Sir William was eldest son of the Rev. Archibald ^lon- 
creiff, by Catlierine, eldest daughter of John Halliday, Esq. 
of Tulliebole, Kinruss-ahire. By his wife, Catherine, clde:»t 
daughter of Robert Wcllwood, Esq. of Gorvock, he had six 
sons and one daughter, and died 9th December 17C7. 

His eldest son, the Rev. Sir Henry Well wood Moncroiff, 
D.D., eighth baronet, a distinguished divine of the Church of 
Scotland, was bom at Blackford manse in February 1750. 
He received his early education at the parish school of his 
native place, and being destined for the ministry, he was 
sent to the university of Glasgow, where, after the usual 
course of preliminary study, he entered the divinity hall. On 
his father*s death, which took place during his attendance at 
college, he was fixed upon as his successor in the parish of 
Bluckford, but as he was then too young to be ordained, an 
assistant was appointed in the meantime, and the young bar- 
onet removed to the university of Edinburgh, to complete his 
theological studies. In 1771 he was licensed to preach the 
gospel, and August loth that year, was ordained minister of 
the church and parish of Blackford. In October 1775 he 
was translated to St. Cuthbcrt's parish, Edinburgh, one of 
the most populous and iniportunt charges in the metropolis. 
Here he soon became distinguished for his devoted zc;tl and 
fidelity in the discharge of his ministerial duties, for the mild- 
ness and benevolence of his disposition, and for his great per- 
sonal worth, as well as for his genius and eloquence as a 
preacher. Taking from the first an active share in the busi- 
ness of the cimrch courts, in opposition to the moderate, then 
the dominant party, he soon became the leader of the evan- 
gelical soctiun of the church; and in 1785 he was unanunou.s- 
Jv elected moderator of the General Assemblv. 

In 1784, he had been appointed collector of the fund for 
the widows and rliildreu of the clergy, and filled that impor- 
tant situation till his death, receiving annually, for the long 
period of forty-three years, the thanks of the Assembly, for 

the able, faithful, and affiBctkmate manner in which be d»- 
charged the dutiei of tlie office. He was also oos of the 
original members of the society of the sons of the dajj, and 
by bis influence and exertk»s contribnted greatly to its sac- 
cess. He died, after a lingering illness, Aognst 9, 1827, in 
the 78tli year of bis age and 56th of his minutnr. 

His funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Andrew Thom- 
son, minister of St. George's, Edinburgh, and sltenrarda 
published. In the folbwing eloquent passages. Dr. Tbomson 
has fiuthfully described his public and private character : — 
*' It was in early life that he began to take an active part in 
the government of our national church. The principks of 
ecclesiastical polity which ho adopted, as soon as he entered 
on his public career, he adopted from full and firm convic- 
tion, and he maintained and cherished, and avowed tbem to 
the very last. They were the very same principles for which 
our forefathers had contended so nobly, which thej at length 
succeeded in establishing, and which they bequeathed as a 
sacred and blood*bonght legacy to their descendants. But 
though that circumstance gave a deep and solemn interest to 
them in his regard, he w.hs attached to them on matt ra- 
tional and enlightened grounds. He viewed them ss founded 
on the word of God. as essential to the rights and liberties of 
the Christian people, as identified with the prosperity of 
genuine religion, and with the real welfare and efficiency of 
the Establishment ; and, therefore, he embraced ei c iy oppor- 
tunity of inailcating and upholding them ; resisted dl the 
attempts that were made to discredit them in theory, or to 
violate them in practice, rejoiced when they obtained even a 
partial triumph over the opposition they had to enoonnter, 
and clung to them, and struggled for them, long after they 
were borne down by a system of force and oppresncm, and 
when, instead of the numerous and determined host that 
fought by his side in happier times, few and feeUe, compa- 
ratively, were those who seconded his manly eflbrts, and held 
fast their ovt-n confidence ; but he lived to see a better spirit 
returning. This re\-ival cheered and consoled him. Fer- 
vently did he long and pray for its continuance and its spread. 
Nor did he neglect to employ his influence, in order to intro- 
duce pastors who would give themselves consdentionsly to 
their Master's work, preadiing to their flocks the truth as it 
is in Jesus, watching for souls as those that must give an ac- 
count, and faithfully and fearlessly performing all the duties 
incumbent on them, both as ministers and as rulers in tlie 

*^ He stood forth from among his contemporaries, confess- 
edly pre-eminent in strength of personal and social character. 
There was a magnanimity in his modes of thinking and of 
acting, which was as evident to the eye of observation as 
were tlie lineaments of his face and the dignity of his gait. 
His great and primaiy dutinction was a clear, profound, and 
powerful understanding, which spumed from it all trifles, and 
advanced to the decision it was to give with nnhesitating 
promptitude and determined firmness. Those who knew him 
best can best give witness how faithfully and habitually he 
embodied his knowledge, and his principles, and hia hopes, ns 
a Christian, into his life and deportment, his daily walk and 
conversation; how tenderiy he cared for the fatherless and 
the widow that were so often committed to his charge ; how 
active and asuduous he was in helping forward deserving 
youth, in giving counsel and aid to the many who had re- 
course to him in their difficulties, and in doing good to all his 
brethren, with unaffected kindness, as he had opportunity ; 
how paUent and resigned amidst the severest bereavements 
(and of these he experienced not a few) with which Provi- 
dence can vibit the children of mortality ; how fervent in bis 





bnuioer in the Scottiah exchequer court, and wu afterwardi 
appomted one of the barons of the exchequer in SooUand. 

Sir Thomas Moncreiffe, the fifth baronet, the nephew of 
this {^tleman, married Ladj Elisabeth Ramsay, daughter 
of the earl of Dalhousie, and bj her had one son, the sixth 
baronet. The match is said not to hmrt been a happy one, 
and as it was mainlj brought about bj Baron Moncreiffe, he 
deemed himmlf bound to take the lady's part, and at his 
death he left her the estate of Moredun in the parish of Lib- 
erton, near Edinburgh. It afterwords became the property 
of David Anderson, Esq. She died 3d June. 1848, from in- 
juries sustained by her dress accidentally catching fire. 

Sir Thomas. 7th baronet of tliis branch, bom Jan. 9, 1822, 
succeeded on the death of his father, Not. 20, 1880. He mar- 
ried, MttT 2, 1848, Lady Louisa Hay, eldest daughter of the 
earl of Kinnoul ; issue, 8 sons and 8 drt, Robert Drum- 
mond Moncreiffe, his eldest surviving son, bom Nov. 3, 1855. 

The Moncreiffe family possesses the patronage of two bur- 
saries in the university of St Andrews. The view from tlie 
beautiful hill of Moncreiff, within two miles of Perth, whence 
they derive their name, was called by Pennant " the glory of 
Scotland.** In Soott^s * Fair Maid of Perth* there is a most 
graphic deseriptiou of iL 

BfoxcuR, a surname derived from the French words mon 
% my heart There was an old family, Moncur of that 
ilk, in Perthahiia. In the charters of Robert I. and David 
IL this name of Moncur is mentioned, and in the reign of 
Robert III., Andreas Moucur de eodem is witness in a char- 
ter of Rait of Hallgreen. Hie ruins of the ancient castle of 
Moncur are still to be seen in the parish of Inchture, in the 
earse of Gowrie. 

Monro, the name of the clan Roich. See Mukbo. 

MONRO, Alexander, M.D., an eminent ana- 
tomist, the foander of the medical school at Edin- 
burgh, styled Primus^ to distingnish him from his 
son and successor, was descended, by his father, 
from the family of Munro of Milntouu, in Ross- 
shire, and by his mother, from that of Forbes of 
Cullodeu, though he himself was bom in London, 
September 8, 1697. Ills father John, youngest 
son of Sir Alexander Monro of Bearcrofts, who 
was a colonel in the army of Charles II. at the 
battle of Worcester, served for some years as a 
surgeon in the army of King William in Flandcro ; 
and, on his retirement, settled at Edinburgh, 
where he soon acquired an extensive practice, 
lie gave his son Alexander the best education 
which that city afforded, and then sent him to 
London, where he attended the anatomical lec- 
tures of Chcsclden. Young Monro afterwards 
pursued his studies at Paris and Leyden, at the 
hitter place under the celebrated Boerhaave. On 
his return to Edinburgh m the autumn of 1719, 
Messrs. Dmmmond and M^Gill, who were then 
conjunct nominal professors and demonstrators of 

anatomy to the Company of SorgeonB, resigned in 
his favour. In 1720 by the advice of his father, 
he began to give public lectures on anatomy ; and 
at the same time Dr. Alston, (see vol. i. p. 181,) 
then ft young man, also at the suggestion of the 
elder Monro, commenced delivering lectures on 
the materia medlca and botany. His father like- 
wise communicated to the physicians and surgeons 
of Edinburgh a plan for having the different 
branches of physic and snrgery regularly taught 
at Edinburgh; and by their interest, professor- 
ships of anatomy and medicine were instituted in 
the university. To complete the plan, subscrip- 
tions were set on foot for the establishment of an 
hospital, and considerable sums raised, chiefly by 
the exertions of Mr. George Dmmmond, lord pro- 
vost, and Dr. Alexander Monro, who wrote a 
pamphlet, strongly pointing out the advantages of 
such an institution. The Royal Infirmary was in 
consequence founded. Provost Dmmmond and Dr. 
Monro being appointed a committee to superin- 
tend its building; and on its being opened, he 
delivered clinical lectures there for the benefit of 
the students. Thus was commenced at Edin- 
burgh that regular course of instmction which ob- 
tained for the medical school of that city the repu- 
tation of being the best in the world. 

Dr. Monro had been elected, in 1721, the first 
professor of anatomy in the college of Edinburgh, 
but he was not received into the university till 
1725, when he was inducted along with the cele- 
brated mathematician, Mr. Colin Madaurin. In 
1726 appeared his * Osteology, or Treatise on the 
Anatomy of the Bones,* which passed through 
eight editions during his life, and was trans- 
lated into various foreign languages. In the 
later editions he added a concise description of 
the Nerves, and of the Lacteal Sac and Thoracic 
Duct. A society having been established at 
Edinburgh by the professors, and other practi- 
tioners of the town, for the purpose of collecting 
and publishing papers on professional subjects, 
Dr. Monro was appointed secretary, and under 
his active superintendence, six volumes of * Medi- 
cal Essays * were published, the first of which ap- 
peared in 1732. Of this collection many of the 
most valuable papers were written by Dr. Monro, 
on anatomical, physiological, and practical sub- 




Ad JSaaj oo Um Dropsj, and iti different SpecMS. Lond. 
17M, ISmo. 1756, 1765,' Sto. Par. 1760. Lrii*. 1761. 

An Aoooont of tlit DiaeaMS which an moat fraqoent in 
the Britiih Hifitarf Hoapitab in Gennanj, from Janoary, 
1761, till the reton of the Troopa to England, in March, 
1763 : to which ia added. An Eiwar on the lleana of Pr^ 
■erring the Health of Soldiers, and Conducting Military 
Hoapitala. Lond. 1764, 8ro. 

Treatiae on Mineral Waters. Lond. 1770, 2 rola. 8to. 

Pnelectionca Mectica ex Cronii Institnto, &c, etOratio 
Harreii, &c Lond. 1775, 8to. 

Ohaerrations on the Meana of Preserring the Health of 
Soldiers, and of Conducting Military Hospitals; on the Dis- 
eases incident to Soldiers in the time of service ; and of the 
aame Diseases, as thej hare appeared in Lcmdon. Lond. 
1780, 2 Tola. 8ro. 

A Treatise on 3fedical and Pharmacentical Chemistry, and 
the Materia Medica ; to which is added, An English Transla- 
tion of the Pharmacopeia of the Roral College of Physicians 
in liondon, of 1788. Lond. 1788, 8 vols. 8to. Appendix 
1789, 8vo. To this a 4th volume w:is added in 1790, 8vo. 

An Account of aome Neutral Salts, &c. PhiL Trans. Abr. 
xii479. 1767. 

On the good Effecta of the Quiissia Root in some Fevers, 
lb. 515. 1768. 

Of a pure Native Cr^-stallized Natron, or Fossil Alkaline 
Salt, found in the Country of Tripoli, in Barbary. lb. xiiL 
216. 1771. 

On the Sulphnreoua Mineral Waters of Castle-Leed and 
Fairbnm, in Roat-ahire, and of the Salt Purging Water of 
Piteaithly, in Perthshire, ScotUnd. lb. 271. 1772. 

DisMCtion of a Woman with Child, and Remarks on Gra- 
vid Uteri. Platea. Ess. Phys. and Lit. i 403. 1754. 

Cases of Aneurism ; with Remarks. lb. iiu 178. 1771. 

Account of the Lisbon Diet Drink, in Venereal Cases, 
lb. 402. 

On the State of the Intestines in Old Dysenteries. lb. 516. 

On the Use of Mercury in Consumptive Disorders. lb. 551. 

Uncommon Cases. Violent Scurvy. Venereal Disorders. 
Obstinate intermittent Fever. Tumour in the Brain. Hy- 
drocephalus. Ossifications in the ^lysenterr. Med. Trans. 
U. 325. 1772. 

Of the Method of making the Otto of Roses, as it is pre- 
pared in the East Indies. Trans. Soc. Edin. L 12. 1790. 

He also wrote the life of hb fathtT^ prefixed to the edition 
of his works of 1781, as above 8t:iteJ. 

MONRO, Alexandek. M.D., styled Secundus^ 
also a distiugaished physician and professor, 
youngest son of Dr. Alexander Monro, Primus^ 
was l>om at Edinbiu^h March 21, 1733. He re- 
ceived the mdiments of his education nnder Mr. 
Mnudell, an eminent teacher of lan^ages, and 
went throngh the usual academical course at the 
university of his native city. About the eighteenth 
year of his age, he entered on his medical studies 
under his father, and soon became a useful assist- 
ant to him in the dissecting room. In October 
1755 he obtained the degree of M.D., on whicli 
occasion he published and defended an inaugural 
dissertation, *Dc Testibus ct Scmine in variis 

Animalibus.' In July 1756 he was admitted 
joint-profefltor of anatomy and smgery with his 
father ; but previouB to entering upon the duties, 
with the view of further proeecnting his atodiee, 
he visited both London and Paris, and nfterwardd 
attended for some time the anatomical lectures of 
the celebrated Professor Meckell at the nnlTemty 
of Berlin. Ho returned to Edinburgh in the sam- 
mer of 1758, when he was admitted a licentiate of 
the Royal College of Physicians, of which he was 
afterwards president. He was soon chosen a Fol- 
low of the Royal College of Physicians ; and on the 
resignation of Dr. Monro, IVnmcf, in 1759, he be- 
came full professor of anatomy. He also succeeded 
his father as secretary of the Philosophical Society 
of Edinburgh, in whose * Essays and Observations, 
Physical and Literary,^ appeared several able 
articles from his pen, on important subjects in 
medical science. 

Having early adopted the idea that the valvular 
lymphatics over the whole of the animal body 
were one general system of absorbents, he pub- 
lished at Berlin, in 1758, a short treatise, 'De 
Venis Lymphaticis Valvulosis.* This idea wu 
afterwards claimed by Dr. William Hunter of 
Lfonaon, which led to a controversy between these 
two distinguished physicians, and produced from 
Dr. Monro his * Observations, Anatomical and 
Physiological, wherein Dr. Hunter's claim to some 
discoveries is examined,* and his * Answer to the 
Notes in the Postscript to Observations, Anato- 
mical and Physiological.* In 1782 the Philoso- 
phical Society was incorporated by royal charter, 
when it took the name of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh. Dr. Monro was elected one of its 
first fellows, and enriched its Transactions with 
various valuable contributions. In 1783 he pub- 
lished a large folio volume ^ On the Structure and 
Functions of the Nervous System,* illustrated by 
numerous engravings, which was translated into 
the German and other languages. In 1785 he 
produced another folio volume ^On the Struc- 
ture and Physiology of Fishes,* illustrated with 
figures, which also was honoured with various 
foreign translations. In 1788 appeared his * De- 
scription of all the Burss Mucosa of the Human 
Body,* which at once became a standard wock. 
His last publication was a quarto volume, consist- 




account states that having, in consequence of bis 
loyalty, taken refuge in France, be ingratiated 
himself with Cardinal Richelieu, and was offered 
a situation under government, provided be could 
show a pedigree. Ho said ho was of the family of 
Salmonet in Stirlingshire, and was promoted ac- 
cordingly. According to tradition his father had 
been a salmon fisher in the Borough meadow of 
Stirling ; and the son had taken his title from the 
net in which the salmon were caught. But thl 
is not correct. He was the son of an old and re- 
spectable family, and there was once a place in 
Stirlingshire called Salmonet. 

He wrote a work in French, embracing the 
period of Scottish history from the coronation of 
Charles I. to the conclusion of the rebellion ; a 
translation of which, by James Ogilvie, appeared 
at London in 1735, under the title of * History of 
the Troubles of Great Britain, containing an 
Account of the most remarkable Passages, from 
1633 to 1650.* The date of his death is unknown. 
It must have been previous to the publication of 
the original work, as in the privilege for printing 
it, granted September 13, ICCO, to Jacques St. 
Clair de Rosclin, the author is styled ^^ Lc defunct 
St. Montct." He must not be confounded with 
another Robert Monteith, the compiler of a scai*ce 
and valuable collection of all the epitaphs in Scot- 
land, published under the name of *• An Theater of 
Morality,' in 1704. 

Mo2CTGOMERT, the surnaiiie of tlio noble family of Eglin- 
ton, wliich traces its descent from Roger do Mundegumbrie, 
Visconnt do Hiesmes, son of Hugh de Mundegumbrie and 
Joceline de Beaumont, niece of Gonnora, wife of Richard, 
doke of Normandy, grent -grandmother of William the Con- 
queror. Roger de Mundegumbrie, thus nearly allied to the 
ruling house of Xonnandy, after having obtained great dis- 
tinction under the Norman banner in France, accompanied 
his kinsman, William the Conqueror, into England, and com- 
manded the van of the invading army at the decisive battle 
of Hastings in 10G6. In reward of his bravery he was, by 
the Conqueror, created ear! of Chichester and Arundel, and 
soon after of Shrewsbury. He also received from him large 
grants of land, becoming, in a short time, lord of no fewer 
than fifty-seven lordships throughout England, with ezten- 
nve possesions in Salop. Having made a hostile incuruon 
into Wales, he took the castle of Baldwin, and gave it his 
own name of Montgomery, a name which both the town in 
its virinity and the entire county in which it stands have 
permanently retained. 

It is not known whence the name was derived. Eustace, 
in his * Clasncal Tour,' vol. i. p. 298, mentions a lofty hill, 
called Ifonie Gomero^ not far from Loretto; and in the old 
ballad of * Chevy Chase,* the name is given as ^longon-byrry. 

The first of the name In Scothmd was Bobvt d« llootgo- 
meiy, supposed to havo been a grandtoo of Eari Roger. 
When Walter, the ion of Alan, the first high ftawaid of 
Scotland, whose castio of Oswotiy was in the Tidnity of 
Shrewsbury, came to Scotland to take pomiiion of wroral 
grants of hmd which bad been oonferreii npon him by 
David I., Robert de Blontgomery wag one of the barons who 
accompanied him from Wales, and received from hbn the 
manor of Eglisham, in the oonnty of Renfrew. Tliis wag Ibr 
two centuries the chief possession of the ScotUsh section of 
the Montgomeries, and still remains their property nndinun- 
ished as at first Robert de Montgomeiy ia n witness to tbt 
foundation charter of Walter, the high steward, to the mon- 
astery of Paisley in 1160, and to other charters between that 
year and 1175. He died about 1177. 

In the Ragman Roll appear the names of John de Mont- 
gomery, and his brother Mnrthaw, as among the barons who 
swors fealty to Edward I. in 1296. The former is designated 
of the connty of Lanark, which then comprehended the oonn- 
ty of Renfrew. The latter was the reputed ancestor of the 
Montgomeries of Thornton. 

Sir John Montgomery, the seventh baron of Eaglesham, 
one of the heroes of the battle of Otterbnm, married Elisa- 
beth, only daughter and sole heiress of Sir Hugh de EgUnton, 
justiciary of Lothian, and niece of Robert II., and obtained 
with her the baronies of Eglinton and Ardrossan. He was 
the ancestor of the earis of Eglinton, as mentioned nnder 
that title, where the line.ige of that noble family has been 
already ^vcn, (see voL iL page 119). 

A baronetcy of the LTnited Kingdom was posbessed by the 
family of Montgomery of Macbeth Hill, or Magbie Hill, Pee- 
bles-shire, descended from Troilus Montgomery, son of Adsm 
Montgomery of Giffen, a cadet of the Eglinton family, living 
in the reigns of James V., and Mary queen of Scots. It was 
conferred, 28th May, 1774, on William Montgomery (^Mag- 
bie Hill, hut expired on the dcatli of his son, Sir Geoi]^* 
Montgomery, FPcond baronet, 9th July 1831. 

Sir William's brother. Sir James Montgomery, of Stsn- 
hope, Peebles-shire, an eminent lawyer, waa also created a 
baronet. Bom at Magbie Hill, in 1721, he was educated for 
the Scottish bar, and attained to considerable distinction as 
an advocate. On the abolition of the heritable juris^ctioos 
in ScotLind in 1748, he was one of the first sberifis then 
named by the crown, and he was the last sun'ivor of those 
of this first nomination. He rose gradually to the ofiices of 
solicitor-general, and lord-advocate, and in 1775 was ap- 
pointed lord-chief>baron of the court of exchequer in Scot- 
land. Upon his retirement from the bench in 1801, he was 
created a baronet of the United Kingdom. His exertions in 
introducing the most improved modes of sgricultnre into 
Peebles-shire gained for him the title of * Father of the oonn- 
ty.* He died April 2, 1803, at the age of 82. His eldest son, 
William, lieut.-col. 43d foot, having predeceased him, he was 
succeeded by his 2d son, Sir James, 2d baronet, bom Oct 9, 
1766; appointed lord-advocate in 1804, resigned in 1806; at 
one time M.P. for Peebles-shire. He died May 27, 18S9. 

His sons by a first wife having predeceased him, he was 
succeeded by his eldest son by his 2d wife, daughter of Thomas 
Graham, Esq. of Kinross. This son. Sir Graham Graham 
Montgomery, 3d baronet, bom July 9, 1823, gradnated at 
Chriht Church, Oxford, B.A.; m. in 1845, Alice, dangbtarof 
.John James Hope-Johnston, Evq. of Annandule, &LP. lasoe 
4 sons and 4 drt. Sons: James Gordon Henry, bora Feb. 6, 
1850. Basil-Teinpler, Charles Percy, and Arthur CecU. ILP. 
for Peebles-shire, 1852; lord-lient of Kinrosi ihirs, 1854 




Hart. In 1822 a complete edition of his poems 
was published at Edinburgh, nnder the superin- 
tendence of Mr. David Laing, with a biographical 
preface by Dr. Irving. 

MONTGOMERY, Jambs, an eminent religious 
poet, was bom in Irvine, in Ayrshire, November 
4, 1771. His father, the Rev. John Montgomery, 
of Irish birth though of Scottish extraction, was a 
preacher In the church of the United or Moravian 
brethren. When the poet was about four years and 
a half old, his parents returned to their native par- 
ish in the county of Antrim, in the north of Ire- 
land. About two years afterwards he was sent to 
the seminary of the United Brethren at Fulneck, 
near I^cds, for his education, and he remained 
there for ten years. In 1783, his parents went to 
preach the gospel among the slaves in the West 
Indies, wliere they both died, his mother at Toba- 
go in 1790, and his father at Barbadoes in 1791. 

He was early inspired with a desire to write 
poetry by hearing a portion of Blair's * Grave ' 
read. When only ten years old, the bent of his mind 
was shown by his composition of various little 
hymns. About 15 he began to write a heroic po- 
em on the subject of ' Alfred.' He was first placed 
as an assistant in a general dealer's shop, at Mir- 
field near Fulneck, but anxious for a higher 
occupation, he one day set ofi^, with three shillings 
and sixpence in his pocket, to walk to London. 
He was at a little public house at AVentworth, 
when a youth of the name of Hunt entered, and 
getting into conversation with him, infoimed him 
that his father, who kept a general store at Wath, 
in a neighbouring village, required an assistant. 
He accordingly applied, and was successful. Tlie 
following year (1790) he obtained an introduction 
to Mr. Harrison, a London publisher, and having 
offered him a manuscript volume of his verses, the 
latter took him into his shop as an assistant, although 
he declined to publish his poems. In two years 
more, namely in 1792, he was fortunate enough 
to obtain a situation in the establishment of Mr. 
Gales, a bookseller of Sheffield, who had set up a 
newspaper called the Sheffield Register, In a 
short time his employer had to leave England, to 
avoid imprisonment for printing articles too liberal 
for the then government, and Montgomeiy, at the 
age of twenty-two, became the editor and pub- 

lisher of the paper, the name of which, on its be- 
coming his part property, be changed to the more 
poetical one of The SheffiM Iri», 

At that period, the government, ^yprehenrive 
of the diffusion in England of the democratic and 
republican principles of the first French revolation, 
watched with a Jealous eye the freedom of the 
press. In January 1794, amidst the keen political 
excitement that prevailed, Montgomery was {ffo- 
secuted by the Attorney General on a charge of 
having reprinted and sold to a street hawker, 
six quires of a ballad, written by a clergjrman 
of Belfast, commemorating ' The fall of the Bas- 
tile* in 1789, which by the crown was interpreted 
into a seditious libel. Being found guilty, not- 
withstanding the innocence of his intentions, he 
was sentenced to three months imprisonment, ui 
the castle of York, and to pay a fine of £20. In 
the following January he was agam tried, for a 
second imputed political offence, the publication m 
his paper of a paragraph which reflected on the 
conduct of a magistrate in quelling a riot at Shef- 
field. He was again convicted, and sentenced to 
six months' imprisonment In York castle, to pay 
a fine of £80, and to give security to keep the 
peace for two yeai-s. *'A11 the persons,** said 
Montgomery, writing in 1825, *^who were ac- 
tively conceined in the prosecutions against me in 
1794 and 1795, are dead, and, without exception, 
they died in peace with me. I believe I am quite 
correct in saying that from each of them distinct- 
ly, in the sequel, I received tokens of good will, 
and from several of them substantial proofs of 
kindness. I mention not this as a plea in exten- 
uation of offences for which I bore the penalty of 
the law ; I rest my justification, in these cases, 
now on the same grounds, and no other, on which 
I rested my justification then. I mention the 
circumstance to the honour of the deceased, and 
as an evidence that, amidst all the violence of that 
distracted time, a better spirit was not extinct, 
but finally prevailed, and by its healing influence 
did indeed comfort those who had been conscien- 
tious sufferers.** 

After his release, his health having been af- 
fected by the confinement, he went for a few 
weeks to Scarborough, and then resumed his du- 
ties as editor of the /ru. The proprietorship ui 

produced liim upwards of £800, aod more than 
twelve thousand copies had been 8<dd, besides 
about a score of editions printed in America. 

In Byron's * English Bards and Scotch Beview- 
ers,* published in 1809, Montgomery found him- 
self noticed in this strain : 

" With broken lyre and cheek serenely pale, 
Lo ! sad Alcxos wanders down the Tale ! 
Though fair they rose, and might hare bloomed at last, 
His hopes have perished by the northern blast: 
Kipped in the bud by Caledonian gales, 
His blossoms wither as the blast prevails! 
0*er his lost works let ckutie Sheffield weep ; 
May no rude hand disturb their early sleep!** 

And in a note ho adds, ^^Poor Montgomery, 
though praised by every English Review, has been 
bitterly reviled by the Edmburgh 1 After all, the 
Bard of Sheffield is a man of considerable genius ; 
his ^ Wanderer of Switzerland ' is worth a thou- 
sand ^Lyrical Ballads,' and at least fifty * De- 
graded Epics.'" 

Mr. Montgomery's next work was *• The West 
Indies,' a poem in four parts and in the heroic 
couplet, written in honom* of the abolition of the 
African slave-trade by the British legislature in 
1807. It was produced at the request of Mr. 
Bowyer, the London publisher, to accompany a 
series of engravings representing the past suffer- 
ings and the anticipated blessings of the long- 
wronged Africans, both in their own land and in 
the AVcst Indies, and appeared in 1809 in connec- 
tion with poems on the same subject, by James 
Grahame, author of * The Sabbath,' and Miss Ben- 
ger. When Montgomery's poem was republished 
by itself, accompanied by about twenty occasional 
poems, upwards of ton thousand copies were sold 
in ten years. His parents had laid down their 
lives in behalf of the enslaved and perishing 
negro, and in this poem, their son, with a vigour 
and freedom of description and a power of pathetic 
painting entirely his own, raised his generous ap- 
peal to public justice in the negro's behalf, which, 
no doubt, had its effect when, twenty years after, 
slavery itself was abolished in all the colonics be- 
longing to Britain. 

In the spring of 1813, Mr. Montgomery pub- 
lished * The World before the Flood,' a poem in 

ten cantos in the heroic coaplet, soggested to the 
poet by a paasage in the eleventh book of Fan- 
diae Lost referring to the tranalation of Eoocb. 
He had now begun to take an active and promi- 
nent part in the religions and benevolent meeUngs 
of Sheffield and its neighbonrbood, particolarly in 
connexion with missionary movements, the BiUe 
Society, and the Sabbath School Union, and in 
1814 he was regularly admitted a member of the 
Moravian church, of which his brother, the Rev. 
Ignatius Montgomery, was a minister. He him- 
self had been intended for the ministry in connex- 
ion with the United Brethren, had not his early 
tendency to poetry prevented his entering upon 
the studies necessary for it. Another of his bro- 
thers, Robert Montgomery, was a grocer at Wool- 
wich. They were all three educated at the Mora- 
vian scmmary at Fulueck. While the poet was 
there, the institution was on one occasion visited 
by no less a personage than Lord Monboddo, the 
celebrated Scottish judge. None of the boys had 
ever seen a lord before, and Monboddo was a very 
strange-looking lord indeed. He wore a large, 
stiff, bushy periwig, smmounted by a huge, odd- 
looking hat ; his very plain coat was studded with 
broad brass buttons, and his breeches were of 
leather. He stood in the schoolroom, with his 
grave absent face bent downwards, drawing and 
redrawing his whip along the floor, as the Mora- 
vian teacher pointed out to his notice boy after boy. 
'^ And this," said the Moravian, coming at length 
to young Montgomery, " is a countryman of your 
lordship's." His lordship raised himself up, look- 
ed hard at the little fellow, and then shaking his 
huge whip over his head, *' Ah," he exclaimed, 
^* I hope his country will have no reason to be 
ashamed of him." *^ The circumstance," said the 
poet, ^^ made a deep impi*ession on my mind, and 
I determined, — I trust the resolution was not 
made in vain, — I determined in that moment that 
my country should not have reason to be ashamed 
of me." 

In January 1817 a volume was published, enti- 
tled * The State Lottery, a Dream,' by Samuel 
Roberts, a friend of Montgomery, directed against 
that species of national gambling, which, too long 
authorized by government, was some years after 
put an end to by act of parliament. The book 

\ r 




1 1 

1 1 



I M 

copjhold ; I borrowed it, I leased it from none. 
Every foot of it I enclosed from the common mj- 
telf ; and I can saj that not an inch which I had 
once gained have I ever lost.** Some of his 
friends who could not attend, including many 
ladies, afterwards presented him with 200 goineas, 
to be applied to the revival of a mission which his 
fother, the Rev. John Montgomery, had begun in 
Tobago, but which had been suspended since his 
death in 1791. The proprietor of the estate 
on which it was situated, Mr. Hamilton, a 
Scotchman, had in his will bequeathed £1,000, 
contingent on the renewal of the mission. To 
this sum, the two hundred guineas were to be 
added, and the gift was accompanied by the deli- 
cate request that the renewed mission should be 
distinguished by the name of Montgomery, in 
honour both of himself and his father. 

At the close of 1825 appeared ' The Christian 
Psalmodist; or Plymns, Selected and Original.* 
These compositions, 662 in number, are frx>m a 
great yariety of authors, including one hundred 
from his own pen, which form part fifth of the 
collection. The compilation was made for Mr. 
Collins, the Glasgow publisher (who died January 
2, 1858) and for it he received one hundred 
guineas. The prefatory essay contains some Judi- 
cious remarks on the writing of hymns, as one 
branch of the poetic art, and on the works of 
Bishop Kenn, Dr. Isaac Watts, Addison, Top- 
lady, Charles Wesley, and others who have ex- 
celled in it. Montgomery also wrote an Intro- 
ductory essay to an edition of Cowper^s poems, 
then about to be issued by Messrs. Chalmers and 

In 1827, appeared * The Pelican Island,* by Mr. 
Montgomery, a poem in blank verse, suggested by 
a passage in Captain Flinders* * Voyage to Terra 
AuitraHi^^ describing the existence of the ancient 
haunts of the pelican in the small islands on the 
coast of New Holland. The narrative is supposed 
to be delivered by an imaginary being who wit- 
nesses the series of events related after the whole 
has happened. To the * Pelican Island' was 
added, as usual, some of his smaller poems. Pre- 
vious to its publication a work called * The Chris- 
tian Poet* was issued by Mr. Collins of Glasgow, 
with an admirable introductory essay by Mr. 

Montgomery, a species of writing in which he ex- 
celled. He also wrote the Introdnctory EflsajB to 
new editions of * The Pilgrim's Progress,' * The 
Olney Hymns,* the ' life of the Rev. David Bral- 
nerd,' and other works published by the same 
firm. In 1830 he contributed to the Cabinet Qy- 
clopedia the brief memoirs of Dante, Ariosto, and 
Tasso, which appeared in the series of * literary 
and Scientific Men of Italy.* The same year he 
compiled for the London Missionary Society, ^The 
Missionary Journal,* from a yast mass of valuable 
materials which had been placed in his hands, fbr 
which he received £200. He also delivered a 
course of lectures on the History of En^ish lite- 
rature before the members of the Royal Instlta- 
tion of Great Britain at London. The following 
year he lectured on Poetry at the same Institu- 
tion. Both courses he prepared for the press and 
published in 1833. 

In 1841 he visited Scotland, for the first and 
only time since his childhood. On this occasion 
he accompanied the Rev. Mr. Latrobe. Their 
main object was the promotion of the missions of 
the United Brethren, but Montgomery had also a 
great desire to see the land of his birth. '* Scot- 
land,** he said, in a letter, written in July 1844, 
to the committee of the Bums* Festival, **took 
such early and effectual root in the soil of my 
heart that to this hour it appears as green and 
flourishing, in the only eyes with which I can now 
behold it, as when, after an absence of more than 
threescore years, I was favoured to see it with the 
eyes that are looking on this paper. Though 
scarcely four and a half years old when removed, 
I have yet more lively, distinct, and delightful 
recollections of little Irvine, its bridges, its river, 
its street aspect, and its rural landscape, with sea- 
glimpses between, than I have equal reminiscen- 
ces of any subsequent period of the same length 
of time, spent since then in fairer, wealthier, and 
more familiar, and therefore less romantic, Eng- 
land. Yet those fond recollections of my birth- 
place, and renewals of infant experience had be- 
come, through the vista of retrospect, so ideal, 
that when, in the autumn of 1841, for the first 
time, I returned to the scenes of my golden age, 
the humble realities, though as beautiful as hea- 
ven*s daylight could make them in the first week 




and Conycrsations on yarioos sabjects ; by John 
Holland and James Eyerett ;* have been pnbliahed 
in six yolnmes 8yo, London, 1854-56. 

Mo2mt08B, DokA of, a title in the peerage of Scotland, 
ronferred by James IIL on David, fifth earl of Crawford, by 
roral charter, dated 18th ^laj, 1488, to himself and his hors 
(see ToL i. p. 710). On the 19th September 1489, a new 
patent or charter, nnder the great seid, was granted to him 
by James IV., conferring the dokedom upon him for life on- 
ly. He died at Fmhaven at Christmas 1495, and the duke- 
dom is said to have then become extinct. In 1848 a petition 
was presented to the qneen by the eari of Crawford and Bal- 
carres, claiming it on the gnnmd of its being Tested in the 
heir male. This petition wss referred to the House of Lovds, 
and the claim was opposed by the Crown and the duke of 
Montrose, on the ground that the charter of 18th May 1488, 
was annulled by the act of the first year of the reign of 
Jumes IV., called the Act Rescissoiy, and that the grant of 
the dukedom, made in 1489, was never regi»tered. After hc-ur- 
ing parties, on Aug. 5, 1853, their lordships adopted a resolu- 
tion to the effect that the claimant had not made out his right 
to the dignity. Soon after, Lord Lindsay, son of the earl of 
Crawford and Balcarres, addressed a letter to the Timet 
newspaper, protesting against the resolution of the House of 
Ix>rds, and stating that he had published a full *' Report of 
the Montrose Claim,** containing, among other documents, 
" an Address to her Majesty, in humble remonstrance against 
the opinion reported to her Mnjesty.** Lord lindsay sub- 
mits that the principles on which the decision of the peera is 
founded are, one and all, wholly repugnant to the under- 
standing and practice of past times, and to plain equity and 
Justice. The opinion, he farther asserts, is entitled to less 
than usual weight in respect to the unwonted and strange 
departure from established forms of procedure — ^the decision 
h.nving been given before the roluminons evidence was or- 
dered to be printed, and the eridence thus *' arbitrarily de- 
graded to a mere cipher or phantom.** lie adds, in ooncln- 
sion : ** I therefore now, on these and various other grounds, 
formally protest, before her majesty and the conntiy, against 
the opinion or report (which, be it observed, is certainly not 
in law a sentence or final judgment) delivered by the House 
of Lords on the 5th of August 1858 as unjust in itself, pro- 
ceeding on error and misrepresentation throughout, and as 
having, in its principles, and in its application of those prin- 
ciples, a direct tendency to revolutionise the whole system of 
peerage law, and, indeed, to innovate on other departments 
of kw, and certainly of justice, hitherto sacred from such en- 

Mo!CTR08E, Eari, marquis and duke of, titles in the peerage 
of Scothind, possessed by the noble family of Graham, whose 
origin and descent have been already given (see vol. iL pp. 341, 
842). They were first ennobled in the person of Patrick Graham 
of Kincardine, who in 1451 was created Lord Graham. His 
grandson, William, third I/nd Graham, was on 8d March 
1505, created earl of Montrose, the title being derived from 
bis hereditary lands of *' Auld Montrose ** and not from the 
town of that name, (see vol. ii. pp. 842, 84S). He fell at 
tlio battle of Flodden, 9th September 1513. He was thrice 
married. Ry his first wife, Annabella, daughter of John, 
liord Drummond, he had, William, second earl. By his sec- 
ond wife, a daughter of Sir Archibald Edmonstone of Dun- 
treatli, he had three daughten; and by his third wife, Chris- 
fjnn Wawane of Segy, relict of Patnck, sixth Lord Halyburton 

of Dirletono, behad twoiOBs: PatiisiE^sneeilorortlMGnip 
hams of Inchbraco, Gortby, Bocklivie, and othar fiunilies of 
the name; and Andrew, con ss crsted biibop of DanUaiM in 

William, second eari of Montrose, was one of tba pens to 
whom the regent duke of Albany committed tbt duigs ti 
the young king, James V., when he bbnaelf w«ot to Vnat^ 
in 1517. He was one of the oommisnonera of regSDej n^ 
pointed by that monarch oa 29th August 1688, during Us 
roidesty*s absence in France, and in 1548, he was choasn by 
the Elates of the kingdom, along with Lord Erskine, lo re- 
main continually in the castle of Stirling with Qoflsn Maij, 
for the sure keeping of her person. He died 24th May 1671. 
By his countess. Lady Janet Keith, eldest danghter of Wil- 
Ham, third eari Marischal, he had four sons and five daagh- 
tsn. Boboit, Lord Graham, the eUflitaQB,fsU at thabirttis 
of Pinkie, 10th Septomber 1647. Hia posfthunoot aon, 
John, by his wife, &Iargaret, daughter of Mnhwlm, Lovd 
Fleming, became third earl of Montrose. The Hon. Mvigs 
Graham of Orchill, the third son, was great-grandfather of 
James Graham of Orchill, who, as nearest agnate above 26 
yean of age, waa served tutor at law of Jsmes, fonrth mar- 
quis of Montrose, 16th March 1688. llie Hon. WiUiam 
Graham, the fourth son, waa ancestor of the Grahams of 

John, third eari of Montrose, succeeded his grandfiitliflr b 
May 1571, and on 7th September the same year, bo waa ap- 
pointed a privy councillor at the election of the r^ent Msr. 
He was one of the oommisnonen for the king, who condoded 
the Pacification of Perth, Februaxy 8d, 1572. On the king's 
assumpti(m of authority in 1578, he was appointed a privy coun- 
cillor. He joined the faction against the regent Morton, and 
was one of the principal among those who, in 1581, broo^ 
him to the block ; with the court favourite, the eari of Ama, 
he guarded him from Dumbarton to Edinburgh, to stand his 
trial, and as chancellor of the jury returned the verdict of 
"guilty art and part** against him, drcumstaneea whidi ne- 
cessarily led to a feud between Montrose and the powerful 
family of Douglas. In 1583 the castle of Glasgow, then held 
for the duke of Lennox, surrendered to him. He waa ap- 
pointed an extraordinary lord of session, 12th May 1584, in 
the room of the earl of Gowrie, who wss beheaded on the 4th 
of that month, and on the 13th he succeeded that nobleman 
as lord-treasurer. After the return of the eari of Angns and 
the banished lords in November 1585, he was deprived of 
both offices. On 6th November 1591, he was again adnuttcd 
an extraordinary lord of session, the king*s letter bearing 
that he had ^* been dispossessed of the place of befoir without 
ony guid cans or occasion.** lie was appointed high-treasarsr 
of Scotland, 13th May 1584, and lord-chancellor, 15th Janu- 
ary 1599, after the office had been vacant for more than three 

After James* accession to the throne of England, the esri 
of Montrose was nominated lord-high-commissioner to the 
Estates which met at Edinburgh 10th April 1604. In a 
continuation of this parliament held at Perth 11th July, 
1604, he was sppointed one of the oommissionere for the 
treaty of union then projected between the two kingdoms of 
Scotland and England. Having resigned the office of chan- 
cellor, it was conferred on Alexander Seton, Lord Fyvie, one 
of the lords of session, and in recompense, a patent was 
granted by the king to the earl, dated at Royston, in Decem- 
ber 1604, creating him viceroy of Scotland for life, the hi^- 
est dignity a subject can ei\joy, and bestowing on him a 
pension of £2,000 Scots. In virtue of this commission ha 
presided at the meeting of the Estates at Perth, 9th July 


life, in that ooontry. He had another safe-conduot, 14th 
Julj 1447, in which he was styled Natif d'EtcoM$e, eacuiar 
(TetciMeref of the king of France, to negotiate the marriage 
of the princess Eleanor of SootUnd to the danphin. Three 
oommisnons passed the great seal of Scotland, Stli Norember 
1458, to the same William Monypenny, baron of Betre, lord 
of Conqaensnlt in France, and John Kennedy, provost of 
St. Andrews, to proceed on an embassy to the French king, 
to demand the earldom of Xantoign, which had been granted 
to James I. They were also directed to form a treaty with 
the king of Castile, to settle the debt doe by Scotland to the 
Idng of Denmark, and afterwards to pass to Kome, to testily 
the king's obedience to the new pontiff Pins IL 

This William Monypenny was created a peer of Scotland, 
under the title of Lord Monypenny of Gonquersall, a corrup- 
tion of Congressanlt, by James IL, before 1464. He was 
ambassador from France to England, 16th February 1471. 
His son, Alexander, second Lord Monypenny, having no male 
issue, exchanged, in 1495, his barony of Earlshall, in Fife, 
with Sir Alexander Bmoe of the Airth family, for his lands 
of Escariot in France, and on his death the peerage became 

David Monypenny of Pitmilly, an eminent lawyer, bom in 
May 1769, (eldest son of Lieutenant-colonel Alexander Mo- 
nypenny of Pitmilly of the 56th foot, who died in 1800,) 
passed advocate 2d July 1791, was appointed sheriff-depute 
of the county of Fife, 7th February 1807, solid tor-general, 
22d February 1811, admitted a lord of session, 25th Febru- 
ary 1818, when he took the title of Lord Pitmilly. He also 
became a lord of justiciary, and at the original constitution 
of the jury court in civil cases in Scotland, he was nominated 
one of the lords commisnoners, 18th June, 1815. His lord- 
ship retired from the bench in October 1830. In 1831 be 
published a pamphlet on the Scottish poor laws. With one 
sister he had two brothers, Alexander Monypenny of Edin- 
burgh, and William Monypenny, collector of customs, Kirk- 

A branch of the Pitmilly family is settled at Hole House, 
Bolvenden, Kent, which property was acquired by the mar- 
riage, Slfft May, 1714, of a Monypenny with Mary, daughter 
and heiress of Robert Gybbon, Esq. of Hole House. 

MOOR, James, LL.D., an emiuent Greek 
scholar, the son of Mr. Kobert Moor, teacher of 
mathematics in Glasgow, and his wife, Mai*garet 
Park, was born in that city, June 22, 1712. He 
entered the university of his native city in No- 
vember 1725, and while at college acquired much 
distinction for his proficiency in the ancient lan- 
guages, mathematics, and geometry. On com- 
pleting his academical courac, he kept a school for 
some time at Glasgow. He was afterwards tutor 
in the families successively of the earls of Selkirk 
and Kilmarnock, and travelled with his pupils on 
the continent. When Dean castle, the seat of 
the latter nobleman, was accidentally burnt, Mr. 
Moor lost his valuable collection of books, as well 
as his manuscript speculations on philological 
and mathematical subjects. In November 1742 
he was appointed librarian to the university of 

Glasgow, and in July 1746, be became protaor 
of Greek there, on which occasion the earl of Sel* 
kirk advanced him £600, to enable him to pn^ 
chase the resignation of his predecessor. 

In conjunction with professor Moirhead, he sa- 
perintended, at the request of the miiTenity, a 
splendid edition of Homer, published by the Foa- 
lises of Glasgow. He also edited their Herodo- 
tus. In 1761 he was appointed vioe-rector of the 
university, which, in April 1763, conferred on him 
the degree of LL.D. Besides other works, he was 
the author of various Essays which pmported to 
have been *^ read to a Hterary Society in Glasgow, 
at their weekly meetings within the College." 
Several of these were never printed. He resigned 
his chair in May 1774, and died, unmarried, Sep- 
tember 17, 1779. His library and cabinet of me- 
dals were purchased by the university, of which 
he was such a distinguished member. 

Dr. Moor was possessed of considerable poeti- 
cal powers, and among other pieces, is stated to 
have been the author of the popular Scots ballid 
of * The Chelsea Pensioners,* which was published 
in the newspapers at the commencement of the 
French revolution, as the production of a young 
lady. — His works are : 

Three Essays. Glasgow, 1759, 12mo. 

Ou the End of Tragedy, according to Aristotle ; an Esi^ 
in two parts, read to a Literary Society in Glasgow, at their 
weekly meetings within the College. Glasg. 1764, 8to. 

On the Prapositions of the Greek Language ; an Introdae- 
tory Essay, read to a literary Society in Glasgow, at tber 
weekly meetings within the College. Glasg. 1766, 12mOb 

Vindication of Virgil from the charge of a Puerility which 
wss imputed to him hy Dr. Pearce, in his Notes on Laa^ 
nus. 1766. 

Elements lingua Gmca. Glasg. 1783, 8vo. Edin. 1798, 
1809, 8vo. Gbsg. 1817, 8vo. This, his prindpal week, 
though incomplete in some respects, soon became a standsrd 

He ahra contributed a few poems to ' The Edinburgh Msg- 
azine and ReTiew.' 

MOOR, Jacob, an eminent landscape painto-, 
a native of Edinburgh, was the author of three 
Essays; on the Influence of Philosophy on the Fine 
Ai*ts ; on the Composition of the Picture described 
in the dialogue of Cebes, and on Historical Com- 
position ; which were read before a literary society 
held in the college of Glasgow in the years 1752, 
1754, and 1755, and afterwards printed by An- 
drew and Robert Foulis, in 1759. He went to 
Rome about 1773, where he attained considerable 



SIR jony. 


: I 

called a innciiitodli, aiul other gutta petx^a arti- 
cles (see vol. ii. p. 752.) Dr. Moorc*8 works arc : 

A View of Society and Mwinera in France, Switierland, 
and Gerroanr. l/md, 1779, 2 vols. 8vo. Several editions, and 
translated into the French, Gennan, and Italian languagoi. 

A View of Society and Manners in Italy. Ix>ndon, 1781, 
2 Tola. 8vo. 

liledical Sketches, in two Farts. Ix>ndon, 1786, 8to. 

Zeluoo, a Novel. London, 1789, 2 vola. 8vo. 

A Jounml daring a Residence in France, from the bcgtn- 
niiif; of Anciut to the middle of December, 1792. Ixindon, 
1792, 2 voiit. Svo. 

A View of the Canees and Progress of tlie French Revola- 
tion. 1/ondon, 1795, 2 vuls. Svo. 

Kdward : a Kovel. J^ondon, 1796. 

Mordannt, a Novel. London, 1800, 8 vols. 8vo. 

MOORE, Sir Jonx, a distinguished British 
commander, son of the subject of the preceding 
article, by his wife, a daughter of Professor Sim- 
son, of the university of Glasgow, was bom in 
that city, Nov. 13, 1761. lie received the rudi- 
ments of bis education at the local High School, 
and at the age of eleven accompanied his father, 
then engaged as travelling physician to the duke 
of Hamilton, to the continent. In 1776 he ob- 
tained an ensign*s commission in the 5 1st foot. 
He was next promoted to a lieutenancy in the 82d 
regiment, and served in America till the conclu- 
sion of the war in 1783, when his regiment being 
reduced, he was put upon half-pay. On his re- 
turn to Britain, with the rank of captain, he re- 
sumed the studies of fortification and field tactics, 
and on the change of ministry, which soon fol- 
lowed the peace, he was, by the Hamilton influ- 
ence, elected to represent the Lanark district of 
burghs in parliament. In 1787 he obtained the 
rank of major in the 4th battalion of the 60th 
regiment, and in 1788 ho exchanged into his first 
regiment, the 51st. In 1790 ho succeeded by 
purchase to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and in 1791 
he went with his regiment to Gibraltar. 

In 1794 Colonel Moore was ordered to accom- 
pany the expedition for the reduction of Corsica, 
and at the siege of Calvi he was appointed by 
(icneral Charles Stuart to command the reserve, 
nt the head of which he gallantly stormed the 
Mozzello foi*t, amidst a shower of bullets, hand 
grenades, and shells, that exploded among them 
at every step. Here he received his first wound, 
in spite of which he mounted the breach with his 
brave followers, who drove tiie enemy before 
them. Soon after the sairender of the garrison, 

lie was nominated adjataot-general, u a step to 
farther promotion. 

A disagreement having taken place between the 
Biitish commander, General Stnart, and Sir Gil- 
bert Elliot, the viceroy of the Island, the former 
was recalled, and Colonel Moore was ordered by 
the latter to quit Corsica within 48 honn. He 
returned to England in November 1795, and was 
almost immediately promoted to the rank of bri- 
gadier-general in an expedition against the French 
West India islands. He sailed from Spithead 
February 28, 1796, to join the army nnder Sir 
Ralph Abercromby at Barbadoes, where he ar- 
rived April 13. His able services nnder this gal* 
lant veteran during the West India campugn, 
especially in the debarkation of the troops at St 
Lucia, and the siege of Mome Fortunee, were, u 
declared by the commander-in-chief in the pablie 
orders, ** the admiration of the whole army.** 

On the capitulation of St. Lnda, Sir Ralph ap- 
pointed General Moore commandant and governor 
of the island, a charge which he undertook with 
great reluctance, as he longed for more active 
service. But he performed his duty with his ac- 
customed energy and success, notwithstanding the 
hostility of the natives, and the numerous bands 
of aimed Negroes tliat remained in the woods. 
Two successive attacks of yellow fever compelled 
him to return to England in August 1797, when 
he obtained the rank of mnjor-general. In the 
subsequent December, his health being complete- 
ly re-established, he joined Sir Ralph Abercromby 
in Ireland as brigadier-general, and during the 
rebellion of 1798 was actively engaged. At Hore- 
town, he defeated a large body of the rebels 
under Roche, and immediately encamped near 
Wexford, which he delivered from the insurgents. 

In the disastrous expedition to Holland, in 
August 1799, he had the command of a brigade 
in the division of the army under Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby ; and in the engagement of the 2d Octo- 
ber, he received two wounds, which compelled 
him to return to England. In 1800 he accompa- 
nied Abercromby in the expedition to Egypt; 
and, at the disembarkation of the troops, the bat- 
talion which he commanded carried by aaaanlt the 
batteries erected by the French on a neighbonriog 
eminence of sand to oppose their landing. At the 

.fll# ■■«>«J.- ■#■" ■ **■!■*•■•* 




Argyle presented a oompUunt to the leerat eoimdl, agiinst 
Alexander of Iila, which be did not appear to fostaiii, but 
prooeoded again to the Islet, in oonoert with the enl of 
Morajr, for which he was sommoned before the king, and im- 
prisoned, while Moray's oondaot on the occasion seems to 
hare given the Idng great dissatisfaetioii, if wemayjndge 
from an original letter in the State Paper office, dated New- 
castle, 27th December 1581, from the earl of Northomber- 
Und to Heniy VIII., which alludes to ^ the sore imprison- 
ment of the earl of Argjle, and the little estimation of the 
earl of Mnrraj,'* bj the king of Soots. 

In 1584, the earl of Moray and Lord Erskine, with the 
bishop of Aberdeen and one Robert Reid, were sent on an 
embassy to France, to negotiate the marriage of James V. 
with a French princess. The eari married Lady Elisabeth 
Campbell, only daughter of Colin, third eari of Argyle, and 
had a daughter. Lady Mary Stewart, wife of John, mas- 
ter of Bnchan. Dying, without issue male, 14th June 1544, 
the earidom rererted to the crown, and was conferred on 
George, fourth eari of Huntly, high-chancellor of Scotland, 
his heirs and assignees, by charter, dated 18th February 
1549. The grant, however, was recalled in 1554. (See toI. 
ii. p. 519.) 

The earidom of Moray was next bestowed, in 1562, by 
Queen Mary, on her half-brother, Lord James Stewart, natu- 
ral son of James V., and afterwards regent of Scotland, as- 
sassinated by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh at Linlithgow in 
1570. For a memoir of the regent Moray, see Stuart, 
James, Eari of Moray. He held his titles by a variety of 
grants, which occasioned perplexity respecting their inherit- 
ance. In Febmary 1562 he obtained the charter of the 
earldom. In January 1564 he had another charter, limiting 
the succession to heirs male ; in June 1566 a third charter 
was granted to him, throwing open the succession to his 
heirs general, and in 1567 he obtained from parliament a 
ratification of the charter of 1563, again limiting the succes- 
non to his heirs male. He married Lady Ann Keith, daugh- 
ter of William, fourth earl Marischal, afterwards countess of 
Argyle, and hod by her two daughters, Lady Elizabeth, 
countess of Moray, and Lady Margaret, afterwards countess 
of Errol. 

In 1580, James Stuart, eldest son of I^rd Donne, and lin- 
eally descended from Robert Stuart, doke of Albany, gover- 
nor of Scotland from 1389 to 1419, received from James VI. 
the ward and marriage of the two daughters of the regent 
Moray, and a few days thereafter he married the elder. Lady 
Elizabeth, and assumed the title of ear! of Moray. Thus, on 
both sides, the first of each that branched from the royal 
family were regents of Sc^jtland. 

Sir James Stewart of Beith, father of Lord Doune, was the 
thud son of Andrew, Lord Avandale, (see vol. i. p. 170). 
He was gentleman of the bedchamber to James V., and lien- 
tenant of his guards. That sovereign also granted him the 
custody of Doune castle in Menteith, which afterwards came 
into the possession of his son. He was killed at Dunblane 
at Whitsunday 1547, by the Edmonstones of Duntreath, in 
resentment for the office of steward of Menteith, formerly in 
their family, having been conferred on him. 

His son, Sir James Stewart^ Lord Doune, obtained the ab- 
bey of St. Colmo in commmdam. He early joined the Refor- 
mation, and was one of the lords of the articles in the Estates 
of Angnst 1560, when the popish religion was overturned. 
In 1561 he was sent to England to demand a safe-conduct 
from Elizabeth for Queen Mary, then about to return to 
Scotland, and, in the end of the same year, was despatched 

as ambassador to Frsnoe. He was kni^itsd when Loid 
Damley was created eari of Ros, 15th May 1685, and a^ 
pears to bate been concerned in tba murder of Riiao, m^ 
among otiiers, be was, by act of privy oooncQ 19t]| Marah 
1566, ordered to be summoned to eompear and answer udv 
pain of rebellioD, Ac. He joined the assodation againsk 
Mary and Botbwell in June 1567, and attended the eoroiia* 
tion of James VI., but on the escape of Mary fiem Loc h kren 
castle in the following year, he went over to her side, and 
was in the castle of Edinburgh with the qiieen*s party in An- 
gnst 1570, when his caatle of Donne, t pUee of prodigioDs 
nse and strength, was rendered without slaughter to the 
regent Lennox. Of this celebrated stronghold, Grose has 
given a view. Several modem views of it have also been 
painted by Stevenson and others. Appointed a privy eoon- 
dllor by James VI., 11th November 1579, he was created 
Lord Doune, 24th November 1581. He was oolleetor-geiienJ 
of his majesty's revenues, and on 28d January 1588, was ad- 
mitted an extraordinary lord of sesnon, an office which he 
held for three years. He died 20th Jannaiy 1590. By his 
wife. Lady Elisabeth Campbell, eldest daughter of the fooxth 
earl of Argyle, he had, with two daughters, two sons, James, 
called "the bonny earl of Moray,** and Henry, Lord St 
Colme, (see St. Colme, Lord). 

The elder son, James Stuart^ as the royal samame was 
usnally spelled after Qneen Mary*s return from France, was 
the husband of Lady Elizabeth, the elder danghter of the re- 
gent Moray. As his claim to the earldom was doubtfhl, a 
charter was given to him in 1592 by James VI. and the 
Scottish Estates, ratifying to his son all the charters granted 
to the regent and the Lady Elizabeth. This, as it confinned 
both what declared the succession general, and what limited 
it to heirs male, rendered the entire principle of the fiunily 
succession bexplicable. The eari, therefore, lost no time in 
obtaining an entirely new ch.\rter to himself and liia heirs 
male. Deemed the handsomest man of his time in Scotland, 
he is known in history and in song as *' the bonny eari of 
Moray.** His personal attractions and accomplishments are 
said to have made a deep impression on the heart of the 
young queen, Anne of Denmark, soon after her coming to 
Scotland ; according to the old ballad : 

" He was a braw gallant. 

And he played at the ginve ; 
And the bonny earl of Moray , 

Oh I he was the queen's luve.** 

Some commendations of his beauty, imprudently but no 
doubt innocently enough made by her majesty in the king's 
hearing, as to Uie car1*s being " a proper and gallant man," 
excited his jealoasy, and he granted a commission to the earl 
of Iluntly, to bring Moray to his presence. Between these 
noblemen a deadly feud existed, the earl of liloray haiang in 
1589 joined the combination against Huntly, (see vol. ii. p. 
522). On the pretence that the eari of Moray had given 
harbour to the turbulent earl of Rothwell, Huntly, on 7th 
February 1592, beset his castle of Donibristle in Fife, and 
summoned him to snrronder. A gnn being fired from the 
castle, which mortally wounded one of the Gordons, HunUy's 
men set fire to the house. Dunbar, Hheriff of Moray, who 
was with the earl at the time, anxions to save him, said to 
him, *' Let us not stay to bo burned in the flaming house. 
I will go out first, and the Gordons, taking me for your lord- 
ship, will kill me, while you escipe in the confusion.** He 
accordingly rushed out, and was at once slain. Moray fol- 
lowed, and fied towards the rocks on the sea-shore, but the 




FnmcU, 10th eari« bom Kor. 7, 179d, died unnuuried May 
6, 1859, when hU broth«r, th« Hon. John Stoart of Boiland, 
born jMoary 2a, 1797, « capUin in th« army, niootedod at 
1 1 th earl. Ilia sunriviiig brothen* naniea are Hon. Archibald 
George, bom in 1810, and Hon. Geoige, bom in 1814. 

MoRAT, a nimanie, originally Mnrrefl^ now Uubrat, 
which Bee. The acknowledged chieftainship of the great 
family of this name is vested in Moraj>Stirling of Abercair- 
nj, and Ardoch, both in Perthshire, descended from one 
Fre»kinc, a Fleming, who settled in Scotland in the rdgn of 
David I. (1122—1153), and acqiured from that monarch the 
lands of Stmthbrock in Unlithgowshire, and of Dnffos in 
Moray. In 1158 he was succeeded bj his elder son, William. 
His vonngcr son, Hugh, was the ancestor of the earls of 
SuthcrLiiid, (see Sutiikrijind, Earl of). William's elder 
son, slso called William, succeeded his fatlier in 1200. He 
assumed tlie name of William do Moravia, having eztenuve 
estates and great local inflaenoe in the province of Moray. 
He married the daughter and heiress of David de Olifard, 
son of Walter de Olifard, justiciary of Lothian, who died in 
1242, and acquired witli her the lands of Bothwell and Dram- 
sargonl, in I^onarkshirc, and Smailholm in Berwickshire. 
Dmmsargard, anciently Drumshargat, is now called Cambus- 
lang, and furms a part of the entailed estate of the duke of 
Hamilton. Be^ddes Sir Wailter, his heir, he had several sons, 
who, says Chalmers, " propagnted the name of Moray, by 
founding other liuusen, one of which was the Murrays of Tul- 
libardine, now reprcsent<Hi by the duke of Athol.** Sir Wal- 
ter succeeded in 1226 to the family estates, and was the first 
of the name designated of Bothwell. He died in 1284. He 
had married a daughter of Malcolm, earl of Fife, a marriage 
which enabled his descendant in the fiAh degree to plead the 
privileges of that family. His elder son. Sir William de ^lo- 
ravia, dominus de Bothwell, was, by Alexander III., appoint- 
ed heredUariu* panUarius Scotite^ an office similar to that of 
the great mobter of tlie household in modem times. He was 
one of the magnates of Scotland who were summoned to 
Berwick as an auditor of the claims to the crown of Brace 
and Baliol. He died without issue in 1293. 

His brother. Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell, the celebrated 
patriot, succeeded him. He was one of the first to juin Wal- 
lace, when he reared the standard of national independence. 
Among the barons who swore fealty to Edward 1. in 1292 
end 1296, whose names appear in the Bagman Roll, there 
are no less than 17 named Moray, MurrefT, or Moravia. But 
Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell is not found amongst them. 
Of all the barons of Scotland, he and Sir William Wallace 
form the exceptions. There is an Andrew Moray in the roll, 
but that name was a common one at that time, and the 
statement in Douglas* Peerage that it was the lord of Both- 
well, is a mistake. In 1297, when Wallace was basely de- 
serted by tlie leaders of the Scots at Ir\ine, Sir Andrew Mo- 
ray alone remained faithful to him. He fell at the battle of 
Stirling, 13th Scptctnber that year, being the only person of 
distinction slaiu on the Scottish side. This was the most 
complete victory which Wallace ever gained in a regularly 
fought field, yet, such was his modesty that he allowed the 
name of Sir Andrew Moray to stand before his own as the 
leader of the Scottish anny. By his wife, a daughter of Sir 
John Cuniyn, lord of Badenoch, the lord of Bothwell had 
two bon8, Sir Andrew, his successor, and Sir William Moray 
of Dmmsargard, from whom the Moniys of Abercaimy arc 
lineally descended. 

Sir Andrew Moray of B<ithwell, the elder son, was, when 
rery young, yAnad in command with Sir William Wolhice, 

iUaHe^ Atmalt, vol. iL p. Sit.) wben bt invadad EogbBd, 
soon after the battle of Stirling, and hia nama tak« pne»* 
denee of WaUaoe*s in tlit pratectioo Krantad to tiM cmmnm of 
Hexham, in Northumberland, bj whicb the priory and cath 
vent were admitted under the poaoa of tha khig <^ SfintlinH, 
and all penons prohibitad, on pain of death, from doing thoa 
iijuiy. Hemingfofd has inaarted in hia historj a eopj of 
tiiis remarkable document, which is still extant, and ia dated 
Hexham, 8th November 1297. 

Sir Andrew Moray aftarwarda joined tha atandaid of 
Bmoe, and adhered to him under every changa of fortune. 
Hia faithful servioea were rewarded by his receiving in mar- 
riage, in 1326, in tha abbey of Cambnikenneth, tha king's 
sister, the Lady Christian Bmoe, widow of Gratnej aaii of 
Mar and of Sir Christopher Seton. Tha kidahip of Both- 
well hod by Edward I. been given to Aymer da Valleooe, 
esri of Pembroke, whom he had appointed hia governor of 
the south part of Scotland, but upon his foffeiturs it was re- 
stored by Robert the Bmoe to Sir Andrew Moray. After the 
fatal battle of Duplin, 12th August 1832, and the eorooatioo 
of Edward Baliol as king at Scone, on the 24th September, 
Brace*s party chose Sir Andrew Moray regent of the king- 
dom. One of his first acta was to send the yonng king, Da- 
vid II., and his queen, for safety to Fiance. Early in the 
following year he attempted to surprise Baliol in Boxbugh 
castle, but was unfortunately token prisoner. One of bis 
soldiers, named Balph Qolding, hanng advanced before his 
companions, was thrown to the ground. The r^ent gener- 
ously attempted to rescue him, but not being promptly sop- 
ported by his followers, he fell into the power of his enemies. 
Disdaining to surrender to Baliol, he cried out, ** I yiehi to 
the king of England; conduct me to him." Ha was 
conveyed to Edward at Durham, and detained in cUmo 
custody, but, the following year, he eitlier escaped, or 
W21S set at liberty. His return to Scotland infused new qnrit 
into the national party, and he was even joined by some of 
the English malcontents. Marching into Buchan, at the 
head of a considerable force, he laid siege to the castle of 
Dundarg, then hvid by Henry de Beaumout, one of BalioTs 
adherents, whom he compelled to capitulate. 

In 1335, when Cumyn, eorl of Athol, whom the English 
faction had made governor of Scotland under BoUol, was be- 
sieging the castle of Kildrammie, which then onder the 
charge of Lady Christian Bmce, tlie wife of Sir Andrew 
^loray, he was attacked by the latter and others of the 
loyal nobility, defeated and slain, SOth September thot year. 
Sir Andrew Moray was, thereafter, at a meeting of the 
Estates held at Dunfermline, re-elected regent. 

In the summer of 1336, Edward III. again invaded Scot^ 
land, and wasted the country wherever he went, when the 
Scots, remembering the lessons of the good king Robert, had 
recourse to a sort of guerilla warfare, taking refiige in forests 
and morasses, where the English could not follow tliem. On 
Edw.ird's departure. Sir Andrew Aloray issued from hia fast- 
nesses, and laid siege to the castle of Stirling. Edward has- 
tened to its relief, when the regent retiring to the north, 
made himself master of the castle of Dunnottar, in Kincar- 
dineshire, which Edward had refortiiied in his progress 
through Scotland. He also took the castles of Lanrieston, in 
the same county, and Kinclaven, in Perthshii-e, and during 
the following winter, he harassed the Meams and Angns. 
'llie tower of Falkland he likewise wrested from the Englisli, 
and in February 1337, assisted by the earls of Fife and March, 
he got possesion, after a siege of three weeks, of both tha 
town and cattle of St. Andrews. In this siege he is said to 
have employed very powerful battering machines, from aomo 




1608, after bang fonr Team and a half in Leith, be wai auin- 
nioned to eppear before the conudl, to answer fur a aennon 
preached bj him, on Galatians r. 1, at a sniodal assemblr at 
Edinborgb, aa moderator of the preceding ajnod, wherein he 
inreighed against the ararice and ambition of some of the 
prelates. Tliis sermon was printed at London without his 
knowledge, he baring given a written oopj of it to a friend 
who had requested it of him. He acknowledged it to be his, 
but gave in a general answer to the ooandl, which in effect 
was a declinature of their jurisdiction, in the form of a sup- 
plication that the matter might be remitted to bis own eccle- 
siastical superiors. Although favourablr dismissed from the 
council, he waa, at the instigation of the bishops, apprehend- 
ed on a warrant from the king, and put in ward in the castle 
of Edinburgh. After being detained there a year, he was 
remored to Newabbey near Dumfries, and ordered to confine 
himself within four miles of that place. His charge at Leith 
was declared vacant, and Mr. David Lindsay inducted there 
in his stead. He remained at Dumfries about a year and a 
half, preaching nther there or at the kirk of Traqnair, on 
the other side of the Kith, and then went with his wife and 
children to Dysart in Fife, where he remained privately half- 
•-year. Removing to Prestonpans, then called Saltpreston, 
he resumed his public preaching. In 1617, at the urgent re- 
quest of the parisliioners and the presbytery, he was pl.iced 
at Dnnfennline. On the 12th December 1621, he was sum- 
moned by the bijthop of St. Andiews to appear before the 
high commission, at)d answer for not conforming to tlie five 
acta of Perth, and as he paid no attention to the summons, 
though twice cited, lie was removed from Dunfermline, and 
ordered to confine himself within tlic parish of Foulis in 

The fiflh son, Captain Andrew Murray, and the sixth, 
who was named James, both died without issue. 

The eldest son. Sir William, succeeded his father in 1594. 
Being about Uie same age as James VI., he was brought up 
with him at Stirling, his majesty being then under the charge 
of the old countess of Mar, Abercaimy's aunt on the mother's 
side. Ho was knighted by the king and appointed master of 
the horse to the queen. He lived mostly at court, both in 
Scotland and nftcr James' accession to the crown of England, 
nnd died in 1640, leaving his estate greatly encumbered with 
debt. I If had a son, Robert, who predeceased him in 1628, 
and left two sons, William and David. 

William, Robert's eldcT son, succeeded his grandfather, and 
was a great loyalist, bat died while still a young man, in 
16-12. His cldfst son. Sir Robert Moray of Abercaimy, bom 
in 1G36. wits, immediately after the Restoration, knighted by 
Charles II. He died in April 1704, in his 68th year. With 
two daughters, he had five sons, namely, 1st, William, his 
heir; 2d, Robert, wlio was so strongly attached to the inter- 
ests of the Stuart family that he waited upon James VII., 
afler his expatriation, at St. ftermains, and was by him, it is 
said, intrusted with some commission of importance to his 
adherents in Scotland. 8d, Captain John Moray, who, after 
the Revolution, went into the French service, and rose to the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel After the accession of Queen 
Anne, he and Captun James Murray, brother of Sir David 
Murray of Stanhope, were by the exiled family at St. Ger- 
mains, sent over to Scotland, under the protection of her 
majesty's indemnity, as a check upon Simon Fraser of Beau- 
fiift, afterw.irds the celebrated I^ord Lovat, and to sound the 
dispositions of the people. He died, unmarried, in 1710. 
4tli, James, and 5th, Maurice, both died young and unmar- 

The eldest son, William Moray of Abereumy, greatly im- 

prored bis pttcinal eitate, and entirdj nliend it from til 
the encambnuicci upon it He died in 1785. By liis wifii, 
a daughter of Graham of Balufpowao, he bad • son and two 
dangjhten. Hie only eon, Jamee, bed, with fonr dan|^tcn» 
two sons, Aleiender end Cheriee, who both inbtriled the 
estate. The hitter, Colonel Cheriee Monj of Aberadziiy, 
manied the eldest daughter end horeee of Sir William Stir- 
ling, bezxmet of Ardoch, end died in 1810. With fiTe dan|^- 
ters, he bed three eone. Jamee, the eldeet eon, encrwiihd 
him. He was e megistrete end deputy-lienteneat of Perth- 
shuv; ceptaio, 15th hnaeers, end snbeeqnently lienlcnant- 
cobnel of the Perthshire locel militie. He died, withont 
issue, in Deoem'ser 1840, end wee enooeeded by hie braCfaer, 
Mijor William Moraj-Stirling of Abereeurnj and Ardoch. 
He married the Hon. Fennj Dooglee, den^^ter of ArbhibeU, 
Lord Douglas, and sored for a long period in the ennj. He 
was ten years in India, end wee eererdy wounded at Water- 
loo. He sncoeeded hie mother in Ardoch, when he eaenned 
the additional name of Stirling. 

MoRDuroToy, Lord, a (dormant) title in the pesr^ of 
Scotland, conferred in 1641, on Sir James Douglaa, eeesnd 
son of the tenth earl of Angus. He had married Anne, only 
child of Lawrence, fifth Lord Oliphant Thie ledy dauncd 
the peerage of Oliphant, but in the court of session in 16SS, 
it was determined, in presence of Charies I., in faToor of the 
heir male. The king, however, was pleased to ereete hsr 
husband a peer by the title of Lord Hoidington, 14th No- 
vember 1641, with the precedency of OUphant (1458). He 
obtained a grant from the crown of the lande end barony 
of Over Mordington in Berwickshire, on S4th August 
1634. These lands at one period belonged to the cele- 
brated Randolph, earl of Moray, by gift from his uncle, Ro- 
bert the Bruce, and at the death of John, third earl, passed 
to his sister, Black Agnes, countess of Dunbar. They were 
given as a dowery with her daughter, Agnes, on her marriage 
to Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith, and continued in the pos- 
session of his successors, the earls of Morton, till the attam- 
der of the regent Morton in June 1581, when they reverted 
to the crown. The first Lord Mordington died 11th Febmi- 
ry 1656. 

His son, W^illUm, second Lord Mordington, married Eliia- 
both, eldest daughter of Hugh, fifth Lord Sempill, by whom 
he had two sons ; James, third Lord Mordington, and the 
Hon. James Douglas. James, third lord, during the lifetime 
of his father, had a charter, *' To James, master of Mording- 
tuun," of the lands of Nether Mordington, of date 2d August, 
1662. His son, George, fourth Lord ilordington, has ob- 
tained a place in Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors, (Park's 
edition, vol. v. p. 147,) as the author of a work called *The 
groat bles-ning of a monarohical government, when fenced 
about with, and bounded by, the laws, and these laws se- 
cured, defended and obser^'ed by the monarch. Also, that as 
a Popish government is inconsistent with the true happlnese 
of these kingdoms, so great also aro the miseries and oocfn- 
sions of anarchy. M(»t humbly dedicated to his majesty by 
George Douglas, Lord Mordington.* Loudon, 1724. Two 
p'.eces against a weekly paper, called the Independent Whig, 
are also mentioned there as written by his lordship. He 
died lOUi June 1741. His only son, Charies, went to sea 
when young, and did not return till after his father's deeth. 
As he had no landed property, he did not assume the title. 
Engaging in the rebellion of 1745, he was taken prisoner, 
and tried llth September 1746, under the dengnation of 
Charles DougUs, Esq. He tlien pleaded his peerage, which 
was objected to bj the counsel for the crown ; but on profinf 







family tbe Inndi of Abenloor oontinned for mora than a 
oentaiy, when tbej came to the ancaitora of tht oarl of Mor- 
ton, the present proprietor. 

MoBTON, earl of« a title in the peerage of Sootland. con- 
ferred br Jamea II. 14th Mardi 1458, on James Douglas of 
Dalkeith, descended from Sir John Doogbi, second son of 
Sir James de Dooglas, of London, who was assassinated br 
order of Sir David BardsT of Brechin in 1850, and whose 
eldest son. Sir James Donglaa, had, in 1851, a grant of the 
baronj of Aberdnnr in Fife, from his nnde, William de Dou- 
glas, lord of liddisdale, and some time earl of Athol, (nee vol. 
i. p. 163). 'I'he remote ancestor of the noble family of &Ior- 
tnn was Andr«*w, second son of Archibald de Douglas, tlie 
second of thnt illuittrions race who bore the name of Douglas. 
The title is taken from the lands of Mortonne in the parisli 
of East Calder, Mid Ixthian, ancientlr called Calder-Gere; 
having been at one time the property of the family of de Clf re. 

James, first earl of Morton, had a safe-conduct into Eng- 
land, as one of the ambassadors from Scotland, 14th June 
1491, and again, 28th July 1494. He married Johanna, the 
widowed countess of Angus, daughter of King James I., and, 
with two daughters, hnd a son, John, second earl. 

The second earl of Morton was present in the estates of 
pariiament when the settlements on the princess Margaret of 
England by James IV. were confirmed, 18th May 1504. He 
was succeeded by his son, James, third eari, who received u 
safe-con.iuct 6th February 1516, to go to England. The Dou- 
glases of London obtained, in early time«, a baronial juruulic- 
tion over many lands, in several shires, which was called the 
regnlity of Dalkeith. In 1541, James, third earl of Morton, 
obtained a charter from James V., confirming this regaKty. On 
the abolition of the heritable jurisdictions in Scotland in 1747, 
the duke of Buccleuch, to whom this regality then belonged, 
received £3.400 for it The earl of Morton married Cathe- 
rine, natural daughter of .Tames IV., by Margaret Royi, and 
had 3 daughters ; I^dy Margaret, married to the earl of Arran, 
dnke of Chatelherault, regent of Scotland; Lady Beatrix, 
wife of Robert, fiflh I>ord Maxwell; and I^dy Elizabeth, 
wife of James Douglas, second son of Sir Geoi^ Douglas of 
Pittendreich, (see vol ii. p. 47,) the brother of the sixth curl 
of Angus. Having no male issue, he made an entail of his 
estates and honours in favour of Sur Robert Douglas of I^i- 
loveii, who had a charter of the same, 17th October 1540. 
Afterwards, however, he altered the destination, and a char- 
ter of the lands and earldom was granted in favour of his 
son-in-law, James Douglas, and the I^dy Elizabeth, his 
wife, and the longest liver, in conjunct fee, and the heirs 
male to be procreated between them, the remainder to others 
therein mentioned, and the heirs male of their bodies respec- 
tively, which was contirme<l by royal charter, 22d April 1543. 
The third eari died in 1558. 

His son-in-law, .Tames Douglas, became fourth earl of 
Morton, in terms of the above-mentioned settlement, and 
W.1S the famous regent Morton, of whom a memoir is given 
in vol. ii. p. 53, in larger type. He left no lawful issue, sl- 
though he had several natural children. On his execution in 
1581, his estates and titles became forfeited to the crown. 
John, 7th f/>rd Maxwell, grandson of the 3d e:u-l, obtainetl, 
in right of his mother, a new charter of the earldom of Morton, 
June 5, 1.581 (see p. 126 of this volume), and was 5th earl of 
Morton. The attainder being reversed in Jan. 15H5, I^rd 
Maxwell had to relinquish the title, which devolved on the 
next heir of entail, Archibald, 8th e:irl of Angus of the Dong- 
las family, (see vol. ii. p. 47). The latter, 6tli earl of Morton, 
died, without sunriving issue, in 1588. In the superstition of 

tlie tioMi he was lospacted to htsn fied bj witdienft; lUt 
•ari, laji Calderwood, (vol. ir. p. 680,) was **mon nor aoio 
of hb predeoessors, yea, nor aoie of all the eriei in tha eoon- 
trie, much beloved of the godCa. The king was wont oora« 
monly to call him * the ministen* king.' He gave • proof of 
kla religion and pietie at kia last and greatert cxtramitie; 
for howbeit bo was astnrsd he was beiHtclMd, yitt relbwd ha 
all belpe by witdiea, but l e f e ii a d the event to God.** 

On the eari of Angus* death. Ear William Dooglas of Lodi- 
leven becomo 7th aarl of Morton. Ho was deooendcd 
from Sir Henry Douglas of Logton, who, in the reign of 
Robert II., obtained a grant of the castlo of I^ochloren, in 
the neiglibonrhood of Kinross, with lands <m the sliore of the , 
lake. He was the third son of Sir John Donglaa of Dalkailh, 
by Agnes Monfode. In 1566, Sur William Donglaa of Lneh- 
leven, the near kinsman of the regent Morton, and half- 
brother to the regent Aloray, was selected as the jailer of 
the unfortunate Queen Maiy when she was imprisoned in 
I.ocIi1even castle, IGth June 1567. She made her escape, it 
is well known, on the 2d >Iay 1568, by meana of Geoige 
Douglas, youngest son of Sir Robert. The sixth eari died 24th 
September, 1606. His grandson, William, seventh eari, was 
a privy councillor, and one of the gentlemen of the bedcham- 
lier both to King James VI. and Charles I. On 12th April 
1630, he wss constituted high-treasurer of Scotbnd, and held 
that office till 1635, when he was appointed captain of tlie 
yeomen of the guard, and bcMdes being made a knight of the 
Garter, was sworn a member of the English privy connriL 
In 1641 he was nominated high-chancellor of Scotland, bnt 
the appointment being opposed in p.'urliament by his own 
son-in-law, the famous marquis of Argyle, the husband of 
his second daughter. Lady Mai^ret Douglas, the king did 
not persist in it. 

On the breaking out of the civil wars, tlie earl of Morton, 
who was then one of the richest noblemen in the kingdom, 
sdvanced largo sums for the support of the royal cauM. 
Among other estates disposed of for that purpose, the estate 
of Dalkeith was in 1642 sold to the Buccleurh family. On 
that account the islands of Orkney and Zetland were, 15th 
.Tune 1648, with all the regalities belonging to them, granted 
by royal charter in mortgage to the earl, redeemable by the 
crown on the payment of X.10.000 sterling. In 1646, when 
Cliarles I. took refuge with the Scots army at Newcastle, the 
earl of STorton went to that town to wait on his majesty. 
He afterwards retired to Orkney, where he died 7th August 
1648, in his OCth year. \Yith five daughters, he four 

His eldest son, Robert, ninth earl, mortgaged the islands 
of Oricney .ind Zetland, to assist Charles, but died towards 
the end of the year 1649. His son, William, tenth earl, re- 
ceived in 1662 a new grant of Orkney and Zetland, which 
had been confiscated by Cromwell, not in his own name, 
however, but in that uf the Viscount Grnndison, the brother 
of his countess, in trust for the Morton family. Both this 
and the former grant were contested by the lord-advocate, 
and being reduced, these islands were, hy act of parliament, 
27th December 1669, annexed for ever to the crown. The 
earl died in 1681, without surviving issue, when the title de- 
volved on his uncle, the Hon. Sir .Tames Douglas of Smith- 
field, who was kni;;hted by the earl of Lindsay under the 
royal standard at the Isle of Rhee for his gallant behaviour. 
He was a gentleman of the privy chamber to Charlea I. 

The 11th earl died in 1686. He had, with one daughter, 
five sons. Tlie eldest, Charles, I<ord Aberdour, was drowned 
at sea on his p.nssage to Holland, unmarried. 

The second son, .Tames, tweltlh earl, supported the Revo- 




Aberdoor, b. Nor. 6, 1844 ; 2dly, in 1853, 1^7 Alice Lamb- 
ton, 8d dftnghter of the 1ft earl of Durham. Appmnted 
depotj lieutenant of Mid Lothian in 1848, and of Argyleshire 
in 1859. In April of the latter jear be was elected • repre- 
sentative peer of Scotland. 

MoRiiTLLB, snmame of. See Supflkmesct. 

MOTHERWELL, William, a highly-gifted 
poet, was bom in Glasgow, October 13, 1797. 
His family originally belonged to Stirlingshire, 
where for several generations they resided on a 
small property of their own, called Mnirmill. At 
an early age he was placed under the care of an 
uncle in Paisley, and after receiving a good edu- 
cation, was apprenticed to the shcriflf-derk of the 
county, with the view of following the legal pro- 
fession. On the termination of his apprenticeship 
he was employed for some time by Dr. Robert 
Watt, in assisting in the compilation of that valu- 
able and useful work, the ' Bibliotheca Britanni- 
ca,' in which occupation he displayed a passionate 
love of antiquarian lore, that characterized all his 
after years. Having early begun to "try his 
^prentice hand" on poetry, he about the same 
time contributed some pieces to a small periodical 
published at Greenock, called * The Visitor.' At 
the age of twenty-one he was appointed deputy to 
the shcriflf-clerk at Paisley, which office he held 
for about ten years. In the year 1819 he contri- 
buted an Essay on the Poets of Renfrewshire, to 
a collection of Songs and other poetical pieces 
published at Paisley, entitled ^ The Harp of Ren- 
frewshire,* in which a few of his own productions 
also appeared. He subsequently become editor of 
a work of a somewhat similar nature, but of high- 
er pretensions and greater merit, being a valuable 
collection of ballads, published in parts, and com- 
pleted in 1827, under the title of 'Minstrelsy, 
Ancient and Modem,* illustrated by a most inter- 
esting historical introduction and notes, which ex- 
hibited his extensive acquaintance with the ballad 
and romantic literature of Scotland. 

In 1828 Mr. Motlierwell became editor of the 
' Paisley Advertiser,* a paper of conseiTative po- 
litics, which he conducted with spuit and success 
for nearly two years. At the same time he edited 
the 'Paisley Magazine,* a monthly periodical, 
which, though it displayed much talent and liveli- 
ness, only existed for a year. In the beginning 
of 1880, on the retirement of Mr. MacQueen, the 

able and at that period well-known advocate of 
the West India Interests, from the * Glasgow Cou- 
rier,* Mr. Motherwell was engaged as editor of 
that journal, and he continued to conduct it till 
his death. He entered upon the editorslilp at a 
period of great public excitement, when the prin- 
ciples he supported, those of conservatism, were, 
for the time, exceedingly nnpopnlar, but he advo- 
cated the cause which he conscientiously believed 
to bo the true one with signal intrepidity, un- 
flinching zeal, and consummate ability, and for 
upwards of five years sustained with distinction 
the character of the newspaper under his charge. 
Of Motherwell it may be truly said that ** he gave 
up to party what was meant for mankind," for 
politics, in a great measure, thus withdrew him 
from the more congenial pursuits of literature. 
He did not, however, wholly forsake poetiy, for, 
in 1832, a volume of his ' Poems, Narrative and 
Lyrical,* was published at Glasgow, and was most 
favourably received. A few months previously 
he had furnished his friend, Mr. Andrew Hender- 
son, with an able and interesting preface for his 
collection of Scottish Proverbs, in which he show- 
ed a thorough acquaintance with the " saws*' and 
sayings of his countrymen. 

The same year he contributed a number of 
pieces in prose and verse to * Tlie Day,* a periodi- 
cal then published at Glasgow. His ' Memoirs of 
Peter Birnic,* a Paisley bailie, formed one of the 
most amusing papers in that publication. In 
1834-5 he superintended with Hogg, the Ettrick 
Shepherd, an elegant edition of the works of Burns, 
in five volumes, published by Messrs. A. Fullar- 
ton & Co. A large amount of the notes, critical 
and illustrative, was supplied by him. 

Mr. Motherwell was of short stature, but stent 
and muscular. The engrossing and exciting na- 
ture of his duties, combined with other causes, 
gradually undcimiaed his health, and he was lat- 
terly subject to occasional attacks of illness. On 
the evening of 31st October 1835, he was seized 
with an apoplectic fit, and though medical aid 
was speedily procured, in less than three hours, 
during which he scarcely spoke, he died, Novem- 
ber 1, in his 39th year. He was never married. 
A monument to his memory was erected in Glas- 
gow Necropolis, where he was buried. 

ii ! 

1, ; 

■ I 




1 1 

1 ■ 


creif and Balniachin to Uatthew, who from thera usamed 
the name of Moncreif. 

The family uf Cockairny have oontinned in an nnintenrnpt- 
ed male line. Sir Robert Moubraj, who nicceeded in 1794, 
wai kniglited in 1825, and died in 1848. 

MowAT, a inimame originallj Montealt. A familr, de- 
riving their name from the lands of Montealt in the oonntj of 
Flint, North Wales, settled in Scotland in the rngn of David 
L, and in course of time the name was softened into Mowat. 
In the Ragman Roll is the name of Willielmos de Monte 
Alto, miles. There is a charter of William, eari of Douglas 
and Mar, to James Mowat of the lands of Easter Fowlis, 
dated at the castle of Kildmmmv, 26th JvAj 1377. The 
principal family of the name was Mowat of BalqnoUie, Aber- 
deenshire. There were also ^ilowat of Stanehonse in Clydes- 
dale, and Mowat of Bnabie in Cunningham, but all these 
families have long been extinct. 

MUDIE, Robert, a volaminons niTitcr, author 
of The Feathered Tribes of the British Islands/ 
aud nnmerous other popular and scientific works, 
was a native of Forfarshire, and was bom in 
1777. The son of a country weaver, he received 
the rndiinents of his education at a humble rural 
school in his native place, about six or seven miles 
north-west from Dundee. For whatever leaniing 
he afterwards possessed, he was solely indebted 
to his own industiy and native vigour of mind, 
and he Aimishes another remarkable example of 
those individuals who, by the force of their genius, 
application, and steadiness, have raised them- 
selves from a lowly rank in life, without the aid 
of either school or college, to a conspicuous posi- 
tion among the higher class of literary and scien- 
tific men of their day. In his early youth, he 
was put to the loom, and plied the shuttle for sev- 
eral years, until he was drawn for the militia. 
From his boyhood he had evinced an insatiable 
desire for knowledge of every description, and all 
the hours which he could spare from his employ- 
ment as a weaver, or his militiaman^s duties, were 
devoted to the reading of books. He used to 
mention that before he left home, he was much 
indebted to a gentleman who lent him some vol- 
umes of the ^ Encyclopedia Britannica,* in which 
he indulged at large his taste for variety, and that 
in the towns where his regiment was stationed he 
always contrived to find a good supply of books. 
By the time that his militia service of four years 
expired, he had attained to so much knowledge 
that he was emboldened to undertake the duties 
of a village school in the south of Fife. Besides 

other accomplishments, we are told, he had ac- 
quired considerable skill in the art of drawing, a 
respectable acquaintance with arithmetic and ma- 
thematics, and great facility in English composi- 
tion. He also wrote verses with ease. 

He was soon appointed to the sitnation of draw* 
ing-master in the academy of Inremess, and 
afterwards in that of Dundee, where he was not 
long till he was transferred to the department of 
aiithmetic, theoretical and practical, and English 
composition. At Dundee he remained for abont 
twelve years, and besides contributing mnch to 
the local newspaper, and conducting for some 
time a monthly periodical, he published a novel, 
called ' Glenfnrgas,* in 3 volumes. Becoming a 
member of the Dundee tovm council, he engaged 
eagerly in the cause of bnrgh reform, in conjunc- 
tion with R. S. Riutoul, afterwai-ds the editor of 
the London Spectator. 

About 1820, Mr. Mudie left Dundee for Lon- 
don, and at first obtained employment as a pariia- 
mentary reporter for the newspapers. He was 
for some time connected with the Morning Chron- 
icle, and subsequently editor of the Sunday Times. 
He also contributed largely to several of the peri- 
odicals of the day. His life thenceforward was 
that of a laborious literary hack, and as he wrote 
with great facility, he produced altogether up- 
wards of ninety volumes, on almost every subject 
Many of his works were hastily produced, to pro- 
vide for the passing wants of the day, and he has 
been known to throw off a volume of his *' Sea- 
sons* in eight days. He was an able writer, an 
expert compiler, an acute and philosophical ob- 
server of nature, and particularly happy in hia 
geographical dissertations and works on natural 
history. With all his acquirements, howenr, 
and with all his industry and perseveranee, kla 
was but the fate of too many literary men, con- 
stant drudging and perpetual poverty, and at lait 
complete bodily exhaustion. He died 29th April 
1842, aged 64, leaving the widow of a second 
maiTiage in poor circumstances. 

In the Appendix to Dr. Hannah's life of Dr. 
Chalmers, a brief account of Mr. Mudie is given 
by Professor Duncan, of the university of St. An- 
drews, who was rector of the academy of Dandee, 
when the subject of this notice was one of the 





1 1 

lie eztlngnuhed and slain.** The Munrocs and Dioupvalls 
lost a great many men. Dingwall of Kildon, and m m tk 
■core of the surname of Dingwall were killed. No len than 
eleven Munroet of the house of Fonlis who were to succeed 
one after another, fell in this battle, so that the iDooession of 
Foulis opened to an infant ** then I ving in his cradel.** The 
carrs son was rescued, and to requite the service performed 
he made various grants of land to the Munroes and Ding- 

The child Ijing in his cradle was afterwnrds Sir Robert 
Munro, the sixth of his house. lie fought in the armj of 
Bruce at the battle of Bannockbum. His onlj son, George, 
fell there, leaving an heir, who succeeded his grandfather. 
This George Munro of Foulis was slain at Ilalidonhill in 
1333. The same jear, according to Sir Robert Gordonf al- 
tliough Shaw makes the date 1454, the following remarkable 
event occurred in the clan historv : John Munro, tlie tutor of 
Foulis, in travelling homeward from Kdinburgh to Ross, 
stopped in a meadow in Strathardle that he and his ser- 
vants might obtain some rest. While thev were asleep, the 
owner of the meadow cut off the tails of their horses. To 
revenge this insult, on his return to Ross, he summoned his 
whole kinsmen and followers, and having selected 350 of tlie 
best men amongst them, he returned to Strathardle, which 
he waste<l and spoiled ; killing some of the inhabitants and 
carrying off their cattle. In passing by the castle of Moy, 
on his way home, the laird of M.Hcintosh sent a message to 
him demanding a share of the spoil. This was customary 
among the Highlanders when a party drove cattle so taken 
through a gentleman's lanJ, and the part so exacted was 
called a Staoig Ratliaid^ or Staoig Crtich^ that is, a road 
collop. Munro offered Macintosh a reasonable share of the 
booty, but the latter would not accept of less than the half. 
This Munro refused, and drove off the cattle. Collecting his 
clansmen, Macintosh went in pursuit of him, and came up 
with him at Glach-na-haire, near Inverness. On perceiving 
his approach, ^lunro sent home fifty of his men with the cat- 
tle, and in the contest that ensued, Macintosh and the great- 
er part of his men were killed. Several of the Munrocs were 
also slain, and John Munro himself was left for dead on the 
field of battle, when Lord Lovat had him carried to his house 
in the neighbourhood, where he was cured of his wounds. 
One of his hands was so mutilated, that he lost the use of it, 
on which account he was afterwards culled John Bac-Lniinh, 
or Ciotach. The Munrocs had great advantage of the ground, 
by taking up a position among rocks, from which they an- 
noyed the Macintoslies with their arrows. 

Robert, the fi;;hth baron of Foulis, married a niece of En- 
phame, daughter of the ciirl of Ross, and queen of Robert II. 
He was killed in an obscure skirmish in 13G9. and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Hngh, ninth baron of Foulis, who joined 
Donald, second lord of the Isles, when he claimed the earl- 
dom of Ross in right of his wife. The decisive battle of 
Harlaw, in 1411, put an end to his protcnsions. 

The forfeiture of the earldom of Ross in 1476, made the 
Munroes and other vassal families independent of any supe- 
rior but the crown. In the charters which the familv of 
Foulis obtained from the Scottish kings, at various times, 
they were declared to hold their lands on the singular tenure 
of furnishing a ball of snow at Midsummer if required, which 
the hollows in their mountain property could at all times snp- 
ply ; and it is said that when the duke of Cumberland pro- 
ceeded north against the Pretender in 174G, the Munroes 
actually sent him some snow to cool his wines. In one 
charter, the addendum was a pair of white gloves or three 


In 1497, when Sir Alexander Macdmiald of T^onhslih a 
second time invaded Ross, be was ettcounterad hj ths Mim- 
ncs and the Mackensies, at a place csllcd Dmmdiatt, wlwn, 
after a rinurp skirmish, he and his followanB were again root- 
ed, and driven eat of the oonntxr. In 1502, a oomminioo 
was given to the eari of Hnntly, the Lord Lorat, and Wil- 
liam Munro, twelfth baron of FMis^ to prooeed to Lochsber, 
and let the king's lands of Lochsber nd ifamors^ for tko 
space of five years, to true men. Sir William Mmm of Fon- 
lis was nominated Jostidaij of Invemees bj James IV. He 
fell in battle in 1505. In 16U Munro of Fonlis and Mao- 
kenzie of Kintail were appointed lieutenants /»ro iemport of 
Wester Ross. Robert, the 14th baron, fell at the battle of 
Pinkie in 1547. Robert More Munro, the fifteenth cbicl| 
was a faithful friend of Mary, queen of Scots. Buohansa 
states that when that unfortunate princess went to Inver- 
ness in 15C2, **as soon as they beard of their soTereign*8 
danger, a great number of the most eminent Soots poured in 
around her, especially the Fraseni and Munroes, who were 
esteemed the most valiant of the clans inhabiting those coun- 
tries.** These two clans took for the queen Inverness castle, 
which had refused her admisnon. 

With the Mackenues the Munroes were often at feud, and 
Andrew Munro of Milntown defended, for three yean, the 
castle of the canonry of Ross, which he had received from 
the regent Moray in 1569, against the clan Kenzie, at the 
expense of many lives on both sides. It was, however, ef* I 
terwards delivered up to the Mackenzies under the act ol I 

The chief, Robert More Munro, became a protestant at an | 
early period of the Scottish Reformation. Of the family of | 
Foulis, there is a sketch appended to Dr. Doddridge*s weD- . 
known * Life of Colonel Gardiner,* and Robert More Mnnr» 
is there described as *' a wise and good man, who left an opu- 
lent estate to the family.** James VI. granted to him a 
lease of certain crown customs or dues in the shires of lover- , 
ness, Ross, Sntherland, and Caithness. He died in 1588L 
His son, Robert, sixteenth baron of Foulis, died, without . 
issue, in July 1589, and was succeeded by his brother. Hec- 
tor Munro, seventeenth baron of Foulis. The latter died 
14th KovemW 1C03. | 

Hector's eldest son, Robert Munro, eighteenth chief of 
Foulis, styled " the Black Baron," was the first of his hooM 
who engnged in the religious wars of Gustavus Adolphus, is 
the seventeenth century. In 1626 he went over with the , 
Scottish corps of Sir Donald Mackay, first Lord Reay, ac- 
companied by sis other ofiicers of his name and near Idndred. 
Doddridge says of him, that ** the worthy Scottish gentle- • 
mnn was so struck with a regard to the common cause, in 
which he himself had no concern but what piety and virtue 
gave him, that he joined Gustavus with a great number of 
his friends who bore his own name. Many of them guned 
great reputation in this war, and that of Robert their leader < 
wns so eminent that he was made colonel of two regiments ; 
at the same time, the one of horse, the other of foot in that 
ser\'ice.** In 1629 the laird of Foulis raised a reinforcement 
of 700 men on his own lands, and at a later period joined 
Gusta\*us with them. The ofiicers of Mackays and Mnnro's 
Highland regiments who served under Gustavus Adolphus, in 
addition to rich buttons, wore a gold chain round their necks, 
to secure the owner, in case of being wounded or taken pris- 
oner, good treatment, or payment for future ransom. 

The *' Black Baron '* died at Ulm, from a wound in his foot, 
in the year 1633, and leaving no male issue, he was succeeded 
by his brother. Hector Munro, nineteenth baron of Foulis, 
who had also distinguished himself in the German wars, and 






ancholy souud of the minate gans reverberating 
among the hills ; the grand and frowning appear- 
ance of the fortress towering above the Goar, all 
tended to make the awfol ceremony more impres- 
sive." An equestrian statoe, bj Chantrej, has 
been erected to his memory at Madras. In 1830 
was pablished ^ The Life of Sir Thomas Monro, 
with Extracts from his Correspondence and Pri- 
vate Papers. By the Rev. G. R. Gleig,* 3 vols. 

In the Extraordinary Gazette issned at Ma- 
dras, after his death, the following tribute was 
paid to his merits. After stating that he had 
l>ccn more than 47 years in the service of the East 
India Company, it coutinnes, *^ From the earliest 
period of his service, he was remarkable among 
other men. His sonnd and vigorous nnderstand- 
ing, Iiis transcendent talents, his indefatigable 
application, Iiis varied stores of knowledge, Iiis 
attainments as an Oriental scholar, his intimate 
acquaintance with tlie habits and feelings of the 
native soldiers, and inhabitants generally, his pa- 
tience, temper, facility of access, and kindness of 
m«iuucr, would have insured liim distinction in any 
line of employment. These qualities were admi- 
rably adapted to the duties which he had to per- 
form in those provinces where he had long been 
known by the appellation of Father of the people." 

Mure, a surname, the same as More, Miur, and Moore. 
The chii'f uf the nuir.e ui Scotland was Mure of Rovallan, in 
Ayrshire, whose family, termin.iting in an heiress, is now re- 
presented by the noble family of Loudoan, the head of which 
in marquis of Il.'ustings in the peerage of Great Britain. Id 
1825 was published .it Gl.-i^gow a work entitled The Histo- 
ric and Dcscifnt of the House of Rownllane. By Sir William 
3Iun>, kniglit, of Kowallan, written in, or prior to 1657/ in 
which it is stated that it was a tradition of their hoose that 
they came originally from " the ancient tribe of 0*More in 
Ireland." In a note, the editor, William Muir, says, "The 
Humame *Muro* certainly occurs very early in all the three 
British kingdoms, and is most probably of Celtic origin," and 
adds, *' in most early writings in which the name is found, 
accordant with the idiomatic usngc of Celtic patronymics, the 
preposition de is omitted, which so invariably accompanies 
all early Saxon designations." This, however, is a mistake, as 
David do More, of the hoiisc of Polkelly, Renfrewshire, ap- 
pears as a witness to a charter of Alexander II. WUlidmi 
de Mora and Ijaurtntli de Mora also occur in two charters 
irrnntcd bv Robert the Bruce. 

The first on record of the family is stated to have been the 
.iliovo-nanied David de More. His successor is supposed to 
have been Sir Gilchrist More, the first of the name mention- 
ed in the family * Ilistorie.' In the beginning of the reign of 
Alex.nnder 111., Sir Walter Cumyn took foreible possession of 
the house and living of Kowallan, " tlie owner thereof, Gil- 
ihrist More, being rfdnctcd for his safety to keep dose m his 
cistle of Pokellie." The latter distinguished himself at the 

battto of Luigi in 1268, and Ibr Us bimvay wm knigJbUd. 
"At which time,** nyt the < Hiatorie,* " Sir GDdnirt wm n- 
poned to liif whole inberitance, and gifted with the Imb 
belonging to Sir Walter Gaming before mentioned, a man 
not of the meanest of that powerful tribe, which lor migiit 
and nunber hare ecaroelie to thii day been equalled in 
this land.** He married Isobel, dangbter and heiress of the 
said Sir Walter Cnmjn, and on the death of his father-in- 
law he foond himself secnred not only in the title and M 
poesession of his old inheritance, bat also in the besder lands 
wherrin he sncoeeded to Sir Walter Gaming^ within the sbsr- 
iflUom of Rozbargh. Sir Gilchrist " disponed to his kinsmsn 
Ranald More, who had come pnrposlie from Ireland lor his 
assistance** in the time of his troaUes, and also at the battle 
of Largs, the lands of PoUuUie, which appear to have bscn 
the original inheritance of the family. He died ** aboot the 
year 1280, near the 80 year of his age," and was bnried 
" with his forfathers in his own bariell place in the Mmes 
Isle at Kilmarnock.** He had a son, Archibald, and two 
daughters, KlizalM>th, the wife of Sir Godfrey Ross, and Ani- 
cio, married to Ricliard Boyle of Kclbnme, ancestor of the 
earls of Glasgow. 

Arehibald was slain at Berwick when that town was taken 
by the English, and the army of John Baliol totally rooted, 
in 1297. By his wife, a daughter of Sir John Montgomerii 
of Eastwood, he had, with two daughters, William, his sao- 
cessor. He is said to havo had other sons, the sopposed an- 
cestors of the Mures of Caldwell and Auchindrane. 

In the Ragman Roll, among those barons who swore Unity 
to Edward I. in 1296, we find the names of Gilchrist Moif 
of Craig and Reginald More de Craig, that is, the Craig ol 
Rowallan. The former is stated to have been the ancestor cl 
the ^lures of Polkellie, who, Kisbet thinks, were ** the stm 
of the Mnres, and an ancienter family than the Rowallan." 
The latter was in 1329 chamberlain of Scotland. 

William More, the son .ind successor of Arehibald, married 
a daughter of the house of Craigie, then Lindsay, and with 
two daughtent, h.od a son, Adam, who saoceeded him. Of 
William honourable mention is made in an indenture of trace 
with England in the nonage of King David, wherein be ii 
designated Sir William. He died abont the time when KinK 
David was taken prisoner at the battle of Durham, fought 
17th October 1.34G. There is snpposcd to have been an older 
son than Adam, named Revnold. The editor of the ' Htito- 
rie,* on the authority of Crawford's Offi(xn of State, (vol L 
p. 290,) says in a note : R^/noIdy son and heir of Sir Wil- 
liam More, was one of the hostages left in England at Da- 
vid's redemption. This is certainly the s.ime Sir William 
mentioned above, but whether of Rowallan seems still doubt- 
ful ; if so, he must have lived long after 1348. There is a 
William More, Miles, mentioned in M'Farlane's MS., as liv- 
ing in 1363. Supposing this Sir William Bfore to have been 
of Rowallan, Reynold probably never returned from England, 
and thus the ei^tate mny have fallen to Sir Adam, a yonngfr 
son. During the long protracted payment of the king's ran- 
som, many of the host.iges died in confinement. 

Sir Adam More, who, *' in 1ms father's anld nge," had the 
management of all his affairs, both priv.ite .ind public, conri- 
derably enlarged and improved the estate. He married, in 
his younger years, Janot Mure, heiress of Polkellie, grand- 
daughter of Ranald More, and thus restored that estate to 
the family. By this mnrri.ige he had two sons. Sir Adam, 
his successor, and Andrew, and a daughter, Elizabeth, mar- 
ried in 1348, to Robert, the high steward, afterwards King 
Robert II. She was a Indy beauty and rare virtues, 
and attracted the high steward's reganl in his yonnger yean 

T.J. I j 




three dauj^bteni. The sons were, John, his itncceMor ; Arch- 
ibmli], called *Mickle Arvhihald;' Patrick Bord. and James. 
From Pitcaim*8 Criminal Trialis we learn tiiiit **Nov. 3. 
ir>08.— Pat rick Bojde, brother to the laird of Rowallan,** 
and 27 others, were ** conricted of art and port of convocation 
of the lie^s against the act of parliament, coming to the kirk 
of Stewarton, in company witli John Mare of Rowallan, for 
the ofBoc of parish clork of tlie same kirk, against Robert 
Cunyn^liame of Cnnynghamehed and his senrantM, in the 
year 1508 ;" and that " James Muir, brother to tlie laird of 
Rowalloun was, in 1508, convicted of art and port of the 
forethonglit felon j and oppression dona tu John Mowat, ju- 
nior, laird of Busbie, and Andrew Stevinstone, in the town of 
Stewarton, in company with the laird of Rowalloun.** John 
is said tu have " d<>cea8t before Robert his father in 1501 ;** 
if so, he must have possessed the estate on his father's resig- 
nation. Tiie editor adds in a note, that he was dead in 1495. 
A long feud had cxihted betwixt the lairds of Crawfbrdland 
anil Rijvrallan, the latter being superior of the lands of Ar- 
doch OS Crawfurdland was fint called, during which the evi- 
dents of both hoOM-s were destroyed. In a justice-eyre, held 
at Ayr alnrnt 1470 by John, I^rd Carlyle, chief justice of 
Scotland on the snath side of the Forth, Robert Muir of 
Rowallan and .John Muir hb son, and others their accom- 
plices, were iiidicteil for breaking the king's peace against 
Archibald Craufunl uf Cniufurdland. 

John Mure of Rowallan, the eldest son, and grandson of 
Robert " the Rud," married Margaret, third daughter of Ar- 
chiball Boyd of Bonshaw, brother of Thomas, master of 
Bovd. created earl of Arran about 14C7. This ladv was the 
means of putting an end to the foud df the Rowallan f:imily 
with the Crawfurds. In her vouth she had been nn'strcss to 


James IV., by uhoni, with a sun, Alexander, bishop of St. 
Andrews, sin* had a dau£;htcr, Catherine Stewart, married to 
the third carl of Mt)rton. She afterwards " procured to her- 
self the ward of the laird of Rowallan, John Muir, and mar- 
ried him." Tliev had saline of the lands of Waruockland, 
the gift of Jamt-s IV., in January 1498. This John ilure of 
Rowallan was .sl.iin at Flodden in September 1513. He had 
four sons and four daughters. 

Mungo, his clde«it. son, succeeded him. His half-sister, 
Catherine, countess of Morton, had three daughters, the eld- 
est of whom, Ijidy Margiret Douglas, married the regent 
earl of Arran, duke of Chatelheniult, ancestor of the dukes 
of Hamilton ; the second. Lady Beatrix, married Ix>rd Max- 
well ; and the younj^st, Lady Elizabeth, became the wife of 
the regent Morton. These noblcnien, therefore, stood in near 
relit Ion.«4liip to Mumj;o Mure of Rowallan, which they were 
all very ready, tlu! regent Morton in partic»il:ir, to acknow- 
ledge. Mungo Mure of Kowallnn was with Robert Boyd of 
the Kilmarnock family when he arrived, with a party of horse, 
to the n.4si.stance of the regent An\in in the skirmish at GIxh- 
gow, ill lolJ, with the earl of Glencaim. In the Appendix 
to the Mlistorie* there is an account of " the behaviour of 
the house of Kilmarnock towardis the house uf Rowallaue, 
and of thair house towards them,"' in which he is thus refer- 
red to: *' It is understandit that Mungow Muir of Rowallane, 
quhoi.H mother wes Boyd, joj-nit with Robert Boyd guidmane 
of Kiimnmock, in seeking revengement of the slaughter of 
James Boyd, the king's sisteris sone, qnlio sould h.nve bene 
Lord Boyd, hot befoir he was fullie restorrit was slaiuo be the 
earl of Kglintoune. Kixt, my lord of Glencaime proponing 
ane richt to the barronrio <-f Kilmarnock pn)cla»rnir ane court 
to be lioldin at the Knockanlaw, quhair the said Robert Boyd 
guidmane of Kihiiuniock and Mongow Muir of Rowallane, 
with the assistance of thair friends, keipit the said day and 

plaee of eoort, oflbit battel to the tud earl of GlaDedm, ad 
Btayit liim from his pictendit ooort hoildin^ Tfaridfie, tbe 
foirsud Robert Boyd goidmaoe of Kilmaraock, and the wd 
Mnngow Muir of Rowallane, entirit in the field of QUagom, 
the said Mungow being lauglie better aooompanied then the 
foiraaid Robert, they behaTit thenuelfe to ndiantlie in that 
fact that the Dnik Hamiltone qnho raekonit both his Ijfeaad 
honour to be picaenrit be thair handfai, mud the sud Robat 
Boyd, gnidman of Kilmarnock, Lord Bojd, lyk alao at he 
revardit the said Mungow Muir with djren faar g^ftia. The 
aaid Robert Boyd hichlie eateemit of the mid Mnngow Moir 
of RowalUne and gave him the fiist plaee of hononr al Uf 
dayia, acknawleging the alteration of hia eetait to the worthi- 
nea of the said Mnngowia handia." Thia Mimgo is pvtico- 
lariy mentioned as baring greatly improved the old eastle of 
Rowallan. He was slain in battle at nnkiefield ** at the 
black Satterday, in the yeare of our lord 1547." He married 
Isabel, daughter of Sir Hugh Campbell of Loodonn, sheriff of 
Ayr, and had five sons and six daughters. 

His eldest son, John Mnre of Rowallan, took great delight 
in ydanting, and built a portion of Rowallan castle. He 
*Mived gratiouslie,** says the * Historic,* and 'Mied in 1581, in 
the 66th year of his age." The year xa snppnsed to be s 
mistake for 1591, as it is given in the family Genealogical 
tree, drawn up in 1597. A * letter of Sleance,' subscribed at 
Imne and Kilwinning, 16th and 17th March 1571, is insert- 
ed in the .Appendix to the ' Historic* so often qooted, fron 
Alexander Cowper, mason in Kilwinning, *^ wyth consent snd 
assent** of ccitain persons named, his " chafe and captall 
bnmchis, bayth on the father sydc and mother syde,** grant> 
ing his remiMion, free forgiveness and pardon to John Mwe 
of Rowallan, William Murvf, his son and heir, John Mnre and 
Mungo Mure, his sons, and two others, and " thair oomplieei, 
kin, freindis, allys, assiittaris and parttakeria, the crewaD 
wonding, hurting and binding of me, the said Alexander, to 
the great efiusione of my blude, done and committit be the 
saidis persones thair seruandis and complicis,** in the month 
of Febmarv, 1570. In March 1571 Robert Lord Bord and 
John Mure of Rowallan were charged hy the regent Mar to 
appear before the secret council, with a view to adjust the 
feud which prevailed between the families of Kilmarnock and 
Rowallan. The account abox-e quoted of the mutual friendly 
ofEces between these families appears to have been drawn up 
in reference to this charge. It redtes many good deeds done 
by the Mnres to the Boyd.«, in particular, amongst others^ 
that after Robert, master of Boyd, had slain Sir NeO Mont- 
gomcrie of Ijiinshaw, he received and concealed by John 
Muir of Rowallan, who, with his friends and servants, was 
the means of saving his life, when pursued by the Montgom- 
eries ; and also that after the battle of I^ngside he kindly 
received the said Robert, being then Lord Boyd, although he 
had fallen into disfavour with the regent Moray, and modi 
more to the s;ime purport. John Muir of Rowallan subscribed 
the bond in support of the Reformation in 1562, and the 
sjime vear he was a member of the Scottish estates. In 
1568, when Queen Maiy escaped from Ix>chleven castle, sbe 
wrote the laird of Rowallan a letter dated 6th I^Iay that year, 
requiring him to meet her at Hamilton, as soon as he ounld 
muster his retainers, all well armed for her service. It does 
not a])pe:ir, however, that he complied with the summoni. 
In 1584 .John Mure of Rowallan, *' and his spouse and sx 
|)crsons with them in company,** received a license fmm James 
VI., to eat flesh in Lent, and upon Wednesdays, Fridai's, and 
Saturdays " for ane zeir next hereafter,** and in Febmarv 1588 
he had the present of a gray ci<urser from his kinsman, the earl 
of I^Iorton, on the latter going abroad. In the letter wUch 



of that ilk, th« Hnu 
ID tlw murder of hit oouim, Hngh, 

of Citldvtil, wu OD* ef th>JDi7 
■ppointcd In 1580 ta tc; lb« Lord Rul]i?«i, 
Scotlmd, for Uie mOnlir of David Riuio. ]Ia vaa oo 1 
of groat intimaGJ and confidenn bj v 

ha waa knighted, and 

I letten addrentd to liim |^ 

it Caldwc 

, haTobi 

B lint 


ir AtchibiJd Murr, lord proroat of '^^^^^ 
pDainl bj bis lirir fFmalo to John 
and ia now held by Uii deacenduit, iu fan of th« Caldircll 

n'miam Mon of Caldwell, tho foarth in HKOnuon to Sir 
Robert, iraa * atnoRch a fair othtr 

iFMt'CODntrj etntlsmtn of tntt in anni 

at ChitlerilHt, in Iho pariah 

less, and having collected a bodj of hononwn, amonntinf; 
to abgut Bfij tiutBj of the trnantiy of 

Caldwdl and TNP'^ VS 

Lanark. On the way, finding 
StMMiUKI hj tb« king's troops, under General 

DalitU, tlioj retraced tlirir steps, and 
wu attainted, fled £Vfl died in eiUe. Hiacstaira 

;?c:t^ ; and Caldireiri ladt. a 

with two 
^? nnderwent ^^ 

Barbara obtain, hj 

■pecial act of parluiment, 'k reatontion 

of the fsmilj ettates. She married John Fairlie of that itk, 
but djlnf! witliout isiue, was succeeded, in '"Hi 

man, William llun, fourth 
from William, WiHi i 

Caldwell in 15S9. This William in the 

{wnecation of the timea. liBring been impriioned and Sued, 
on a oharf^ of A Journal of a tour 

bt him tliroDgli '^i 169C, is 

printed amonc Ilie ' Cnldwell Paprn.' Djing without inar, 
he was nicnednl br hii nephew, William Mnre, eldnt aon 
DfMare of RhodJcna in Ireland, lliaaon, v4: 

if^^K^ from 1742 to 17GI, was ap- 
pointed onaS in Sfolland in Ihn 
latter jear. In I ^< or Uttie Caldwell 
of tlie estate Uie 
Mures had preTiouslj izn Eastn- Caldwell. 
BiTDD Mura was an i of Daiid Hume tlie 
bistorian, and the author of one or two tracts on apocalatire 
p«nta of political economj. printed for priralo ciicnlatioi. 
i-g!^;^^ and miecrlbneooa papen oceapjr the 
(jrealer part of two of the three rolnmes 
Papen.' He wiui rector of the univcru^ of Glasgow in 
lTS4-e, and died in 177G. 

His eldest eon, Colonel William Iilnre of Caldwell, was the 
friend of Sir John Moore, He waa 

rector of the Dnirenilj of married 

Anne, eldest daughter of ffi barLofDna- 

•ksT, with baoe, and diwl Februaij 9, USt. 

5IK AVlLLIA^ir. 


wilhiaaBa; oolonslof A 

miUtia; was ».P. fur that 1BS3; Isrd- 

reetOF of Glaapiw nniTenitj ia ^ *Brirf 

Renia^ on of the Egrptian Djimtm; 

■lowing the FatlaCT of thi Ejatem laid down bp Ummt. 

Champollioa, in Two I.etten 

don, 18S9, 8to; 

disc of Anoent 

Gnees^' IMt; tml 

eompilerr>i!£ Papen.' R* did at London, Apil 

1, 18eo,:y 

Hia eUest son, WilEnn Unn of Caldwril, limt.-atla)ul 

Scots fnailier gnarda, m. 3U duugbler "^ 

David Mure, bom in 1810, 3d son of CoL VVilliam H 
wtiodiedin - '^ the Scotliah bar intbs 

latter je:ir. In 1853hewai appointed iheriffof PefthaUn, 
and in IBoS aolicitsr-genenl fur Scotland; lord-advocati ia 
April lSo9, and elected M.P. (or Duleshire looa after. 

The Mutts of Aoehiudiune were loof; a flourialiing toil; 

in tlie In IGll, .Tahn Mura of Aneliin- 

drane murder of a retainer of Kennedjef 

where tliera «c WXI. 

was discovered in a remarkable 
nurdeied man h»i been buried in Girvan diDRhjard, but 
he laird of Cnliean dreaming of him in hia sleep, oaoaid Ui 
odT to ha ^W all who lited n«« lo 

ome *o bat AnebindtiM 

and S^ till -^t. 

blood sprang fram it, 
'j pnt to the tot- 
Sir Walter ScolL 

mn. -The •Mgmam 

is one of lbs dramatic 

lilURC, Sir AVili.iam, of Rowallan, a p 
the I'lli centur}-, w«a borii in 1594. He wu tlie 
eldest soil of Sir AVilliam Muro of Bowttlliin, li.r 
his wife, Elizabctb, dangliler of Uont^meiy «l 
Ilazlehead, and sister of Alexander Montgomerj, 
aathor of ' Tlio Clicrrie and the Sloe.' Be ob- 
tained an excellent classical education, ood in hii 
earl7 years began to cultivate a taite fi>r poetiy. 
The ' Historic ' of Uis fiimilj' above qaoted uyi of 
him: "Tliis Sir William was plotis and 
and liad an excellent vein in poeslc ; he dcljied 
mnch iu bailding and plantiug." Befi 
liclli Tcar lie attempted a poetical v 
story of Dido and Eiicoii, from Virgil. Ia Iba 
Muse's Welcome,' a collection of poems and ad- 
diTisses mndc to King James on liis viuting Scot- 
Iniid in IGIT, there ia an address by Mnre of Bow- 
allnu. In 1628, he published a translation, : 





i I 


qntnoe Mramed tbe lurnmina and •mil of Pultcaej. He 
BubHcquentl V lield the office of lecretary at war ; was oolonel 
of the 18th foot, and a general in the armj. He died April 
26, 1811, learing no iarae, when hie half-brather, Sir John 
Moirmj, became 8th baronet. Sir John was a lientanant- 
l^eral in the ann j, and colonel of the 56th foot He died, 
withoat ieane, in 1827, when the title and estates derolred 
upon his brother, the Rev. Sir William Murray, who died 
Maj 14, 1842. The eldest son of the latter, Sir James PnU 
teney Mnrrar, 10th baronet, died nnmarried, Feb. 2, 1848. 
His brother, Sir Robert Mnrrav, bom Frb. 1, 1815, became 
11th baronrt; married, in 1839, Sosan-Catherine Sanders, 
widow of Adolplins Cottin Murray, Esq., and 2d daughter 
and co-heir of John Alarray, Esq. of Ardelerbary, Herts, 
lineally deitcended from Sir William Mnrray, father of 1st 
enrl of Tullibardine ; with issue, a son, William Robert, 28d 
rusiliers, bom in 1840, and a daughter. 

The first baronet of the Stanhope family was Sir H^HIliam 
Murray of Stanhope, an active supporter of the royal cause 
during the ci\*il wars, who for his loyalty was created a bar- 
onet of Nora Scotia, after the Restoration, with remainder to 
hit heirs male whatsoever, 13th Febraary 1C64. His ances- 
tor, John Murray of Falahill, descended from Archibald dc 
MoraTia, mentioned in the chartnlary of Newbottle in 1280. 
was Icnown in history as the outlaw Murray. He died in 
the early part of the reign of James V. His exploits are com- 
memorated in one of the ballads of the * Minstrelsy of the Scot- 
tish Border.* He married Lady Margaret Hepbum, and had. 
with three daughters, two sons. Ilis eldest son, John Mnr- 
ray of Falaltill, was sncestor of the Muirays of Philiphaugh. 
His second son, William Murray, married Janet, daughter 
and heiress of William Romanno of that ilk, Peeble»-shire, 
and had a son, William I^furray of Romanno, Hying in De- 
cember 1531. The great-grandson of the latter, Sir Dairid 
Murray, who was knighted by Charles I., acqmred the lands 
of Stanhope in the same county, and was the father of Sir 
William Murray, the fint baronet of Stanhope. Sir Darid 
Murray, the fourth baronet, was implicated in the rebellion 
of 1745, and received sentence of death at York the follow- 
■ng year, but was subaequently pardoned on condition of his 
leaving the conntry for life. The family estatet were sold 
rmder the sutliority of the court of sesrion. Sir David died 
in exile, without issue, when the representation of the family 
Jevolved on his uncle, Chsries IMurray, collector of the cus- 
toms at Borrowstownnen, who, had the title not been forfeit- 
ed, would have been fifth baronet. His son, Sir David Mnr- 
ray, died without issue at Tieghom, 19th October 1770. Tlie 
represent.ition of the family then devolved on John Murray 
>if Rrougliton, the well-known secretary to Prince Charley. 
This personage having assumed the title after the general art 
•if revisal, became Sir John Murray of Broughton, baronet 
' fe married Margaret, daughter of Colonel Robert Ferguson, 
'•rother of William Ferguson of Carloch, Nithsdale, and had 
'■ Iiree sons, David, his heir, Robert, and Thomas, the last a 
Mcutenant- general in the army. Sir John died 6th Decem- 
'>er 1777. His eldest son, Sir David, a naval officer, was 
succeedeil, on his death in June 1791, by his brother, Sir 
Robert, ninth baronet The son of the latter, Sir David, 
lieoame the tenth baronet in 1794, and on his death, without 
■ssue, was succeeded by his brother. Sir John Murray, elev- 
enth baronet ; married, witli issue. 

The first baronet of the Ochtertyre family was William 
Moray of Ochtertyre, who was created a baronet of Nova 
Sootia, with remainder to his heira male, Tth Jnoe 1678. 

He was deseended from Patrick Moray, tbt jbit glyled if 
Ochtertyre, who died in 1476. a too of Sir Da^ Hony if 
Tullibardine. The family continued to spell their oama Mo- 
ray till 1739, when the present orthogra^y wia adopted hf 
Sir William, 8d baranet Sur WUliam Muny, 6th fawmsC, 
married Ijidy Augusta Mackeniie, youngtit dangfatv of Id 
earl of Cromartie ; issue, 8 sons and 2 daughters He disd 
in 1800. Of General Sir George Murray, G.CB., bk neopd 
son, a memoir is given at page 282 in larger type. 

The eldeat son. Sir Patrick Murray, 6th baronet, bom Feb. 
8, 1771, passed advoi-ate at the Scottish bar in 1798, and was 
appointed a baron of the court of exchequer in ScoUaad in 
1820. He died June 1,1887. By hit wife. Lady Maiy Hops^ 
youngest daughter of the 2d eari of Hopetoun, he had 5 
and 4 daughtem Capt John Murray, the 2d snn, 
the name of Gartahore, on succeeding to the estate of thst 
name in Dumbartonshire. (See vol. iL page 284.) 

Sir William Keith Murray, the eldest son, 7th bannoC of 
Ochtertyre. bom in 1801, married l»t, Helen Margaret OG- 
phant, only child and heiress of Sir Alexander Keith of Dm- 
nottar, knight marischal of Scotland ; issue, 10 sons and 8 
daughters; 2dlv, Ijidy Adelaide, youngest daughter of 1st 
marquis of Hastings. He assumed the name of Keith, on his 
marriage with liia first wife, and on her death in Oct. 1852, 
his eldest son, Putrick, bom Jan. 27, 1835, captain grena- 
(iier guarda, (retired in June 1861.) feucceeded to the estates 
of Dunnottar, Kiucardineshiro, and Ravelston, &!id Lothiso. 
Sir William died Oct 16, 1861, wlicn liia eldest son. Sir Pa- 
trick, became 8th baronet. 

The Mnrrays of Tonchadam arc supposed to derive fnn 
the Morays, lords of Botliwell. Tlieir progenitor. Sir Wil- 
lism de Moravia, demgned of Sanford, joined Robert the 
Brace, but being taken prisoner by the English, was sent to 
Tendon in 1306, and remained in captivity there until ex- 
changed after the battle of Bnnnockbnm. His son and iue- 
cmor, Sir Andrew de Mor.ivia, called by David II. "our 
dear blood relation,** obtained from that monarch a charter 
of the lands of Kepmad in Stirlitig»lnrc, dated 10th Msv 
1365. This was his first acquisition in that county. On 
28th .Tulv 1369 he received another roval charter of the laadi 
of Toulclieadam, as Touchadam was tlien called, and Tulch- 
maler, in the same county. His great-grandson and reprs- 
sentative, William Mnrray of, waa grvtiflr to 
James II., and was appointed constable of Stirling castle 
under James TIT. Hia eldest son, David Murray of Tonch- 
adam, having no iaane, made a resignation of his whole estate 
to his nephew, John Murray of Gawamore, captunofthe 
king*s guards and lord provost of Edinburgh, who aucoeeded 
to the same on the death of his uncle, about 1474. He was 
n firm and devoted adherer.t of Jamea IIT., and after tlie bit* 
tie of Sauchiebum he was deprived of a considerable portioo 
of his lands. A great number of the family writs were at 
the same time embezzled or lost Win son, William Mnrrsy, 
the seventh from the founder of the family. Sir Andrew dt 
Mora^ia, alMiit 15G8, married Agnes, one of the daughtsa 
and coheireaxcs of James Cuninghame of Polmaise, Stirlii^ 
ahire. whereby he acquired that estate. His son and sucesi 
sor. Sir ,Tohn Mnrray, knight, got a charter under the gnat 
seal of the lands and barony of Polmaise, 8th April 1588L 
Hift grandson, Sir William Murray of Touchadam and Pol- 
niaise, obtained firom Charles I. a charter of the lands ef 
Cowie in 1636. During the civil wars, he mpported the 
royal cause, and was at the battle of Preston in 1648, when 
the army of the royalists under the duke of Hanulton was 
defeated. In 1654 he was fined by Cromwell £1,500. 





His eldest son, Sir James Murray of Phinpluiii<;h, bum in 
IGod, was admitted a lord of session in 1689, and appointed 
lord-ref^ter in 1705. On his death in 1708, he was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son, John Mnrraj of Philiphaogh, M.P. 
from 1725 till his decease in 1753. This gentleman's fourth 
son, Charles, married a sister of Robert Scott, Esq. of Danes- 
field, Bucks, and was grandfather of Chariet Robert Soott 
Murray, Esq. of Danesfield, M.P. for that county. 

The eldest son, John Murray of Philipiiauglt, was several 
times M.P. for the county of Selkirk, and once fur the Sel- 
kirk burghs, after a severe and expensive contest with Mr. 
Dundas. He died in 1800. His eldest son, John Murray of 
Philiphaugh, died, unmarried, in 1830, and was succeeded by 
his only sun-iving brother, James Murray of Philiphaugh, 
the 17Ui of the family, in a direct lino; married, with issue. 

The Murrays of Lintrose, Perthshire, are a junior branch 
of the Murrays of Ochtertyre, bein;; derived from Mungo 
Murray, bom 15th July 1G62, youngest son of Sir William 
Murray of Ochtertyre, baronet, by Ifabel, his wife, the 
daughter of John Oliphant, Esq. of Badielton. Captain 
William Murmv, a son of this familv, 8er%'ed with the 42d 
Highlanders, under Wulfe, in America, und afterwards in the 
West Indies. Subsequently, with the rank of major in the 
same distinguished regiment, he served under General Howe 
against the American revulutionists. On the 15th Septem- 
ber 1776, when the reserve of the British army were in pos- 
session of the heights above New York, &I:ijor Murray was 
nearly carried off by the enemy, but saved himself by ub 
strength and presence of mind. Attacked by an American 
officer and two soldiers, he kept his assailants at bay for 
Mine time with his fusil; but dosing upon him, his dirk 
slipped behind him, and being a corpulent man, he was una- 
ble to reacli it. Snatching the sword of the American officer 
from him, he soon compelled the party to retreat. He wore the 
sword as a trophy dnring the campaign. He became lien- 
tenant-colonel 27th regiment, and died the following year. 

The Miirmys of Giingletie, Pecbles-shire, are descended 
fn)m a junior brunch of the family of Murray of Blnckburony. 
James Wolfe Murray, Esq. of Cringletie, bom in 1814, eldest 
son of James Wolfe 3Iurray, Lord Cringletie, a senator of the 
College of Justice, by Isabella Katherine, duu^htcr of Jam?s 
Cliarles Edward Stuart Strange, Esq., (godson of Prince 
Charles Edward,) succeeded his father in 1836; appointed 
to 42d Royal Highlanders in 1833; married in 1852, Elisa- 
beth Charlotte, youngest daughter of John Wliyte Melville, 
Ei^q., and grand- daughter of 5th duke of l^eeds, with issue. 
His son, James Wolfe Murray, bom in 1853. 

Other old families of the name are the Murrays of Brongh- 
ton, Wigtownshire; Murray of Murrnythwaite, Dumfries- 
shire; and Murray of Murrayslmll, Perthshire. The family 
of Murraythwaite have been settled there since about 1421. 

The Murrays of Murrayshall derive in the male line from 
the ancient family of Grsme of Italgowan, and in the female, 
firom that of Murray, Lord Balvuird, (see vol. i. p. 231,) 
whose eldest son succeeded as Viscount Sturmont, (nee Stok- 
XOiCT, Viscount of). John Murray, advocate, son of An- 
drew Murray of Murrayshall, at one period bheriff of Aber- 
deenshire; bom in 1809, succeeded in 1847; m. in 1853, 
Robina, dr. of Thomas Hamilton, Esq. ; educated at Edin- 
burgh univer»ity, M.A. 1828. Passed advocate in 1831. 

Tlie Murrays of Henderland, Pcebles-shuv, have given two 
Judges to the court of session, namdy, Alexander 3fnrray, 
Lord Henderland, who died in 1795, and his second son, Sir 

John Archibald Murray, appointed in 1889, when he assnroed 
the judicial title of Lord Murray. He had previooaly been 
lord-advocate, and reooider of the great roll, or deik of the 
pipe, in the court of exchequer, Scotland, a ainecnre office 
which had also been held by his father, and was rengned bv 
Lord Murray, some time before his first appointment as lord- 
advocate in 1834. He waa M.P. for the Ldth district of 
buighs from 1832 to 1838. He died in 1859. 

l^IURRAY, Sir Robert, one of the fonndcrs 
and the first president of the Royal Society of 
London, was tbe son of Sir Robert Murray of 
Craigic, by a daughter of George Ilalkct of Pit- 
ferrau. lie is supposed to have been bom about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, and re- 
ceived his education portly at St. Andrews and 
p.irtly in France. Early in life he entered tlie j 
Frcncli army, and became so great a favourite 
with Cardinal Richelieu tliat he soon obtained the 
rank of colonel. He returned to Scotland about 
the time tliat Charles I. took refuge witli tlie Scots 
army ; and, wliile his majesty was with tlie latter 
at Newcastle in December 16-i6, he formed a pUn 
for the king*s escape, which was only frustrated 
by Charles' want of resolution. ^^The design,'* 
says Burnet, ^^ proceeded so far that the king pat 
himself in disguise, and went down the back stairs 
with Sir Robert Murray ; but his majesty, appre- 
hending it was scarce possible to pass through all 
the guards without being discovered, and judgmg 
it highly indecent to be catched in such a condi- 
tion, changed his resolution, and returned back.** 
In May 1651, being then in Scotland with Charles 
II., he was appointed justice-clerk, an oflScc which 
appears to have remained vacant since the depri- 
vation of Sir John Hamilton in 1649. A few days 
after he was sworn a privy councillor, and in the 
succeeding June was nominated a lord of session, 
but he never exercised the functions of a judge. 
At the Restoration he was reappointed a lord of 
session, and also justice-clerk, and made one of 
the lords auditors of the exchequer; but these 
appointments were merely nominal, to secure bis 
support to the government ; for, thongh he was 
properly the first who had the style of lord-justice- 
clerk, he was ignorant of the law, and it does not 
appear that he ever sat on the bench at all. He 
was high in favour with the king, Charles 11., by 
whom he was employed in his chemical processes, 
and was, indeed, the conductor of his laboratory. 
He was succeeded in the office of justice-clerlrin 






which he did twice afterwards. DariDg the Rock- 
iDgliam administration in 1765, Lord Mansfield 
acted for a short time with tlie opposition, espe- 
cially as regards the bill for repealing the stamp 
act. As a jadge his conduct was visited with the 
severe animadversions of Jnnias, and made the 
subject of much unmerited attack in both houses 
of parliament. He was uniformly a friend to re- 
ligious toleration, and on various occasions set 
himself against vexatious prosecutions founded 
upon oppressive laws. On the other hand, he in- 
curred much popular odium by maintaining that, 

in cases of libel, the jur}' were only judges of the 
fact of publication, and had nothing to do with 

the law, as to libel or not. This was particularly 

shown in the case of the trial of the publishers of 

Junius' letter to the king. 

With regard to his thrice refusal of the great 
seal, Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the Chief 
Justices of the King's Bench, (vol. iii. p. 469,) 
says, "Li 1770, the king and the duke of Grafton, 
repeatedly urged Lord Mansfield to become lord 
chancellor, but whatever his inclination may have 
been when Lord Bute was minister, in the present 
ricketty state of affaii's he peremptorily refused the 
ofEce, and suggested that the great seal should be 
given to Charles Yorke, who had been afraid that 
he would snatch it from him. By Lord Mans- 
field's advice it was that the king sent for Charles 
Yorke, and entered into that unfortunate negotia- 
tion with him which teiminated so fatally — oc- 
casioning the comparison between this unhappy 
man, destroyed by gaining his wish, and Semele 
perishing by the lightning she had longed for. 
For some months the chief justice presided on the 
woolsack as Speaker of the House of Lords, and 
exercised almost all the functions belonging to tiie 
office of the Lord Chancellor.'' 

In October 1776, having been previously cre- 
ated a knight of the Thistle, Ix)rd Mansfield 
was advanced to the dignity of an earl of the 
United Kingdom by the title of earl of Mansfield, 
with remainder to the Stormont family, as he had 
no issue of his own. During the famous London 
riots of June 1780, his house in Bloomsbury 
Square was attacked and set fire to by the mob, 
in consequence of his having voted in favour of 
the bill for the relief of the Roman Catholics, and 

all his furniture, pictures, books, manuscripts, and 
other yaluables, were entirely conanmed. His 
lordship himself, it is said, made his escape m 
disguise, before the flames burst out. He declined 
the offer of compensation from government for the 
destruction of his property. The infirmities of 
age compelled him, June S, 1788, to resign the 
office of chief-justice, which he had filled with 
distinguished reputation for thirty-two years. 
The latter part of his life was spent in retirement, 
principally at his seat at Caen Wood, near Hamp- 
stectd. He died March 20, 1793, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. The earldom, which was 
granted again by a new patent in July 1792, de- 
scended to his nephew. Viscount Stormont. (See 
Stormont, Viscount of.) A life of Lord Mans- 
field, by Holliday, was published in 1797, and 
another, by Tliomas Roscoe, appeared in ^Thc 
Lives of British Lawycrs,Mu Lai*dner's Cydopsdia. 

MURRAY, Lord George, lieutenant-genertl 
of the rebel Highland army in 1745-6, was the 
fouith son of the fii*st duke of Athol, and brother 
of the second duke. Bom in 1705, he took a 
share in the insurrection of 1715, though then but 
ten years old, and he was one of the few persons 
who joined the Spanish forces which were defeat- 
ed at Glenshiel in 1719. He afterwards served 
several years as an officer in the king of Sardinia's 
army ; but having obtained a pardon he returned 
from exile, and was presented to George I. by his 
brother the duke of Athol. He joined Prince 
Charles at Perth in September 1745, and was un- 
mediately appointed lieutenant-general of the m- 
surgent forces. The battle of Preston, where he 
commanded the left wing of the prince's army, 
was, in a gi<eat measure, gained through his per- 
sonal intrepidity. *^ Lord George, " says the 
chevalier Johnstone, in his *■ Memoirs of the 
Rebellion,' '' at the head of the first line, did 
not give the enemy time to recover from their 
panic. He advanced with such rapidity that 
General Cope had hardly time to form his troops 
in order of battle when the Highlanders rushed 
upon them, sword in hand, and the English cav- 
alry was instantly thrown into confusion." 

On the advance of the rebel army into England, 
Lord George had the command of the blockade of 
Carlisle, which soon surrendered. Owing to the 




thinning his ranks when he gave orders to charge. 
The first line of the English army reeled and gave 
way before them. But their opponents were so 
numerous that before the Highlanders could reach 
the second line of the English they were entirely 
destroyed. On this occasion Loi*d George dis- 
played all his former heroism. While advancing 
towards the second line, in attempting to dismount 
from his horse, which had become unmanageable, 
he was thrown ; but, recovering himself, he ran 
to the rear and brought up two or three regiments 
from the second line of the Highlanders, to support 
the first ; but although they gave their fire, no- 
thing could be done, — all was lost. 

After their defeat, Lord George and the other 
chiefs who remained with the army retired to 
Ruthven, where they assembled a force of about 
3,000 men, but two or three days after the battle 
they received orders from the prince to disperse. 
His lordship had written to Charles, pointing out 
the principal causes which had led to the loss of 
the battle, and requesting him to accept of the 
resignation of his commission, but when he found 
that it was the intention of the prince to depart 
for France, ho sent a message to him eaniestly 
dissuading him from such a course, and advising 
him to remain in Scotland and try another cam- 
paign. Ho maintained that the Highlanders 
" could have made a summer's campaign without 
the risk of any misfortune ;" and " though they 
had neither money nor magazines, they would not 
have starved in that season of the year so long as 
there were sheep and cattle." 

On the prince's escape. Lord George withdrew 
to the Continent, and having spent some years in 
France and Italy, died in Holland on the 8th July 
1760. His character is thus sketched by John- 
stone: — "Lord George Murray, who had the 
charge of all the details of our anny, and who had 
the sole direction of it, possessed a natural genius 
for military operations ; and was a man of surpris- 
ing talents, which had they been cultivated by 
the study of military tactics, would unquestiona- 
bly have rendered him one of the greatest gener- 
als of his age. He was tall and robust, and brave 
in the highest degree ; conducting the Highland- 
ers in the most heroic manner, and always the 
first to rushj sword in hand, into the midst of the 

enemy. He used to say, when ire advanoed to 
the charge, * I do not ask yiM, my lads, to go b^ 
fore, but merely to follow me.* Ho c^pt little, 
was continually occupied with all manner of de- 
tails; and was, altogether, most Inde&ttgable, 
combining and directing alone all our operations: 
— in a word, he was the only person capable of 
conductmg our army. He was vigilant, actire, 
and diligent ; his plans were always jadidonsly 
formed, and he can'ied them promptly and vigor* 
ously into execution. However, with an infinity 
of good qualities, he was not without his defects: 
— proud, haughty, blunt, and imperions, he wish- 
ed to have the exclusive ordering of ever}' thing, 
and, feeling his superiority, he would listen to no 
advice. Still, it most be owned, that he had no 
coadjutor capable of advising him, and his havmg 
so completely the confidence of his soldiers ena- 
bled him to perform wondei's." 

MURRAY, Alexander, D.D, a celebrated 
self-taught philologist, was born at Dunkitterick, 
in the parish of Minuigafi*, stewartr}" of Kirkcad* 
bright, October 22, 1775. His father was a ham- 
ble Galloway shepherd, an occupation followed 
by his anccstoi-s for several generations, and for 
which he himself was originally designed. He 
was taught to i*ead by his father, who was in bis 
seventieth year at the time of his biith. 'ihe 
method which the old man adopted was to draw 
the figures of the lettei*s on an old wool caiii with 
the ends of the bmnit roots of the heather that 
grew on the hills. After thus learning the letters 
by means of the burnt sticks, he was advanced to 
the catechism, which was the child^s primer in 
those days. Then he somehow obtained a New 
Testament, and afterwards a whole Bible, by go- 
ing to a place where an old tattered copy of it lay, 
which he carried ofi* bit by bit. In the wild soli- 
tary glen where his father lived, he made himself 
master of the whole contents of the sacred vol- 
ume, and also devoured eveiy printed scrap of 
paper on which he could lay his hands, and so 
strong was his mcmoiy that even when he was 
but a boy he could repeat the names of the patri- 
archs and scripture characters from Adam to onr 
Saviour without omitting one. When about seven 
years old, he was employed on the hills in herd- 
ing sheep. The poverty of the family, and the 



Scotland, lie was appoiuted iu 1806 assiBtant aod 
successor to the Rev. Mr. Muirhead, minister of 
UiT, in the stcwnrtrjr of Kirkcniibriglit, and on 
the death of the latter in 1808, lie succeeded to 
the full incumbency of the parish. In 1612 be 
becama a candidate for the Tscsnt profesaor^ip 
of Oriental Languages in the uniTersitjr of Edin- 
burgh, and among tlie numerous testimonials of 
his qnalifi cations which iri>re pnbliabed on the oc- 
casion, was one from Wr. Salt, formerly envoy to 
Abyssinia, wliose admiration of Ihe deep erndilion 
and extensive research displayed in his edition of 
Rmco's Travels, caused him, on his return to 
ICngland in February 1811, to recommend him to 
the marquis of Weliealey, " ns the only person in 
the British dominions" adequate to translate an 
Ethiopic letter wliich he had bronght from the 
gOTcmor of Tigre to George III. In remembrance 
of Mr. Mnri'ay's services in translating this letter. 
a pension of £80 a-ycar was after his death grant- 
ed by his majesty to iiia widow. He was elected 
jiiofcssor of Oriental Languages on July 8, by a 
majority of two votes, and a few days thereafter 
tliu scnntiis of the university conferred on him the 
degree of D.D. lie was not destined, however, 
to occupy long a chair which he was so admirably 
qualiricd to till. On October 31 ho entered upon 
the discharge of liis professional duties in a weak 
rotate (if health, and continued witii the utmost ar- 
diur to teach his chs^cs during the winter. At 
the commcncemi'iit of the se^-iion he published his 
' Outlines of Oriental I'iiilology,' an elementary 
^vork, designed for the use of Ids students. In 
the bi-^nning of Febniary a new impression of 
his eriitlon of Itruce's Travels al^o made its ap- 
pearance. Soon after, his illness assumed such 
an alarming aspect as to prevent his lecturing, 
though he continued his literary labours to the 
last, having been the vcrj- day before his death 
engaged nearly twelve hours in arranging his 
papers, &c. lie died on the morning of April 
15, 181.1, in the 37lh year of his age. In his lat- 
ter years ho had written a work of great learning, 
entitled ' History of Enropenn langungcs,' which 
was pnblished after his death in 2 vols. Svo, un- 
der the auspices of Sir Henry Moncreiff and Dr. 
Scott of Corstorphino. By his wife, whora he 
married while residing at Urr, Dr. Murray had a 

son and daughter, the latter of whom died in 18SL 
Snlijoined is hia portrait, Iroin a pnioting bj Ged< 
desi engraved by Boniet : 

MURRAY, Sir Gi^orge, an able military of 
cer and diplomatist, the second son of Sir Willi" 
Murray, the fifth baronet of Ochtertyre, was born | 
at the family seat in Perllisliire, Febiuary 6, 1778. 
He was educated at the high school and univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, and on 12th March 1789, 
gazetted an ensign in tlic 71st foot. Soon al 
he removed to the 34th regiment, and in June 
1790 to the 3d Guards. In 1793 he was in the 
ai-my under llie duke of York which was employed 
iigainst the French in Flanders, and in January 

1794 he was promoted to a lieutenancy, with the 
rank of captain. In April of that year he rettnn- 
ed to England, but having rejoined the army hi 
Flanders during the summer, he was present in 
the retreat through Holland and Germany. In 

1795 he was appointed aide-de-camp to Major- i 
general Sir Alexander Campbell, on the staff of | 
I-ord Moira's anuy in the expedition intended for 
Qujberon. In the autumn of the same year, he , 
proceeded to the A\'est Indies under Sir Ralph 1 
Abercromby, but in consequence of ill-health he ( 
soon returned, and ho served on the sUff In Eng- 




bill of 1829, Aiid after the wbig gOTermncnt came 
into power iu November 1830, be was ooe of the 
principal members of the opposition. Iu that 
year, and again in 1831, be was re-elected for 
Perthshire, bat on the dissolution of parliament in 
1832, after the passhig of the Reform Bill, he was 
defeated by the earl of Ormelie, afterwards mar- 
quis of Brcadalbanc. In 1834 his lordship became 
a member of the House of Lords, and Sir George 
Murray was again elected M.P. for Perthshire. 

In Sir Robert Peel's administration of 1834-5, 
Sir George held the office of master-general of the 
ordnaucc. At the general election which ensued 
he wns opposed by Mr. Fox Maule, afterwards 
Lonl Panmure, who defeated him by a majority 
of 82. At the general election of 1837, Sir George 
stood for AVestminster, but was unsuccessful. 
Two years subsequently he became a candidate 
for Manchester, and was again defeated. 

On the death of Lord Lynedoch in 1843, he 
succeeded him as colonel of the 1st or Roynl regi- 
ment of foot. He attained the rank of lieutenant- 
general May 27, 1825. and that of general, No- 
vember 23, 1841. He was editor of 'llio Duke 
of Marlborougii's Lettcra and Despatches,* from 
1702 to 1712, which Averc published in 1845, He 
will be remembered as a successful soldier, an able 
minister, and a skilful and fluent debater. He 
died in London 2Gth July 184G, aged 74, and was 
buried at Kcusal Green. At the time of his death 
lie was governor of Fort George and president of 
the Royal Geographical Society. Ho had mar- 
ried ill 182G, in the 54th year of his age. Lady 
Louisa Erskinc, sifter of the marquis of Anglesey 
and widow of Lieutenant-general Sir James Er- 
skinc, baronet. Lady Louisa was tlien 48. She 
died 23d January 1842. They had one daughter, 
who married H. G. Boycc, Esq., of the 2d life 
guards, and died in 1849. 

MYLNE, Robert, an eminent architect, was 
bom at Edinburgh, January 4, 1734. His father, 
Thomas Mylne, an architect and magistrate of 
that city, belonged to a family who held the here- 
ditaiy office of master-mason to the kings of Scot- 
land, conferred by King James III. Robert 
Mylne of Balfargie, who died 24th December 1667, 
built Mylue*s Court, and Mylne^s Square, Edin- 
burgh, as well as the additions to Ilolyrood-house, 

in the reign of Charles IL Young Mylne teoeifed 
liis edncfttion in hia native city, nnd sfterwards 
travelled to Bome, where he Raided for five jman^ 
In September 1758 he gained the fint priw in the 
academy of St. Luke, in the first class of architee- 
tnrc, and was unanimonsly elected a member of 
that body, the necessary dispensation having been 
obtained from the Pope, on account of his being a 
Protestant. Ho was also elected a member of the 
academies of Florence and Bologna. He subse- 
quently visited Naples and Sicily, and his profes- 
sional skill and classical knowledge enabled him 
to illustrate several obscure passages in Yltrnvlos. 
His account of this excursion, with his fine coUec- 
tion of drawings, intended for publication, was 
left in manuscript to his son, bnt never published. 

After makiug the tour of Europe he repaired to 
London, where his plan for constructing a bridge 
at Blackfriars was preferred to those of twenty 
other candidates, and he was employed to super- 
intend that vast public undertaking ; which was 
commenced in 1760. It was the first structure d 
the kind erected in Great Britain, in which arches 
approaching to the form of an ellipsis were sub- 
stituted for semicii*cles ; and the great superiority 
of Mr. Mylne's mode of centriug, though disputed 
at the time, is now universally allowed. Amongst 
others. Dr. Johnson came forward to condemn the 
form of the arch, bnt the short controversy that 
took place between Mr. Mylne and his illustrious 
opponent, on this occasion, did not prevent their 
afterwards becoming intimate friends. The bridge 
was completed in 1769, for the exact sum speci- 
fied in Mr. Mylne's estimate, namely, £153,000; 
his own remuneration being an annual salary of 
£800, with five per cent, on the money actually 
laid out on the work. 

On completing the bridge, Mr. Mylne was ap- 
pointed suiTcyor of St. PauFs Cathedral, and 
he it was who suggested the felicitous inscrip- 
tion, placed over the entrance of the choir, to 
the memory of Sir Christopher AVren, ending, 
^^ Si monnmentum requiras, circumspice? " Among 
the buildings erected, altercd, or repaired by him, 
may bo enumerated Bochester Cathedral ; Green- 
wich Hospital, of which he was clerk of the works 
for fifteen years ; King's Weston, the seat of Lord 
do Clifford ; Blaze Castle, near Bristol ; the duke 





Athol brifcade, he inarched with the priooe into England. 
He shared in all the dangers of tlie rebellion, and after the 
battle of Calloden, escaped to the continent. He wns in- 
dnded in the act of attainder, 1746, and died in France, 11th 
Jalj 1770, aged 79. By his coantcss, Lady Catherine Mur- 
ray, third daughter of the first e.irl of Danmore, he had eigbt 
sons and three daughters. The eldest son, .Tames, died un- 
married. John, the second son, succeeded to the representa- 
tion of the family. Charles, the third son, an officer in the 
service of the States-^neral, died in June 1795. Thnmits, 
the fourth son, an officer in Lord John Drummond's regi- 
ment, was t»ken in October 1745, on board * L^Espcrance,* 
a French vessel, on his passage from France to Scotland, to 
join the prince. He died at Sancerrc in France, 8d April 1777. 

John Nuirne, the eldest surviving son, entered the army, 
and rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. But for the at- 
tainder, he would have been fourth lord. He liad two sons 
and a d.iughtcr. John, the elder son, an officer in the army, 
died unmarried. William Murray Naime, the younger son, 
horn in 1757, was assistant inspector-general of barracks in 
Scotland, and a major-general in the army. The title was 
restored to him by act of parliament 17th June 18*24. He 
had married in June 1806, Carolina, third daughter of Lau- 
rence Oliphant of Gask, a Indy whose fine lyrical genins and 
enthuuastic love of music have caused her name to be en- 
rolled among the most gifted poetesses of Scotland. 

Carolina, Lady Nairne, the authoress of the popular songs 
of * The Liird o' Cockpen * and * The Land o' the Leal,' was 
bom in the old mansion of Gask, Perthshire, 16th July 1766. 
So be.Hutifiil was she in her youth that she was known in her 
native district by the poetical designation of * The Flower of 
Stratheam.' In the * Modem Scottish Minstrel,* by Charles 
Rogers, LL.D., vol. i., there is a well-written and compre- 
hensive memoir of Lady Naime, with a selection from her 
songs and other pieces, some of them published there for the 
first time. From this memoir we learn that her first compo- 
sition in Scottish verse was a piece called 'The Pleuchman,* 
which she sent anonymously to the president of an agricul- 
tural dinner that took phice in her youth in the ncighlwur- 
hood of her father's house. The production, on being publicly 
read, was received with warm approbation, and speedily set 
to music. Her motive in first entering upon the composi- 
tion of Scottish verse was a very laudable one, namely, the 
purificjition of the national minstrelsy from the loose ribaldry 
which tainted the songs and ballads that then were popular 
.imong the poas.intry, and in this she was eminently success- 
ful. To this early period of her life, says Dr. Rogers, may be 
ascribed some of her best lyrics. ' The Laird o' Cockpen,' 
and *The I.:ind o' the Leal,' at the close of the last century, 
were sung in every distriit in the kingtlom. Dr. Rogers at- 
tributes the restoration of her hu^b^md'8 title in 1824 to 
George the Fourth having learned during his visit to Scot- 
land in 1822, that the song of * The Attainted Scottish No- 
bles' was the composition of I.ady, then Mrs. Major Naim. 
At the request of several ladies, her acquaintances, she con- 
tributed various sonpjs to *The Scottish Minstrel,' begun in 
1821, and completed in 1824, in six royal 8vo volumes, form- 
in f^ one of the best collections of our Scottish melvnlics yet 
pirblishcd. It was brought out by Mr. Robert Purdie, mu- 
sic-seller, Edinburgh, and edited by R. A. Smith. Her 
pieces were contributed on the express condition that her 
name should be kept secret, and it docs not appear that 
cither Mr. Purdie or Mr. Smith e%-er knew it. The signa- 
ture which she assumed was * B. B.,' and these gentlemen 
believed that her real name was 'Mrs. Bogan of Bogan.' 
Dr. Rogers says in a note, that a daughter of Baron Hume 

wM one of the ladies who indnosd Lidy NairiM to bseoBM a 
contributor to * The Scottish MinstreL* If any of the m^ 
were sent to the editor through the mediiiin of Mm Home, 
who thus expresses herself in a letter to s fnend ^— ^ My fa- 
ther's admiration of * The Land o' ths Lsal* was noh that 
he said no woman but Miss Ferrier was eapabls of writing it 
And when I used to show him song after song in MS., when 
I was receiving the anonymous verses for the nniaie, and ask 
his criticism, he said — * Your unknown poetess has only Ms, 
or rather, two^ letters out of taste^ vix. cboodng ' B. B.' for 
her signature.' " Lady Naime lierself never divulged, beyond 
a small circle of confidential friends, tlie authorship of any of 
her verses, even when she saw them attributed to otben. 
Her ladyship died at Gask 27th October 1845, aged 79. 
During the last ye.nrs of her lifis, she devoted all her eatrpu 
to the service of religion, and her benevolence, we axe tdd, 
extended towards the support of every institnti<m likely to 
promote the temporal comforts or advance the spiritual inter- 
eats of her count r3rmen. Her contributions to the poUie 
charities were ample, and from the extreme modesty of her 
disposition, they were almost always anonymously given. 
To the Free church and school in the West Port, Edinbuj^ 
she contributed £300, under the strictest injunctions of s»> 
crccy, and Dr. Chalmers, in an address delivered at Edin- 
burgh on 29th December 1845, only revealed the fact when 
her death left him at liberty to do so. Some years after her 
death, appeared, in an elegant fulio volume, *Lays firam 
Stratheam : by Carolina. Baroness Nairn. Arranged with 
Symphonies and Accompaniments for the THanofbrte hj Fin- 
lay Dun.' It bears the imprint of I^ndon, and has no date. 

Lord Naime, ber husband, had died July 9, 1880. Their 
only son. William, sixth I^rd Naime, bora in 1808, was m 
his 22d year when he succeeded to the title. In the spring 
of 1837 he was seized with a severe attack of influensa, and 
for the recovery of his health he went with his mother to the 
Continent, and died at Brassels, 27th Dec. that year, withoot 
issue. The title is claimed by Margaret, Baroness Keith, 
mentioned on the previous page. 

This lady, bom in 1788, married in 1817, the count de 
Flahault de la Billarderie, in France, a general in the army of 
Napoleon I., and French ambassador at the British eoort, 
18()1 ; issue, 5 daughters. In her youth she was the bosom 
friend of the lamented Princess Chariotte. She succeeded 
her father (see vol. i. p. 139) in 1823, .is Baroness Keith of 
Stonchaven-Marihchal in the peerage of Ireland, and as 
Baroness Keith of Banheath in that of the United Kingdom. 

A baronetcy was possessed by the family of Kume of Dnn- 
sinnan, Perthshire, the supposed site of a stronghold d'Mao- 
beth, 15 miles from Bimam, celebrated by Shakspere: 

" Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until 
Great Bimam wood to high Dunsinane hill 
Shall come against him." 

It was conferred, Slst March 1704. on Sir William Naime of 
Dunsinnan, descended from Michael de Naim, who lived in 
the reign of Robert IIL Sir William Naime, the fifth 
baronet, a younger son of the second baronet, was a lord 
of session. Admitted advocate in 1755, he was, in 1768, 
appointed commissary clerk of Edinburgh, conjunctly with 
Alexander Naime, a relative of his own. In 1786 he was 
promoted to the bench, and took his seat as Lord DonsinnsB. 
In 1790 he succeeded to the baronetcy, on the death of his 
nephew. At the same time he bought the estate of Don* 
sinnan from another nephew, for the sum of £16,000. It 




nl of Scotland, being so dewgned in a Mfo-condnet to him 
M one of tlie ambosiadora to the court of England, 24th 
September 1461. He had another aafe-condact to go to 
England in 1464. In 1468 he was sent to Denmartr, with 
the lord-chancellor, to negotiate the marriage between King 
James III. and the Danish king*s daughter, the princess 
Margaret. He employed on several other public occa- 
sions, and held the office of master of the household to James 
III. He died about the end <^ 1473. 

His son, John Napier of Merchiston, was in the household 
of lilarr, dowuger of James II., and having been employed in 
several ne«::otiations with the court of England, had a pen- 
«on for life of 50 marks sterling from King Henrj VI., 
granted when that monarch came to Scotland, after the to 
him disastrous battle of Tuwton in 1461. He married Eli- 
sabeth, one of the two daughters of Murdoch Mentcth of 
Rusky, whose mother was Ijidy Maigaret, second daughter 
of Duncan earl of Lennox. Elizabeth Menteth was co-heircss 
with her sister Agnes, wife of John Haldane of Glencagles, 
of her brother, Patrick Menteth of Rnsky, snd John Napier, 
after his marriage with her, used the designation of Merdiis- 
ton and Rusky indiscriminately. The diyputes (see vol. ii. 
p. 648) between Stewart of Demely, Haldane of Gleneagles, 
and Elisabeth Menteth, about the earldom of Lennox, appear 
to have been finally adjusted, 19th June 1492, when Eliza- 
beth Menteth was left peaceably in possession of the fourth 
part of the earldom. By this rasrriage his descendants were 
allied to the first families in Scotland, and even claimed a 
connection with the royal family of Great Britain, in conse- 
quence of the union of Lord Damley with Mary, queen of 
Scots. The I.ennox snns appear to have been previously 
those of the Kaplers, as they were used by Alexander Napier 
the first of Merchiston, and were not first assumed by this 
John de Napier, on account of his marriage. (^Daufflas' 
Peeragty Wood*8 edition, vol. ii. p. 283.) 

John's eldest son, Archibald Napier, the next laird of )[er- 
chiston, was dead before 8th May 1529. Among various 
charters which he obtained was one of the lands of Gartness, 
Rusky, Csilzemuch, &c., on his own resignstion, the whole 
incorporated into the free barony of Edinbellie Napier, 21st 
^fay 1509. lie was the father, with other children, of Sir 
Alexander Napier, who succeeded him, and, by a second 
marriage, of Alexander Napier of Inglistoun, who is sup- 
posed to have been the ancestor of the Napiers of Linton-hoo 
in Bedfordshire, baronets, the direct male line of which ter- 
minated in 1747. 

Tlie eldest son, Sir Alexander Napier of Merchiston, fell 
at the battle of Flodden, 9th September 1513. His only 
son, Alexander Napier of Merchiston, was little more than 
four years old at his father's death, and after he came of age 
he spent scvenil years in France. He was killed at the battle 
of Pinkie, in September 1547, being then about 38 years old. 

His son, Sir Archibald Napier of Merchiston, bom before 
1535, was knighted in 1565, and appointed master of the 
mint in 1587. He died at Merchiston castle in May 1608, 
aged about 74. His eldest son wss John Napier, the inven- 
tor of the IjOgarithms, of whom afterwards. Another son, 
by a second msrriage. Sir Alexander Napier of Lauriston, 
was appointed a lord of session 14th Februaxy 1626, and died 
in 1629. His brother, Archibald Napier, was slain in No- 
vember 1 GOO, by five of the name of Scott and Thomas Crich- 
ton, riding home to his own house to the Wowmit, in revenge 
for the death of one of theur relations, who was killed by him 
in self-defence. 

John Napier of Merchiston, the inventor of the Logarithms, 
was twice married. His son, by his first wife, Sir Archi- 

bald, was the first Lord Napier. John Kapier, tlie ddcrt br 
the second marriage, wo designed of Easter Torrie. Bobcrt, 
the second son by that marriage, designed of Dmnbcoy, 
was editor of his father's posthnmoos worin^ and tnosrtor of 
the Nspiers of Culcrench, now of ^lUliken, btnmeCi, of whom 
sflerwards. Alexander, the third eon, was designed of Tor- 
rie. William, the fonrth son, styled of Ardmore, was men- 
tor of the Napiers of Crsigamet ; and Adam, the fifth no, of 
the Najuers of Blackstonn, Renfiewsbire. 

The eldest son, Sir Archibald Napier of Merchiston, wss 
matriculated at Gla^w university in March 1598. His st- 
tention having been eariy directed to agricnitnxal improre- 
ment, he received in June 1598, firom James VI., with ad- 
vice of the lords of the secret council, to him only and to 
such as he should depute, the royal license for 21 years, to 
use such manure o\'er all the lands in the kingdom as be 
should publicly set forth and recommend in prinL He se- 
cordingly published his plan, entitled *The new order of 
gooding and manuring idl sorts of field land with eommoo 
salt, whereby the same may bring forth in more abnndanee, 
both of grass and com of all sorts, and far cheaper than by 
the common way of dunging used heretofore in Scotland.' 

He was appomted gentleman of the privy chamber te 
James VI., whom he sccompanied to London, on his aeees- 
sion to the Englwh throne in 1608. He was iwnm a priiy 
councillor, 20th July 1615, constitnted treasnrer-depnts of 
Scothind for life, 21st October 1622, appointed lord-josties* 
dcrk, 23d November 1623, snd two days thereafter admitted 
one of the lords of session. He resigned the office of knd- 
justice-clerk, 9th Augnst 1624. He had a license, 14th Jan- 
uary 1625, allowing him to export 12,000 stone weight of 
tallow annually, fi>r seven years, ** in remembrance of the 
mony good serviceis fra tyme to tyme done to his majestie 
thir mony years bigane, be his right trustie and wd bdovcd 
Sir Archibald Naper." The officers of state having been, by 
a new regnlation entered into after the accession of Chsrks 
I., incapacitated from sitting iu the court of sesnon as erdi- 
nsry judges, his msjesty appointed Sir Archibald Nafner one 
of the extraordinary lords of session, 15th February 1626. 
He was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 2d March 1627, 
and by warrant of privy seal of 1st Msy, the same year, 
a pension of £2,400 Scots yearly was granted to bim, for 
having, at the king's speciaJ desire, advanced to Walter 
Stewart, gentleman of the privy diamber, the sum of £6,000 

He was created a peer of Scotland by the titleof Baron 
Napier of Merchiston, by patent dated at Whitehall, 4th 
May 1627, the honours being limited to the heire male of his 
body. He was sppointed one of the commisrioners of 
tithes, and obUuned a lease of the crown lands of Orkney for 
45,000 marks annually, which he sublessed to William Dick 
for 52,000 marks. In March 1631, he surrendered the lease 
of Orkney, his pension, and the office of treasurer-depute, 
and wss allowed £4,000 sterling, as compensstion. 

On the breaking out of the civil war in Scotland, he took 
a decided part in favour of Charles I. When the marquis of 
Hamilton, with the king's fleet, arrived in Leith Roads in 
l^Isy 1639, I^rd Napier was sent to him with a oondliatoiy 
proposal from the committee of Estates, snd the marquis 
soon after retired from the Frith of Forth. Lord Na|ner was 
one of those who signed the association formed by M<mtroee 
at Cumbernauld in January 1641, for the support of the 
royal authority. On 11th June the same year, he was appre- 
hended, with Montrose and Sir George Stirling of Kcir, and 
committed prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh, bnt released 
16th November following. In 1644 he was confined by the 




1 1 

1 1 

: I 

own expense, he procured a sun'ey of a navigable canal to 
form a communication betwixt the Furtb and Cijde. He 
(lied at I/Cwes, Sussex, 11th April 1773. He married, first, 
I^dy Henrietta Hope, third dauf;hter of tlie first earl of 
lUpetonn, and by her had, with one dau|;htiT, who died in 
infancy, fire sons, namely, 1. William, sixth I/)rd Napier; 
2. The Hon. Charles Napier of Mercliistoun Hall, Stirlingsliire, 
Captain R.N., who died, 19th December 1807, in his 77th 
year, leaving issue by his second wife. Christian, duughtGr of 
Gabriel Hamilton, Esq. of Westbum, I^narksliire. His 
eldest son was the celebmted Admiral Sir Charles Napier, of 
whom afterwards. 8. The Hon. Francis Napier, lieutenant- 
colonel of marines, who died without issue at Dublin in 1779. 
4. The Hon. John Napier, lieutenant 25th regiment, who died 
in Gcnnany, 31st July 1759. 5. Tlie Hon. Mark Napier, 
major-general in the army, who died 10th June 1809, aged 
71, leiiving isbue. His lordship married, secondly, Henrietta- 
Marin, daughter of George Johnston, Ksq., a cadet of the 
Hilton family, and had by her three daughters and five nnns. 
The eldest, the Hon. Gcoi^ Napier, bom at Edinburgh in 1751, 
died a colonel in the army and comptroller of army accounts 
in Ireland 13th October 1804. He had served in the Ameri- 
can campaign in 1777, was on Lord Moira*8 staff in the duke 
of York's expedition in Holland, and was selected to take the 
command of the 102d or Londonderry regiment, on its being 
raised. He was one of the most powerful and active men 
in the British anny, and at his death it was said of him that 
" a better or braver soldier never ser\*ed his countr\', a more 
upright or more diligent servant of the public never filled an 
office of trust." In consideration of his senices his majt^sty 
granted a yearly pension of £1,000 to his widow. I^y Surah 
I,cnnox, seventh daughter of the second duke of Richmond. 
By this lady he had eight children. HLi eldest son. Lien- 
tenant-general Sir Charles tJames Napier, G.C.B., the con- 
queror of Scinde, was bom 10th August, 1782, of whom 
on page 242. 

Vice-admiral Sir Charles Napier, K.C.B., one of the most 
distinguished of British naval commanders, and remarkable 
especially for his during and intrepidity, the eldest son of 
Captain the Hon. Charles Napier of Merchistoun Hall, Stir- 
lingshire, R.N., above mentioned, was bom at Falkirk, Gth 
March 1786. In the male line, as has been seen, he wasa Scott, 
one of the rough border clan of that name, to whicli the author 
of Waverley l)elonged. At the time of his birth, his father 
was regulating captain on the I^ith station, where his duty 
was to superintend the entry of seamen for the navy, and to 
forward them to their (Icstination at the Nurc. He spent a 
great portion of his early years at Merchistoun Hall, with his 
younger brother, afterwards Mnjor-general Erskiiie 
Napier, in 1854commander-in-cliiefof the forces in Scotland. 
He received his education principally at the high schoul of 
Edinbui^h, and in 1799, at the age of thirteen, he joined the 
Martin sloop of war, as n first class volunteer, and went to 
the Noith Seas. Removed, in the following spring, to the 
Renown, 74, the fiagship of Sir John Borlase Warren, he 
sailed to the coast of Spain, and was present in the attack 
on Ferrol. He afterwards went to the Mediterranean, and 
in November 1802 became a midshipman in the Greyhound, 
32. On his return from a visit to St. Helena in the Egypti- 
enne, he joined successively in 1804-5, the Mediator and 
Renommee frigates. In November 1805, he got his lieuten- 
ancy, as soon as he " passed,*" at 19 years of age. He was ap- 
pointed to the Couragcux, 74, which formed part of the squa- 
dron of Sir J. B. Warren ; and assisted at the capture of the 
French 80 gnn sliip the Marengo, and the 44 gun frigate the 
Belle Poule. In March 1807, being then in the West Indies 

in the Prince George, 98, he was Dominated acting oomniaBd- 
er of the Pultusk frigate, and the appdntment was oonfimwd 
by the admiralty on 80th November following. He wis pn- 
sent at the reduction of the Danish islands, St Tlioaiai and 
St. Croix, and on 17th July 1808, be assisted, with the botts 
of the Fawn sloop, in cutting oat a Spanish merebantmaa 
from under two batteries on the coast of Porto Rioo, the 
guns of one of which he spiked. In August of the same 
year ho removed to the Recruit brig of 18 gnns. A day or 
two after recdving the command he came in sight of the 
French corvette Diligente of 22 gnns, maldng in the direetioD 
of the island of Martinique. He immediately gare chase, 
and the two vessels exchanged broadsides within pistol-sbot 
of each other. Captain Napier was struck by a diot at the 
very commencement of the action, which broke his thif^ 
bone, but he refused to go below. The result he told the 
public, in his own characteristic way, in one of his election 
speeches at Portsmouth in 1833. '* I had once the misfisr- 
tune," he said, ** of receiving a precious licking from a Fzencfa 
con-ette; the first shot she fired broke my thigh, and a 
plumper carried away my main-mast. The enemy escaped, 
but the British flag was not tarnished.** In Febmarr 1809 
he a>sisted at the reduction of ^lartiniqoe. The JEolna, Cle- 
opatra, and Recruit were ordered to beat up in the nigiit be- 
tween Pigeon island and the Main, and anchor dose to Fort 
Edward. The enemy fearing an attadc, burnt their shipfung. 
With five men he landed in open day, scaled the walls o( 
Fort Edward, and phmted the Union Jack on the nunpartt^ 
A regiment being landed in the night, Fort Edward was takaa 
possesbion of, and the mortars turned agunst the enoity. 
Sir Alexander Cochrane, his commander-in-chief, wrote him 
a letter saying, that his *' conduct was the means of ssTing 
many lives, and of shortening the siege of Martinique." 

In the enstung April he assisted Sir Alexander Cochrsnt 
in a chose of three French ships of tlie line, which, after a 
runnin^^ fight of nearly fifly-five hours, terminated in the 
capture of the Huutpolt, 74. For his services in this sffiur, 
the cominander-in-diief appointed him to the command of 
the captured vessel, and the post commission thus confened 
upon him was confirmed by the admiralty 22d May 1809. 
At this time he was only 23. In the following summer he 
returned with convoy to England in the Jason frigate, and 
did not again go afloat till 1811. During this intenral bs 
served a campaign as a volunteer with the army in the Pen- 
insula, and was present at the battle of Busaoo, at which be 
carried off the field his cousin, Msjor Napier, afterwanls 
Lieutenant-general Sir Charles James Napier, who was shot 
through the face. In the course of the campaign he himself 
was wounded. 

In the early part of 1811 he was appointed to the Thames 
frigate of 34 guns, in which he served in the Mediterranean 
under Sir Edward Pellew, afterwards Lord Exmouth. On 
26th July that year, in concert with the Cephalus under Cap- 
tain Augustus Clifford, he silenced the fire of eleven gun- 
boats and a felucca moored across the harbour of Porto dd 
Itifreschi, as well as that of a round tower, and captured 14 
merchantmen, and a quantity of spars destined for a slup cf 
the line and a frigate. On 1st November, in command of hii 
own boats and those of the Imperieuse, he landed with 250 
men of the G2d regiment, at the back of the harbonr of Pdi- 
nuro, and carried the neighbouring hdghts, under a heavy 
fire from the enemy, who were compelled to retire. Kext 
day he succeeded in capturing 10 gunboats, 22 richly laden 
feluccas, and the battery of 24-pounder8 by which they had 
been protected. In the spring of 1812 he was employed si 
the senior oflicer on the coast c^ Cdabria. On 14th May hi 

i I 


bee*m*TiH-adiiiiraloft1i*w1iit*, and in lB5fl ■dmiralariht 
Ua«. In NavemlxT of tht uint ynt, on tb« d*atb oF Sir 
William Mulnwortli. ha wu cIhsIh] M.P. for Sootliwuk. 
Ila mamfd tli« kMov of Edvinl Elen, Eiq., RtT., and 
their vm. CnpUin Cliarlrt M>|Her, wu droimed in Daombct 
18J7, wliilut in command dT lb* Avmgtr itCKin fiigiitt, wliin 
kha wu nm'lwd on Iha Sonllt rocki in Ilia kladitamnean. 
Sir CharlfS X;<pi(r died at liii Mil, Mtnliiaton Hull, Hainp- 
ebira, KovcmlKr 6. ISCO. llii portmit jn mTlijointd. 

G.C.B,, mil [if Colonri Gtor)^ Kapirr, Ur I^dvSarBli l^onoi, 
wu born at Wliildinll, I»]idon, lOth Aupiitt. 1782. Wbm 
he w;is bi'Ineiii two and tlirec Tr:in> old. bin futbir rnnaml 
lo Irclnnd, mid in .lanaan- ITK baforr bir liad c<Hn|Jated iiii 
InclIUi }(uir. lie olmillFd ■ ooRimiNlioii in Ilic S3d raginwiit. 
Ha fine Mrvrd in Hit Iriili rebellion of IT9S, and in* aide- 

> Dnir, c 

luidine in Limerick, i 

ISnO. In ISOS be .ipiin aerted in Eniinet'a rtbclli 

In IHOl lie received a enptain's commiuion in tba sOth, of 
ohich rrgimciit he became iikjdt in IBOS, and eommaiidad it 
nil Ibrougb Sir Jokn Moon'a ineniomble retreat to Cuninna. 
At Ibat fiimoiu batllt, lie and Jifnjor Stnnliopa charcad llta 
French moat eHllantIr, ulilrli rnturd Sir Jolin to cioUuiii, 
■hortlf before receiving bi« deiilli- wound. " Weil done, the 
£Olb! U'vil done, my inojon 1 " In endeuvonrin;; to ailirnce 
an advanced pin which waa innkin;; KreM havoc in Ibe BKt- 
iih lineE, JIajor Napier waa arverely wonnded and taken 
prisoner, llmidet u iKijonet atab in hui bacic from a French 
■cildier wlio Rime behind liim. he had received a niukct.bnll 
in Ilia Itg, and a ul>re.CDt OD hia lie:id. 'Die »1dien were 
about lo dcapnlcli biiii, when he waa Mved by ibe iiilervpn- 
tion of a dmmnier, named Gilicrt, whom Soult afttnvanla 
reward!^ liis conduct- Having been returned in liic Gn- 
lettc la BiiiDiig the siaiii, liii friendi want inio inourDing fur 

3 SIB JAMES. .: 

Km, and obtximd from Iba Praiogatiira court adndiotnliM \- 

of hia ptraaoal utile. la the meantime^ be waa hwlii Ij 

with the ijrealeit kindneaa bj Uanbal Soolt, who naa«- I 

inandrd him to tba conaidnation of bla ipeemnr, S*f. Tka | 

latter parmittcd bim to retiun on b!i parok to Fn^MJ. '- 

when be anived SOth Jlaith 1809, and aventnallT pneMl ' 
hia liberation hj an eiebanjra. I'or hia gaUant ossdM ii 
thig batlle he obtained ■ medal, then (eldoni siren *ai mA 

lie aabacqaenllf joined Ijnd VTellington'a am* is Potit- i 
Kal u a Tolunterr. At the Coa two bonea wen ahot aDdv ' 
him, and at Dshco, 27th September ISIO, ha wu Aat 
thTaii!:h the fnee, th« bullet lod)!ing behind the mt. Ha m 
compelled lo Innl a bandr«d milea lo I jabon, for rSdeat 
eurpeal afaiatance, when the ballet waa extracted. Ha wia 
procnt at Fiieitei. at Iba aecond nege of Badajoa, radii 
manj akirmiahti. In 181! he attained the rank of Eantas- 
ant-eolentl in tba lOSd rrpmrnt, and went out to Dennada 
in command of it. In 1813 he aerced in Ilia eipeditia te 
Cheaupeake liar, under Sir Sidner Deckwilh. Aftctwarii | 
be commanded it tba affair of Little Hampton, which proud 

anng fiiada nil baate to meh Wnlerlon aa « Tolnnlwr, 
urived fnmi Client on the field, on the evening nf the 
I June, too late to talce part in the battle, bat be na 
rnt thmti|:lu>ut the manb upon Pari*, and at the itoni- 
uf CambmT. On Ilia homeward vorafie to Engiand. the 
ho looli pa!<sB^ in nunli olT Flnsbing, and ha aarad hin- 


818 he wan nppcuiiled inrpeclinR field o 
iaiandi, when b* executed inaiir public 
Hjrned hv bimeelf, nnd in 1834 waa tniide litatenan 
IT reaidcnt of Cephidiniin. nhrn lie intniduced moat hnpnr- '■ 
ant impnivtmenta in the adiniiiiitratinn of justice and in tbt 
ntemal condition of Hie iilnn.l. After bin TTlum to Eng- 
und. he puhliahed a work, entitled 'Tbe Colnnie* ami (h« 
••ninn laUindi;' also, aiiotlieron ' Tlie Koad* and Bndgn if 

In 183.';. the cnmmiMnneni fiir tbecfllonication of Snlk j 
Anitralia obtained for him tin offer of the povenHH»hip ef j, 
that colnnv. bat «» the poi-emment would not allow bin ji 
noiier to promote ita impma- | 
meni, he declined tba nppoinlinent. At thia time Iw pgb- | 
lialicd ' ColoniLilion, with Remnrkt np»n Small Farm) aad :i 
Over Papulation.' in which he eNiqniii Mr advocate* Ibeti^ l[ 

itiibea. Harin); fixed bia ri'^ldence for aome time ia 
Dnblin, he publialied, in 1^8, a pumphlet treatingoftk | 
nej-lecteti waiite binds and di<fectii*e njjricnlture, at that pe- ' 
riod, nf Irrbind. ' 

In 1 837 ha ublalned tlio brevet nink iif mnjor-cmrral. and 
won aAerwarila be published liis ' Ileinarks on Militaij Lae. 
md the ronialimcnt of Flngeini;,' whicii be diupprorcd of in 
lime of peace. Ha alno, about Iba aume time, edited t>t i 
ViKnj'a ■I.iRbta nnd ShiidDwi of French Jiilil.irr Life.' In i 
ThIS39hewai appuin[e<t to tbc command of the noftb- .[ 
dialrict of Kngbind, and u uid to have prevented a i 
.t1i«t onlbreak itt Kotlingham, hy brinf^lng the leaden lo 1 
lesa a review of Ibe troopa under his command, when hi 
ili-d out Id them Ibe fearful infrrioritj of thrir half- 


In 11 

if the troopa in the Boinhaj piai- 
idencT, and in 1S4S be was aent In Scinde, lo take tlic com- 
mand of nn army of rcMrcc sl.nlinned Ibcie, to keep open tlic | 
comnmnicationa'helween Generali Kott. EiigUsb, and PolUi. | 
then iidv.ineing inIo AfTtihanialan. Here he had to fi^t at I 
an iimiienae disadvantage. At Meeanee, on ITlh Fibnuir, | 




battered about the ears of the Chinese soldieri. This oocnx^ 
red on tlie 7th September, but, owing to calms, the ships 
were obliged to come to an anchor for several dajs. On the 
14th, Lord Napier became seriously indisposed, and that the 
interests of the Britisli merchants miglit not be injured by a 
farther suspension of tlieir trade, the men of war were ordered 
" to more out of the river,** and he returned to Macao, where 
lie died 11th October 1834, of a lingering fever, brought on 
by anxiety. He was one of the 16 Scots representative peers. 
With four daughters, he had two sons ; Francis, who suc- 
ceeded him, and William, clerk of the works at Hong-Kong. 
Francis, the elder son, 9th Lord Napier, bom Sep. 15, 1819, 
married, in 1845, the only daughter of Rol>ert Manners I.ock- 
wood, Esq., issue, 4 sons. In Aug. 1840, he was attached 
to the embiissy at Vienna, and in Sep. 1842, appointed paid 
attach^ at Teheran. In Jan. following he became pud 
attach^ at Constantinople, in May 1846, secretary of lega- 
tion at Naples, in April 1852 secretary of legation at St 
Petersburg, and in April 1854, secretary of embassy st Con- 
stantinople. In 1857 lio was apfiointed British minister at 
Washington, and in 1858 at the Hague. His eldest son, 
William John George, was bom Sep. 22, 1846. 

The head or chief of the ancient family of, is Sir 
Robert Milliken Napier of Napier and Milliken, Renfrewshire, 
bart, descended from Robert Napier of Culcreuch, Stirliiig- 
sliire, the 2d son of the 2d marriuge of John Napier of ^ler- 
chiston, the inventor of Logarithms. He is, therefore, his 
lineal representative and male heir. Robert Napier left one 
son, Alexander Napier of Culcreuch, bom in 1621, who married 
Alargaret, eldest daughter of John I.ennox of Woodhead, or 
I^nnox castle, Stiriingshire, and died in 1692. His eldest 
son, John Napier of Culcreuch, bom in 1605, married his 
couitin, Jean Ix^n